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Chlosyne lacinia crocale (W. H. Edwards, 1874)
(Bordered Patch)

Pinned Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Immatures
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Larval Foodplants
* = primary foodplants as determined by Neck (1973, 1977)
 

Asteraceae: *Ambrosia trifida var. texana Scheele, Ambrosia confertiflora DC., Ambrosia ambrosioides (Cav.) Payne, *Helianthus annuus L., Helianthus debilis sbsp. cucumerifolius (Torr. & Gray) Heiser, Helianthus ciliaris DC., Palafoxia sphacelata (Nutt. ex Torr.) Cory),  Simsia calva (Engelm. & Gray) Gray, Tithonia fruticosa Canby & Rose, Tithonia thurberi Gray, Verbesina virginica L., *Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Gray, Viguiera deltoidea var. parishii, (Greene) Vasey & Rose, Viguiera dentata var. lancifolia Blake, Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (P. Mill.) Torr. & Gray

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Chlosyne Butler, 1870

Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 38, no. 37. Type-species: Papilio janais Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist., 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 5, 6, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Synchloe E. Doubleday, 1844, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8). The synonymy for this genus follows Wahlberg and Zimmerman (2000), Cladistics 16(4): 347-363.

      =    ‡Morpheis Geyer, [1833]

In: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4. Type-species: Morpheis ehrenbergii Geyer, [1833], in: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett., 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Morpheis Hübner, [1820], Verz. bekannt. Schmett., 13: 196.

      =    ‡Synchloe E. Doubleday, [1845]

List Spec. Lepid. Brit. Mus. 1: 76. Type-species: Papilio janais Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 5, 6, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 141, no. 253. Preoccupied by Synchloe Hübner, 1818, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: 26.

      =    ‡Coatlantona W. F. Kirby, 1871

Syn. Cat. diurn. Lepid.: 178. Type-species: Papilio janais Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 5, 6, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Synchloe E. Doubleday, 1844, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8). A junior objective synonym of Chlosyne Butler, 1870.

=    Anemeca W. F. Kirby, 1871

Syn. Cat. diurn. Lepid.: 179. Type-species: Morpheis ehrenbergii Geyer, [1833], in: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Morpheis Geyer, [1833], in: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl [5], figs. 1-4, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).

=    Charidryas Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 47. Type-species: Melitaea nycteis E. Doubleday, 1847, in: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (1)(12): pl. 23, fig. 3; (21): 181, no. 23 (1848), by original designation.

      =    ‡Limnaecia Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 47. Type-species: Melitaea harrisii Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 167-168, no. 36, by original designation. Preoccupied by Limnaecia Stainton, 1851, Suppl. Cat. Brit. Pteroph.: 4.

=    Thessalia Scudder, 1875

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 2(4): 238, 265, no. 49. Type-species: Melitaea leanira C. Felder & R. Felder, 1860, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 4(4): 106, no. 64, by original designation.

 

Chlosyne lacinia (Geyer, 1837)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 5: pl. [155], figs. 899 ♂ D, 900 ♂ V [1836]; 25, no. 450 (1837, name given).

Original Combination: Araschnia Lacinia

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

            =    tellias (H. Bates, 1864)

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 1(4): 84-85, no. 42.

Original Combination: Synchloe tellias

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

            =    quehtala (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 248, no. 24.

Original Combination: Synchloë quehtala

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

            =    ardema (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 336, no. 39.

Original Combination: Synchloë ardema

Type Locality: “Mexico, (near Vera Cruz)” [Veracruz]

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

            =    misera (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 471-472, no. 21.

Original Combination: Synchloë misera

Type Locality: “Huahuapan” [Huajuapan de León, Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

            =    pretona (Boisduval, 1870)

Lepid. Guat.: 37-38.

Original Combination: Synchloe Pretona

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Types possibly in BMNH.

            =    adelina (Staudinger, 1876)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25: 102, no. 12.

Original Combination: Synchloë Adelina

Type Locality: “Panamá als Chiriqui”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

                   =    ‡”indigens” Higgins, 1961

Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 112(14): 408 (b); cited Godman and Salvin (1882), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 3(17): pl.19, fig. 14 ♀ D, 15 ♀ V (as lacinia).

Original Combination: [Chlosyne lacinia lacinia] form indigens

Type Locality: “Costa Rica: Escazu”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

 

Chlosyne lacinia crocale (W. H. Edwards, 1874)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(1): 17; figured by Mead (1875), Rep. Coll. diurn. Lepid. 5(Zool.): pl. 37, fig. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Synchloe Crocale

Type Locality: “White Mtns, Arizona”; suggested to be “country directly northeast of old Camp Apache, now Fort Apache, in the extreme southeastern corner of Navajo County and in extreme southwestern Apache County, Arizona” by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 407.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 409, fig. 18 ♂ D&V.

                         =    ‡”rufescens” (W. H. Edwards, 1893)

Can. Entomol. 25(11): 287.

Original Combination: [Synchloe crocale] aberration rufescens

Type Locality: “Juarey [sic!], Mexico (across the river opposite El Paso)” [Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua]

Types: “Type(s)” may not have existed.

Cockerell (1894), Can. Entomol. 26(1): 30, redescribed Synchloe lacinia ab. rufescens from “Juarez (not Juarey), Mexico.”

                         =    ‡”rufa” (T. Cockerell, 1893)

In: W. H. Edwards, Can. Entomol. 25(11): 286.

Original Combination: [Synchloe Lacinia] form rufa

Type Locality: “Las Cruces, New Mexico” [Dona Ana County]

Types: “Type(s)” probably never existed.

Described as a color form of the larva.

                         =    ‡”bicolor” (T. Cockerell, 1893)

In: W. H. Edwards, Can. Entomol. 25(11): 287.

Original Combination: [Synchloe Lacinia] form bicolor

Type Locality: “Las Cruces, New Mexico” [Dona Ana County]

Types: “Type(s)” probably never existed.

Described as a color form of the larva.

                         =    ‡”nigra” (T. Cockerell, 1893)

In: W. H. Edwards, Can. Entomol. 25(11): 287.

Original Combination: [Synchloe Lacinia] form nigra

Type Locality: “Las Cruces, New Mexico” [Don Ana County]

Types: “Type(s)” probably never existed.

Described as a color form of the larva.

                         =    ‡”nigrescens” (W. H. Edwards, 1893)

Can. Entomol. 25(11): 287.

Original Combination: [Synchloe Crocale] ab. nigrescens

Type Locality: “Juarey [sic!], Mexico (across the river opposite El Paso)” [Cuidad Juarez, Chihuahua]

Types: “Type(s)” may not have existed.

                         =    ‡”inghami” Gunder, 1928

Can. Entomol. 60(7): 167, pl. B, figs. 20 ♂ D, 20a ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Chlosyne lacinia race rufescens tr. f. inghami

Type Locality: “Mesa, Ariz.” [Mariposa County, Arizona]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                         =    ‡”flavida” Higgins, 1960

Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 112(14): 409.

Original Combination: Chlosyne lacinia crocale form flavida

Proposed to replace Synchloe crocale aberration rufescens W. H. Edwards, 1893, Can. Entomol. 25(11): 287, but that is an infrasubspecific name, not subject to homonymy (Code Article 1.3.4).

Bibliography

Austin, George T. and Anna T. Austin. 1981. Butterflies of Clark County, Nevada. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 19(1): 1-63, 5 tbls. {Spring, 1980(81), 1 Dec 1981} 

Bailowitz, Richard A. and James P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Arizona; Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc.: ix + 342 pp., 4 pls., figs. {1991} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1927. Butterflies of California. A popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California embracing all of the 477 species and varieties at present recorded from the state. Author, Los Angeles, California. 334 pp., 63 pls. {1927} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1946. A few pests of sunflower in California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 45(2): 141-144 {1946}

Drummond, boyce A. III, Guy L. Bush and Thomas C. Emmel. 1969. The biology and laboratory culture of Chlosyne lacinia Geyer (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 24(2): 135-142, 3 tbls. {29 May 1969} 

Dyar, Harrison G. 1911. Description of the larvae of some Mexican Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the entomological Society of Washington 13(4): 227-232 {Oct-Dec, 29 Dec 1911} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1893. Notes on a polymorphic butterfly, Synchloe Lacinia, Geyer (in Hub. Zutr.), with description of its preparatory stages. Canadian Entomologist 25(11): 286-291. {4 Nov 1893} 

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1928. A key to the forms of the genus Chlosyne. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 21(1): 98-100. {Mar [18 Apr] 1928} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1960. A revision of the melitaeine genus Chlosyne and allied species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 112(14): 381-467, 134 figs. {31 Dec 1960} 

Hoffmann, Carlos Christian. 1940. Catálogo systemático y zoogeográphico de los Lepidópteros Mexicanos, Primera parte. Papilionoidea. Anales del Instituto de Biología. Universidad Nacional de México 11(2): 639-739, 2 maps. {[after 28 Dec] 1940}

Maza, Roberto F. de la. 1987. Mariposas Mexicanas. Guía para su colecta y determinación. México; Fondo de Cultura Económica: 304 pp., 67 pls., 58 figs. {Oct 1987} [Ed. 2 1991] 

Mead, Theodore Luqueer. 1875. Chapter VIII. Report upon the collections of Diurnal Lepidoptera made in Portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona during the years 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874, with notes upon all species known to inhabit Colorado. Pp. 739-791, pls. 35-40, in: George M. Wheeler (and A. A. Humphreys), Report upon Geological Explorations and Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian. Washington, D.C.; Government Printing Office; Engineer Dept., U. S. Army: [212] pp., [8] leaves of pls. {1875} 

Stamp, Nancy. 1977. Aggregation behavior of Chlosyne lacinia larvae (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 31(1): 35-40, 3 figs. {30 Mar 1977} 

Thorne, Fred. 1962. Larval notes on Chlosyne lacinia and C. californica. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 16(1): 61. {30 Aug 1962} 

Vargas, Isabel, Moisés Armando Luis, Jorge Enrique Llorente and Andrew D. Warren. 1996. Butterflies of the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 50(2): 97-138, 1 fig., 2 tabs. {5 July 1996}

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