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Genus   Papilio

Papilio demoleus demoleus

Linnaeus, 1758

Lime Swallowtail

Introduced to Greater Antilles

TL: China (Canon)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

live adult

live adult

Papilio xuthus

Linnaeus, 1767

Asian Swallowtail

Introduced to Hawaii

TL: China (Canon)

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

xuthus, Linnean specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

Papilio indra shastensis

J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1998

Indra Swallowtail

NW CA, SW OR

TL: USA (Ca)

shastensis Emmel & Emmel 1998 HT USA (Ca)

shastensis Emmel & Emmel 1998 HT USA (Ca)

shastensis Emmel & Emmel 1998 HT USA (Ca)

shastensis Emmel & Emmel 1998 AT USA (Ca)

shastensis Emmel & Emmel 1998 AT USA (Ca)

shastensis Emmel & Emmel 1998 AT USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

Papilio indra indra

Reakirt, 1866

Indra Swallowtail

most of range; NE ORE-WA, ID,
MT, N UT, WY, W SD, CO

TL: USA (Co)

indra Reakirt 1866 HT USA (Co)

indra Reakirt 1866 HT USA (Co)

indra Reakirt 1866 HT USA (Co)

indra Reakirt 1866 T USA (Co)

indra Reakirt 1866 T USA (Co)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

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specimen

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live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

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immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

habitat

habitat

habitat

Papilio indra

(N & C Sierra Nevada segregate)

Indra Swallowtail

[ "i. indra"]; N & C Sierra
Nevada, CA


specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio indra phyllisae

J. Emmel, 1982

Indra Swallowtail

S Sierra Nevada, CA

TL: USA (Ca)

phyllisae Emmel 1982 HT USA (Ca)

phyllisae Emmel 1982 HT USA (Ca)

phyllisae Emmel 1982 HT USA (Ca)

phyllisae Emmel 1982 AT USA (Ca)

phyllisae Emmel 1982 AT USA (Ca)

phyllisae Emmel 1982 AT USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

Papilio indra pergamus

H. Edwards, 1874

Indra Swallowtail

Los Angeles, W San Berdo.,
Riverside, San Diego cos., CA

TL: USA (Ca)

pergamus Edwards 1874 T USA (Ca)

pergamus Edwards 1874 T USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

foodplants and habitat

foodplants and habitat

foodplants and habitat

foodplants and habitat

foodplants and habitat

foodplants and habitat

foodplants and habitat

Papilio indra fordi

J. A. Comstock & Martin, 1956

Indra Swallowtail

Calico S to Granite Mts.;
Sheephole, Coxcomb, Eagle Mts.,
CA

TL: USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 HT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 HT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 HT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 AT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 AT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 AT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 PT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 PT USA (Ca)

fordi Comstock & Martin 1956 PT USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio indra parvindra

J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Griffin,
2008

Indra Swallowtail

[= pygmaeus], Dead Mtns., San
Bernardino Co., CA

TL: USA (Ca)

pygmaeus Emmel et al. 1998 HT USA (Ca)

pygmaeus Emmel et al. 1998 HT USA (Ca)

pygmaeus Emmel et al. 1998 HT USA (Ca)

pygmaeus Emmel et al. 1998 AT USA (Ca)

pygmaeus Emmel et al. 1998 AT USA (Ca)

pygmaeus Emmel et al. 1998 AT USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio indra martini

J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1966

Indra Swallowtail

Providence Mtns., San Bernardino
Co., CA

TL: USA (Ca)

martini Emmel & Emmel 1966 HT USA (Ca)

martini Emmel & Emmel 1966 HT USA (Ca)

martini Emmel & Emmel 1966 HT USA (Ca)

martini Emmel & Emmel 1966 AT USA (Ca)

martini Emmel & Emmel 1966 AT USA (Ca)

martini Emmel & Emmel 1966 AT USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio indra panamintensis

J. Emmel, 1982

Indra Swallowtail

Panamint Mts., Death Valley
region, CA

TL: USA (Ca)

panamintensis Emmel 1982 HT USA (Ca)

panamintensis Emmel 1982 HT USA (Ca)

panamintensis Emmel 1982 HT USA (Ca)

panamintensis Emmel 1982 AT USA (Ca)

panamintensis Emmel 1982 AT USA (Ca)

panamintensis Emmel 1982 AT USA (Ca)

specimen

Papilio indra nevadensis

T. Emmel & J. Emmel, 1971

Indra Swallowtail

C & N NV

TL: USA (Nv)

nevadensis Emmel & Emmel 1971 HT USA (Nv)

nevadensis Emmel & Emmel 1971 HT USA (Nv)

nevadensis Emmel & Emmel 1971 HT USA (Nv)

nevadensis Emmel & Emmel 1971 PT USA (Nv)

nevadensis Emmel & Emmel 1971 PT USA (Nv)

nevadensis Emmel & Emmel 1971 PT USA (Nv)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

Papilio indra calcicola

J. Emmel & Griffin, 1998

Indra Swallowtail

Muddy Mtns., Clark Co., NV, and
vicinity, to E Death Valley area

TL: USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 HT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 HT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 HT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 AT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 AT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 AT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 PT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 PT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 PT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 PT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 PT USA (Nv)

calcicola Emmel & Griffin 1998 PT USA (Nv)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

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immatures

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habitat

Papilio indra minori

Cross, 1937

Indra Swallowtail

W CO, E UT, NW NM, NE AZ

TL: USA (Co)

specimen

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specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

habitat

habitat

Papilio indra kaibabensis

Bauer, 1955

Indra Swallowtail

N AZ, S UT

TL: USA (Az)

kaibabensis Bauer 1955 PT USA (Az)

kaibabensis Bauer 1955 PT USA (Az)

kaibabensis Bauer 1955 PT USA (Az)

kaibabensis Bauer 1955 PT USA (Az)

kaibabensis Bauer 1955 PT USA (Az)

kaibabensis Bauer 1955 PT USA (Az)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

Papilio machaon machaon

Linnaeus, 1758

Old World Swallowtail

TL: Europe


machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

machaon, Linnean specimen

Papilio machaon aliaska

Scudder, 1869

Old World Swallowtail

Alaska, NW Canada

TL: USA (Ak)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

immatures

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

Papilio machaon hudsonianus

A. Clark, 1932

Old World Swallowtail

NE Canada (and far NE USA)

TL: Canada (Mb)

avinoffi Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT Canada (Mb)

avinoffi Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT Canada (Mb)

avinoffi Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT Canada (Mb)

avinoffi Chermock & Chermock 1937 T Canada (Mb)

avinoffi Chermock & Chermock 1937 T Canada (Mb)

kahli Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT Canada (Mb)

kahli Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT Canada (Mb)

kahli Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT Canada (Mb)

kahli Chermock & Chermock 1937 T Canada (Mb)

kahli Chermock & Chermock 1937 T Canada (Mb)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio machaon pikei

Sperling, 1987

Old World Swallowtail

Peace River region, ALTA-BC

TL: Canada (Ab)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio machaon oregonia

W. H. Edwards, 1876

'Oregon' Old World Swallowtail

Columbia Basin, NW USA

TL: USA (Or)

oregonia Edwards 1876 NT USA (Or)

oregonia Edwards 1876 NT USA (Or)

oregonia Edwards 1876 NT USA (Or)

oregonia Edwards 1876 T USA (Or)

oregonia Edwards 1876 T USA (Or)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

hybrid

hybrid

live adult

live adult

Papilio machaon dodi

McDunnough, 1939

'Baird's' Old World Swallowtail

northern Great Plains, Alberta
to NE Colorado

TL: Canada (Ab)

dodi McDunnough 1939 HT Canada (Ab)

dodi McDunnough 1939 HT Canada (Ab)

dodi McDunnough 1939 HT Canada (Ab)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio machaon bairdii

W. H. Edwards, [1866]

'Baird's' Old World Swallowtail

southern Rocky Mountains to SE
California

TL: USA (Az)

hollandii Edwards 1892 T USA (Co)

hollandii Edwards 1892 T USA (Co)

hollandii Edwards 1892 T USA (Co)

hollandii Edwards 1892 T USA (Co)

brucei Edwards 1895 T USA (Co)

brucei Edwards 1895 T USA (Co)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

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specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

foodplants and habitat

Papilio brevicauda brevicauda

Saunders, 1868

Short-tailed Swallowtail

S Laborador, Newfoundland,
Anticosti Island

TL: Canada (NL)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

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specimen

specimen

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

Papilio brevicauda bretonensis

McDunnough, 1939

Short-tailed Swallowtail

Maritime Provinces

TL: Canada (NS)

bretonensis McDunnough 1939 PT Canada (NS)

bretonensis McDunnough 1939 PT Canada (NS)

bretonensis McDunnough 1939 PT Canada (NS)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

Papilio brevicauda gaspeensis

McDunnough, 1934

Short-tailed Swallowtail

Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec

TL: Canada (Qc)

specimen

specimen

Papilio joanae

J. Heitzman, 1973

Ozark Swallowtail

Ozark region, central USA

TL: USA (Mo)

joanae Heitzman 1973 HT USA (Mo)

joanae Heitzman 1973 HT USA (Mo)

joanae Heitzman 1973 HT USA (Mo)

joanae Heitzman 1973 T USA (Mo)

joanae Heitzman 1973 T USA (Mo)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio polyxenes polyxenes

Fabricius, 1775

Black Swallowtail

Cuba

TL: "America"

polyxenes Fabricius 1775 T "America"

polyxenes Fabricius 1775 T "America"

polyxenes Fabricius 1775 T "America"

polyxenes Fabricius 1775 T "America"

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Papilio polyxenes asterius

Stoll, 1782

Black Swallowtail

Canada, E USA, S to El Salvador

TL: USA (NY; Va; "Carolina")

asterius Stoll 1782 T USA (NY;Va;"Carolina")

asterius Stoll 1782 T USA (NY;Va;"Carolina")

asterioides Reakirt [1867] HT Mexico

asterioides Reakirt [1867] HT Mexico

asterioides Reakirt [1867] HT Mexico

asterioides Reakirt [1867] T Mexico

asterioides Reakirt [1867] T Mexico

alunata Skinner & Aaron 1889 T USA (Pa)

alunata Skinner & Aaron 1889 T USA (Pa)

curvifascia Skinner 1902 T USA (NM)

curvifascia Skinner 1902 T USA (NM)

gertrudis Kruck 1931 T Mexico (Oax)

gertrudis Kruck 1931 T Mexico (Oax)

forsythae Wood 1937 T USA (Fl)

forsythae Wood 1937 T USA (Fl)

subamplicata Dufrane 1946 T USA (Pa)

subamplicata Dufrane 1946 T USA (Pa)

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

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specimen

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specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

Linnean specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

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immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

foodplant

Papilio polyxenes coloro

W. G. Wright, 1905

Desert Swallowtail

far SW USA

TL: USA (Ca)

coloro Wright 1905 HT USA (Ca)

coloro Wright 1905 HT USA (Ca)

rudkini Comstock 1935 HT USA (Ca)

rudkini Comstock 1935 HT USA (Ca)

rudkini Comstock 1935 HT USA (Ca)

rudkini Comstock 1935 AT USA (Ca)

rudkini Comstock 1935 AT USA (Ca)

rudkini Comstock 1935 AT USA (Ca)

clarki Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT USA (Ca)

clarki Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT USA (Ca)

clarki Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT USA (Ca)

clarki Chermock & Chermock 1937 AT USA (Ca)

clarki Chermock & Chermock 1937 AT USA (Ca)

clarki Chermock & Chermock 1937 AT USA (Ca)

comstocki Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT USA (Ca)

comstocki Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT USA (Ca)

comstocki Chermock & Chermock 1937 HT USA (Ca)

comstocki Chermock & Chermock 1937 AT USA (Ca)

comstocki Chermock & Chermock 1937 AT USA (Ca)

comstocki Chermock & Chermock 1937 AT USA (Ca)

specimen

specimen

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specimen

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specimen

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specimen

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specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

habitat

Papilio polyxenes stabilis

Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

'Central American' Black Swallowtail

Costa Rica & W Panama

TL: Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 HT Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 HT Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 HT Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Costa Rica

stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Costa Rica

specimen

specimen

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specimen

specimen

specimen

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

immatures

Papilio polyxenes americus

Kollar, 1850



TL: Colombia


americus Kollar 1850 T Colombia

americus Kollar 1850 T Colombia

melasina Rothschild & Jordan 1906 HT Colombia

melasina Rothschild & Jordan 1906 HT Colombia

melasina Rothschild & Jordan 1906 HT Colombia

melasina Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Colombia

melasina Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T Colombia

melasina Rothschild & Jordan 1906 T ?Colombia

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

specimen

immatures

immatures

Papilio polyxenes costarum

Orellana, 2009



TL: Venezuela


costarum Orellana 2009 HT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 HT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 HT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 AT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 AT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 AT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 PT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 PT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 PT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 PT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 PT Venezuela

costarum Orellana 2009 PT Venezuela

specimen

specimen

Papilio polyxenes sadalus

Lucas, 1852



TL: Ecuador


sadalus Lucas 1852 T Ecuador

sadalus Lucas 1852 T Ecuador
Papilio polyxenes gerardi
Bollino & Vitale, 2002



TL: Peru


Papilio zelicaon

Lucas, 1852

Anise Swallowtail

W USA & Canada, Baja California
Norte

TL: USA (Ca)

californica Ménétriés 1855 T USA (Ca)

californica Ménétriés 1855 T USA (Ca)

californica Ménétriés 1855 T USA (Ca)

californica Ménétriés 1855 T USA (Ca)

nitra Edwards 1883 T USA (Mo)

nitra Edwards 1883 T USA (Mo)

gothica Remington 1968 HT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 HT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 HT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 T USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 T USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

gothica Remington 1968 PT USA (Co)

specimen

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hybrid

hybrid

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

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live adult

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live adult

live adult

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live adult

live adult

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live adult

live adult

live adult

live adult

immatures

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habitat

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