Main Introduction Page Electronic Reference Library Know-how Glossary of acronyms and other terms used on this website A Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada Illustrated Checklist of Neotropical Butterflies Support the Butterflies of America Foundation Interactive Listing of American Butterflies Photographer Credits Learn about contributing your photos Citation for this website Contact us
Papilionidae (Swallowtails)Pieridae (Whites and Sulphurs)Lycaenidae (Gossamerwings)Riodinidae (Metalmarks)Nymphalidae (Brushfoots)Hesperiidae (Skippers)Links to external lepidoptera websites

Battus p. philenor (Linnaeus, 1771)
(Pipevine Swallowtail)

Type Specimens photo collection:

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Live Adults photo collection Page 1:

Live Adults photo collection Page 2:

Live Adults photo collection Page 3:

Immatures photo collection Page 1:

Immatures photo collection Page 2:

Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Aristolochiaceae: Aristolochia erecta L., Aristolochia macrophylla Lam., Aristolochia reticulata  Jacq., Aristolochia serpentaria L., Aristolochia tomentosa Sims, Aristolochia watsonii Woot. & Standl.


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Battus Scopoli, 1777

Intro. Hist. Nat.: 433, no. 173. Type-species: Papilio polydamas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 11, by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 80.

=    Laertias Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 84. Type-species: Papilio philenor Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 535, by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 64.

      =    ‡Ithobalus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 88. Type-species: Papilio polydamas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 11, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 198, no. 579. A junior objective synonym of Battus Scopoli, 1777.

=    Battuosa Möhn, 1999

In: Bauer and Frankenbach, Schmetterlinge Erde. 5: 6. Type-species: Papilio belus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(10): 23, pl. 112, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by original designation.


Battus philenor (Linnaeus, 1771)


Battus philenor philenor (Linnaeus, 1771)

Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 535.

Original Combination: Papilio E[ques]. T[rojanus]. Philenor

Type Locality: “America”

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 363, fig. 14 ♀ D.

                   =    astinous (Drury, 1773)

Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 21, pl. 11, figs. 1 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V (1770); 2: index (1773, name given).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Troj[anus] Astinous

Type Locality: “New York, Maryland and Virginia”

Types: Types probably lost.

                   =    nezahualcoyotl (Strecker, 1885)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 37(7/8): 174.

Original Combination: Papilio Nezahualcoyotl

Type Locality: “New Mexico, close to the Mexican border”

Types: Holotype in FMNH.

The holotype phenotypically represents what is recognized as Battus philenor acauda (Oberthür, 1879). This may be a case of individual variation or mislabeling.

                         =    ‡serpentariae (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 23-24, no. 20; cited Papilio philenor Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 535, and J. E. Smith (1797), in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: pl. 3.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Serpentariae

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio philenor based on the name of a foodplant in Smith and Abbot; a junior objective synonym of philenor.

                         =    ‡”obsoleta” (Ehrmann, 1900)

Can. Entomol. 32(11): 348.

Original Combination: Papilio philenor, Var. obsoleta ♂, nov. var.

Type Locality: “S. W. Penn’a.” [Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 9 ♂ D.

                         =    ‡”wasmuthii” (A. C. Weeks, 1901)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 9(2): 82-83, pl. 6 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio philenor aberr. Wasmuthii

Type Locality: “in front of his residence” [Brooklyn, Kings County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH.


Brower, Jane Van Zandt. 1958. Experimental Studies of Mimicry in some North American Butterflies. Part II. Battus philenor and Papilio troilus, P. polyxenes, and P. glaucus. Evolution 12(2): 123-136, 4 tables {30 Jun 1958} 

Fordyce, James A. and Chris C. Nice. 2003. Contemporary patterns in a historical context; phylogeographic history of the pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor (Papilionidae). Evolution 57(5): 1089-1099, 4 figs., 4 tabs. {10 June 2003} 

Gillaspy, James E. and Johnny R. Lara. 1984. Rainstorm behavior of pipevine swallowtails, Battus philenor (L.). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 38(2): 142-143 {16 August 1984} 

Linnaeus, Carolus. 1771. Regni animalis, Appendix. Insecta, pp. 529-543. In: Mantissa plantarum altera generum editionis VI & specierum editionis II. Holmiae, Laurentius Salvius. Pp. [i-vi], 143-588. ([17 October]) [description of Papilio philenor

Möhn, Edwin. 1999. Papilionidae II. Battus. In: Bauer, E. & T. Frankenbach (Eds.), Schmetterlinge der Erde. Tagfalter. Keltern, Goecke & Evers. 5: 1-13, 20 pls. {15 October 1999; English ed. published 22 October} 

Racheli, Tommaso, and M. Oliverio. 1993. Biogeographical patterns of the neotropical genus Battus Scopoli 1777 (Lepidoptera Papilionidae). Tropical Zoology 6(1): 55-65, 3 figs., 3 tabs. {May 1993} 

Racheli, Tommaso, and Lorraine Pariset. 1992. Il genere Battus. Tassonomia e storia naturale (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Fragmenta entomologica (Roma) 23(supplemento): 1-163, 27 pls., 38 figs., 4 tabs. {30 June 1992} 

Rausher, Mark D. 1979. Larval habitat suitability and oviposition preference in three related butterflies. Ecology 60(3): 503-511, 3 figs., 7 tabs. {June 1979} 

Rausher, Mark D. 1995. Behavioral ecology of oviposition in the pipevine swallowtail, Battus philenor, pp. 53-62, 7 figs. In: J. M. Scriber, Y. Tsubaki and R. C. Lederhouse (Eds.), Swallowtail butterflies: Their ecology and evolutionary biology. Gainesville, Scientific Publishers. {1995} 

Tyler, Hamilton Alden, Keith Spalding Brown, Jr. and Kent H. Wilson. 1994. Swallowtail butterflies of the Americas. A study in biological dynamics, ecological diversity, biosystematics and conservation. Gainesville, Fl.; Scientific Publishers: 376 pp., 3 + 100 pls., figs., tabs., maps {[30 Sep] 1994}

Top of PageMain PageReference Library Literature ListCitation Interactive Listing

This website is supported by Butterflies of America Foundation, a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) public charity.