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Astraptes "fulgerator azul" (Reakirt, [1867]) complex
(Two-barred Flasher, Flashing Astraptes)

Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults photo collection
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

This appears to be a complex of continental species-level taxa.


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Astraptes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103. Type-species: Papilio aulestes Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(24): 161, pl. 283, figs. E, F, G (= Papilio aulestis Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(24): 173 (index); incorrect original spelling), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 122, no. 137. Hemming (1934), Gen. Names Holarct. Butts. 1: 158, made a first reviser choice of Astraptes Hübner, [1826] over Telegonus Hübner, [1826]. dos Passos (1959), Lepid. News 12(5-6): 195-198, employed the index spelling of aulestis, thereby avoiding homonymy, but this is subject to a review of Cramer names given a binomial combination in the index. Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 63, incorrectly determined that Papilio narcosius Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 171, pl. 39, fig. 8; 184 (index), was the oldest available name for Papilio aulestes Cramer, 1780, based on this perceived homonymy. Steinhauser (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (111): 1-16, detailed species-group names in this genus.

=    Telegonus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 104. Type-species: Papilio talus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(15): 122, pl. 176, fig. D; (16): 151 (index), by designation of Butler (1870), Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(75): 56.

=    Euthymele Mabille, 1878

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 21: 24. Type-species: Hesperia mercatus Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 332, no. 260 (= Papilio fulgerator Walch, 1775, Naturforscher 7: 115, pl. 1, figs. 2a, 2b; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 86.

‡”Creteus” Westwood, 1852

In: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (2)(54): 511. This name was introduced by Westwood in the synonymy of Goniloba, which he described as new. Since this name was unintentional (Westwood meant to use Carystus), it is a nomen nudum; see Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 129.


Astraptes fulgerator (Walch, 1775)

Naturforscher 7: 115, pl. 1, figs. 2a ♂ D, 2b ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Fulgerator

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Hebert et al. (2004), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101(41): 14812-14817, determined that there may be multiple species-level taxa represented by this name. It is therefore impossible to arrange an accurate synonymy at this time; the synonymy below follows Mielke (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. (2): 169-173.

            =    mercatus (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 332, no. 260; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 87, fig. D.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Mercatus

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

            =    fulminator (Sepp, [1841])

Surinaam. Vlinders. 1(9): 75, pl. 34, D, V, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Fulminator

Type Locality: “Surinam” implied from the title of the work.

Types: Type(s) are lost.

                   =    ‡”discalis (Bryk, 1953)

Ark. Zool. (ns)5: 136, no. 312.

Original Combination: Thymele fulgerator fa. discalis

Type Locality: “Roque...Bananenplantage, Ricinus-Blatt, SO Moyob” [Peru]

Types: “Holotype” in NHRS.

Bryk described subspecies in this paper, so this name is clearly infrasubspecific.


Astraptes fulgerator azul (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 340, no. 48.

Original Combination: Goniloba azul

Type Locality: “Mexico, near Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Syntype(s) may be in ANSP or CMNH.

The synonymy below is subject to review in light of possible cryptic species; see Hebert et al. (2004), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101(41): 14812-14817, and A. V. Brower (2006), Syst. Biodivers. 4(2):127-132.

                   =    misitra (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 42(10-12): 502, no. 8; cited unpublished pl. 61.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Misitra

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Syntypes (#4983-4984) in ZMHB.

                   =    albifasciatus (Röber, 1925)

Entomol. Mitt. 14(1): 96.

Original Combination: Thymele albifasciatus

Type Locality: “Bolivia (Rio Songo, 750 m...)” [La Paz]

Types: Lectoype in MTD, designated by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Zool. 6(1): 135.

                   =    catemacoensis H. Freeman, 1967

J. Lepid. Soc. 21(2): 117-118, pl. 1, 2nd row, ♂ D&V (holotype), 3rd row ♀ D&V, ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Astraptes catemacoensis

Type Locality: “Mexico, Catemaco, Vera Cruz”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

H. Freeman (1982), J. Lepid. Soc. 36(3): 236-237, synonymized this taxon (which he described) under A. f. azul.



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