Main Introduction Page Electronic Reference Library Know-how Glossary of acronyms and other terms used on this website A Catalog of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada Illustrated Checklist of Neotropical Butterflies Support the Butterflies of America Foundation Interactive Listing of American Butterflies Photographer Credits Learn about contributing your photos Citation for this website Contact us
Papilionidae (Swallowtails)Pieridae (Whites and Sulphurs)Lycaenidae (Gossamerwings)Riodinidae (Metalmarks)Nymphalidae (Brushfoots)Hesperiidae (Skippers)Links to external lepidoptera websites

Boloria freija browni (Higgins, 1953)
(Freija Fritillary)

Pinned Specimens
photo collection


Live Adults
photo collection

Larval Foodplants and Habitats
photo collection

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:



(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Boloria Moore, 1900

Lepid. Ind. 4(48): 243-244. Type-species: Papilio pales [Schiffermüller], 1775, Ankündung eines syst. Werkes Schmett. Wiener Gegend: 177, no. 8, by original designation. The genus-level synonymy adopted herein is derived from Grey (1989), J. Lepid. Soc. 43(1): 2, Aubert et al. (1996), C. R. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 3) Sci. Vie 319(7): 647-651, and Simonsen (2005), Syst. Entomol. 30(4): 653-665.


freija group Gorbunov, 2001

Butts. Russia Class.: 199.


Boloria freija (Thunberg, 1791) (1789)

The name freija has long been associated with this species. The recent determination (Heppner (1981), Arch. Nat. Hist. 10(2): 251-254) of Esper's publication dates gave priority to Esper's description of lapponica over freija. Replacing freija with lapponica is unnecessary and destabilizing. A paper is being prepared to cite the evidence for implementation of Code Article 81.2.3, to grant freija status as a nomen protectum. Current usage is maintained.

Entomol. Sist. Ins. Svec. (2): 34-36, pl. 2, figs. 14, [14a] ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio Freija P[apilio]. n[ymphalis]. ph[aleratus].

Type Locality: “Vestrobothnia juxta flumina locis locios Lapponia”; lectotype labeled “Lapp. Liljeblad.” [western Gulf of Bothnia and Lappland, Sweden]

Types: Lectotype in UZIU, designated by Karsholt and Nielsen (1986), Entomol. Scand. 16(4): 446.

=    lapponica (Esper, 1789)

Die Schmett. 1(suppl.)(1)(3/4): 21-22, pl. 97 (Cont. 52), fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. N[ymphalis]. Ph[alerata]. Dia Lapponica

Type Locality: “Der lapplandisch P. Dia.” [Lappland]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    ‡freya (Godart, 1819)

In: Enc. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (254), 273, no. 37; cited many references to freija.

Original Combination: Argynnis Freya

Proposed to replace Papilio freija Thunberg, 1791, erroneously thought to be preoccupied, or possibly an unjustified emendation.

=    jakutensis (Wnukowsky, 1927)

Mitt. Münchn. Entomol. Ges. 17(7-12): 70, no. 4.

Original Combination: Argynnis (Brentis [sic!]) frieja jakutensis

Type Locality: “Siberia septentrionalis-orientalis (Jakutsk)” [Yakutsk, Sakha Autonomous Republic, Russia]

Types: Syntypes in UTR.

=    zamolodchikova (Churkin, 2001)

Helios 2: 99, pl. 8, figs. 10 ♂ D (holotype), 11 ♂ V, 12 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Clossiana frieja zamolodchikova

Type Locality: “Russia, East Chukotka, 13 km SE Ioni L., Gilmimleviem R” [Magadan Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia]

Types: Holotype in DSM.

=    ‡”gunderi” (Harper, 1933)

Pan.-Pac. Entomol. 9(3): 99.

Original Combination: Brenthis freija gunderi new tr. fm.

Type Locality: “McCreary, Manitoba, Canada”

Types: “Holotype” in CAS.


Boloria freija browni (Higgins, 1953)

Entomol. 86(9): 210, no. 9.

Original Combination: Clossiana freija browni

Type Locality: “Independance Pass, Pitkin Co.” [Colorado]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.



Top of PageMain PageReference Library Literature ListCitation Interactive Listing

This website is supported by Butterflies of America Foundation, a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit 170(b)(1)(A)(vi) public charity.