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Brephidium e. exilis (Boisduval, 1852)
(Western Pygmy-Blue)

Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults photo collection
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats
photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Larval foodplants:

Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex argentea ssp. expansa (S. Wats.) Hall & Clements, Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt., Atriplex cordulata Jepson, Atriplex coronata S. Wats., Atriplex coulteri (Moq.) D. Dietr., Atriplex hymenelytra (Torr.) S. Wats., Atriplex lentiformis ssp. breweri (S. Wats.) Hall & Clements, Atriplex leucophylla (Moq.) D. Dietr., Atriplex patula L., Atriplex prostrata Bouchér ex DC., Atriplex rosea L., Atriplex semibaccata R. Br., Atriplex serenana A. Nels., Bassia hyssopifolia (Pallas) Kuntz, Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. ex S. Wats., Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey., Salicornia bigelovii  Torr., Salsola tragus L., Suaeda californica S. Wats., Suaeda moquinii (Torr.) Greene

Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus albus L.

Aizoaceae: Sesuvium verrucosum Raf., Trianthema portulacastrum L.

Bataceae: Batis maritima L.


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Brephidium Scudder, 1876

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 3: 123, no. 27. Type-species: Lycaena exilis Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 294, no. 29, by original designation.


Brephidium exilis (Boisduval, 1852)


Brephidium exilis exilis (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 294, no. 29; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 236, fig. 1935 ♂ [not ♀] D&V.

Original Combination: Lycaena exilis

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Sacramento, Sacramento County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 13.

Types: Holotype in USNM; figured by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 13, figs. 51 ♂ D, 52 ♂ V.

Species-genus gender conformation is exile.

                   =    fea (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 205, 211, no. 11.

Original Combination: Lycaena Fea

Type Locality: “near Waco, Texas” [McLennan County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1970), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 96(3): 357, fig. 1 ♂ D&V; paralectotype figured by W. Holland (1898), Butt. Book: pl. 32, fig. 4 ♂ D.

                         =    ‡”coolidgei” Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(1): 2, no. 1, pl. 1, fig. L ♀ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Brephidium exilis ab. ♀ coolidgei

Type Locality: “Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butts. Calif.: pl. 53, fig. 8 ♀ V.


Ballmer, Gregory R. and Gordon F. Pratt. 1989. A survey of the last instar larvae of the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of California. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 27(1): 1-81 {Spring 1988, 1989} 

Ballmer, Gregory R. and Gordon F. Pratt. 1992. Quantification of ant attendance of lycaenid larvae. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 30(1/2): 95-112. {Spring 1991, 1 Dec 1992} 

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse d'Echauffour. 1852. Lépidoptères de la Californie. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (2)10(2): 275-324 {[Aug] 1852} [description of Lycaena exilis

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1970. The types of the lycaenid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards. Part III. Plebejinae. with four neotypes established by John C. Downey. Transactions of the american entomological Society 96(3): 353-433 {Sep, 17 Nov 1970} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1927. Butterflies of California.  A popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California, embracing all the 477 species and varieties at present recorded for the state. Los Angeles, J. A. Comstock: 334 pp., 63 pls., figs. A1-A80 and misc. figs. {1927} 

Comstock, William Phillips. 1914. Lycaenidae of California described by Boisduval. Journal of the New York entomological Society 22(1): 33-37 {Mar 1914} 

Coolidge, Karl R. 1924. The life history of Brephidium exilis Bdv. Entomological News 35(4):115-121. {[2] Apr 1924} 

Coquillett, D. W. 1899. On the early stages of some California Lepidoptera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 7(3): 209-212. {Sep 1899} 

Downey, John Charles. 1966. Sound production in pupae of Lycaenidae. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 20(3): 129-155. {25 Aug 1966} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1868-1897. The butterflies of North America. Boston; Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1: [i], ii, [163], v, 52 pp., 50 pls. (1868-1872); 2: [i], [358] pp., 51 pls. (1874-1884); 3: [viii], [432] pp., 51 pls. (1887-1897). 

Edwards, William Henry. 1871. Descriptions of New Species of Diurnal Lepidoptera found within the United States. Transactions of the american entomological Society 3(3/4): 205-216 {Jan (pre-print [Feb]) 1871; paper [30 Apr 1872]} [Lycaena fea]

Emmel, John F., Thomas Chadbourne Emmel and Sterling O. Mattoon. 1998. 2. The types of California butterflies named by Jean Alphonse Boisduval: designation of lectotypes and a neotype, and fixation of type localities. Pp. 3-76, 269 figs., in: T. C. Emmel (Ed.), Systematics of Western North American Butterflies. Gainesville; Mariposa Press; {[18] Dec 1998} 

Emmel, John F., Oakley Shields & Dennis E. Breedlove. 1971. Larval foodplant records for North American Rhopalocera. Part 2. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 9(4): 233-242. {Dec 1970(1971), [13 Dec] 1971} 

Emmel, Thomas Chadbourne and John F. Emmel. 1973. The Butterflies of Southern California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 26: xi + 148 pp., 10 pls., 77 figs. {30 Nov 1973} 

Garth, John Shrader and James William Tilden. 1986. California butterflies. California Natural History Guide 51. University of California Press, Berkeley. xvi + 246pp. {1986} 

Godman, Frederick du Cane and Osbert Salvin. 1879-1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Zoology: Insecta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London; Taylor & Francis, 3 volumes (Vols. 36-38): 1(Nym., Rio.)(1879-1886); xlv + 487 pp.; 2(Pier., Pap., Lyc., Hes.)(1887-1901): 782 pp.; 3(plates): 1-48 (1879-1886); 49-112 (1887-1901). 

Gunder, Jean Daniel. 1925. Several new varieties of and aberrant Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera) from California. Entomological News 36(1): 1-9, pl. 1 {[5] Jan 1925} [descriptions of Brephidium exilis ab. & coolidgei

Haeger, J. Fernández. 1988. Notes. Notes on the biology of Brephidium exilis (Boisduval) (Lycaenidae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 26(1-4): 254-255. {Autumn 1987(1988), 2 Mar 1989} 

Johnson, Samuel A. 1984. Lateral perching in Brephidium exilis (Boisduval) (Lycaenidae) in Texas. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 23(1): 104-106. {Spring 1984, 15 June 1984} 

Pittaway, A. R., T. B. Larsen, A. Legrain, J. Majer, Z. Weidenhoffer & M. Gillet. 2006. The establishment of an American butterfly in the Arabian Gulf: Brephidium exilis (Boisduval, 1852) (Lycaenidae). Nota Lepidopterologica 29(1/2):3-14.

Pyle, Robert Michael. 1981. The Audubon Society field guide to North American Butterflies. Chanticleer Press, New York. 916pp. 

Pyle, Robert Michael. 2002. The Butterflies of Cascadia. A field guide to all the species of Washington, Oregon, and  Surrounding Territories. Seattle Audubon Society. 420pp.

Oberthür, Charles. 1913. III. Lépidoptères de la Californie décrits par Boisduval en 1852 et en 1869. Études de Lépidopterologie comparée 9(1): 7-11, introduction; 37-44; pls. 235-240 {October 1913} 

Scott, James A. 1986. Butterflies of North America, a natural history and field guide. Stanford; Stanford University Press: xv + 583 pp., 64 pls., 71 figs. 2 tbls., maps. {[26 Sep] 1986} 

Shapiro, Arthur Maurice. 1973d. Host records for Brephidium exilis (Lycaenidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 27(2): 157-158 {16 May 1973} 

Vis, R. 2010. Recent geographic range expansion of Brephidium exilis (Boisduval, 1852) (Lycaenidae) in Oman, Arabian Peninsula. Nota Lepidopterologica 33(1):133-134.

Warren, Andrew D. 2005. Butterflies of Oregon: their taxonomy, distribution, and biology. Fort Collins; Contributions of the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University: 405 pp., 3 maps. {15 Mar 2005}

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