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Parnassius phoebus golovinus W. Holland, 1930
(Phoebus Parnassian)

Type Specimens photo collection:


 

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Seward Peninsula, Alaska

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Parnassius Latreille, 1804

Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 24(tab.): 185, no. 472, 199. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by monotypy. Koçak (1981), Priamus 1(2): 51 (nota), claimed that Parnassius was first used as a proper genus by Schneider (1785), Nomen. Entomol.: 34 (as “2 Parnassius F.”). Schneider did not use the name in a generic sense, but as an interposed adjective; Wagener (1988), Nota Lepid. 11(3): 237-238, discussed this issue. Nomina collectiva are descriptive epithets applying to individual variants below the subspecies-level. They frequently lack a description or indication and are almost always cited in some kind of quadrinomial combination. In the following synonymies, nomina collectiva are referenced for each taxon, but not listed individually.

      =    ‡Doritis [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 283, no. 22. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Dalman (1816), K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(1): 60. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804.

      =    ‡Parnassis Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 90. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Hemming (1939), Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B)8(7): 136. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804. This name may have been a misspelling, emendation, or a new description by Hübner; see Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) Suppl. 9: 345.

      =    ‡Therius Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 75. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Hemming (1933), Entomol. 66(844): 199. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804.

=    Tadumia Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 116. Type-species: Parnassius acco Gray, [1853], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1(Pap.): 76, no. 350, pl. 12, figs. 5, 6, by original designation.

=    Kailasius Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 118. Type-species: Parnassius charltonius G. Gray, [1853] Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1(Pap.): 77, no. 355, pl. 12, fig. 7, by original designation.

=    Koramius Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 120. Type-species: Doritis delphius Eversmann, 1843, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16(3): 541, pl. 7, fig. 1A, B, by original designation.

=    Lingamius Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 538-540. Type-species: Parnassius hardwickii G. Gray, 1831, Zool. Miscell. (J. E. Gray) (1): 32, by original designation. This name was proposed twice by Bryk (1932), Parnassiana 2(1): 1, and Parnassiana 2(2): 20; no diagnosis or type-species designation was included in either publication. Since these names were proposed after 1930, they are not available (Code Articles 13.1.1, 13.3, 67.4.1).

=    Eukoramius Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 630, 673-674. Type-species: Parnassius imperator Oberthür, 1883, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 6(3)(bull.)2(5): lxxvi-lxxvii, by monotypy. This name was proposed by Bryk (1934), Parnassiana 3(3): 43; without a diagnosis or type-species designation; since this name was proposed after 1930, it is not available (Code Articles 13.1.1, 13.3, 67.4.1).

=    Driopa Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 65-67. Type-species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 42, by original designation.

=    Erythrodriopa Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 67. Type-species: Parnassius ariadne Lederer, 1853, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 3: 354, by original designation.

=    Sachaia Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 67-68. Type-species: Parnassius tenedius Eversmann, 1851, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 24(2)(11): 621-622, no. 10, by original designation.

      =    ‡Adoritis Koçak, 1989

Priamus 4(4): 165-167. Type-species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 42, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Driopa Korshunov, 1988.

=    Quinhaicus Korshunov, 1990

Chlenist. Gelmint. sbornik trudov: 99. Type-species: Parnassius szechenyii Frivaldszky, 1886, Természettud. Füz. 10(1): 39, pl. 4, figs. 1, 1a, by original designation.

=    Kreizbergius Korshunov, 1990

Chlenist. Gelmint. sbornik trudov: 102. Type-species: Parnassius simo G. Gray, [1852], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 76, no. 351, pl. 12, figs. 3, 4, by original designation.

=    Eversmanniodriopa Korb, 2005

Cat. Butt. ex USSR: 13. Type-species: Parnassius eversmanni [Ménétriés], [1850], in: Simashko, Russk. Fauna (17)(Lepid.): Pl. 4, fig. 5 ♂ D&V, legend, by original designation.

 

Parnassius phoebus (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 181, no. 561; cited Jones’ Icones 2: pl. 2, fig. 2.

Original Combination: P[apilio] P[arnasius]. Phoebus

Type locality: “Siberia”; “neotypes” from “Altai: Ongodai, Kurai Paß, Arassam Quelle.” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: Type(s) presumed lost. “Neotypes” in ZMHB, designated by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: 219, figs. 215 ♂ D, 215a ♀ D, but this action violated Code Article 75. Bryk designated two neotypes, which is improper procedure. It is here presumed that one will eventually be accepted.

Nekrutenko and Kerzhner (1986), Entomol. Obozr. 65(4): 776, discussed the probable type locality for this species. They determined that Pallas (collector of the original specimen) probably sent the type to Drury, which became the basis for William Jones’ unpublished figure. The details of Pallas’ journey indicate two regions from which phoebus might have been collected: 1) the Irtysh Valley, Western and Northern Altai, or 2) the Transbaikalian area of the Yenisey. Nekrutenko and Kerzhner considered that the Altai region was more probable. The nomenclature proposed by J. Shepard and Manley (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (58): 717-726, is followed. Also see Gluschenko and Martynenko (1997), Anim. Veg. World Far East: 31-40, (2000), Kurentsov’s Ann. Mem. Mtgs. 11: 63-96, Martynenko et al. (2003), Helios 4: 75-91, Churkin (2004), Helios 5: 110-114, and Omoto, et al. (2004), Gene 326: 141–147, where divergent arguments are presented.

                   =    ‡altaica Ménétriés, 1859

In: Schrenck, Reise Amur-Lande 2(1): 12-13, under no. 53.

Original Combination: Parnassius Phoebus var. intermedius Forme altaica

Type Locality: “l'Altai” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: Lectotype in ZIN, designated by Nekrutenko and Kerzhner (1986), Entomol. Obozr. 65(4): 775.

            =    halasicus Huang & Murayama, 1992

Tyo to Ga 43(1): 3, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus halasicus

Type Locality: “Halasai, Altai, 1700-1900 m, grassland in forest zone to subalpine grassland” [Xinjiang Uygur, China]

Types: Holotype in Xinjiang University, China.

                   =    ‡”virginea” Austaut, 1910

Entomol. Z. 24(11): 55.

Original Combination: Parnassius Ruckbeil ab. virginea

Type Locality: “Barkoul [sic!]” [Barnaul, Altai Kray, Russia]

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known; possibly at MNHP?

                   =    ‡”alpestris” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (26-29): 314, pl. 63, figs. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♀ D; (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. intermedius forme alpestris, from the legend to plate 63 and the index.

Type Locality: “l’Altaï...hauts sommets” implied from the text, “Tchuja mountains, 1800-2400m” from the legend to plate 63. [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Syntypes” in BMNH and ZMKU.

                   =    ‡”melanica” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (26-29): 314, pl. 63, fig. 18 ♂ D (“holotype”); (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. intermedius ♀ ab. melanica, from the legend to plate 63 and the index.

Type Locality: “l’Altaï...des vallées” implied from the text, “Kuraipan, 2100m., Altai” from the legend to plate 63. [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH.

                   =    ‡”leucostigma” Austaut, 1912

Int. Entomol. Z. 6(13): 87, 125.

Original Combination: Parnassius Ruckbeil ab. leucostigma

Type Locality: “alpe de Chamil-Hami” “alpes de Chamil” [Barnaul, Altai Kray, Russia]

Types: Location of “holotype” not known; possibly at MNHP?

                   =    ‡”punctatus” Bryk, 1912

Soc. Entomol. 27(12): 57.

Original Combination: Parnassius delius ab. punctatus

Type Locality: “Altai” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” probably in RMNH.

                   =    ‡”reciprocus” Bryk, 1913

Soc. Entomol. 28(16): 95.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus var. intermedia ab. reciprocus

Type Locality: “Altai” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” probably in RMNH.

 

Parnassius phoebus golovinus W. Holland, 1930

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 19(3): 155-156; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): pl. 69, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Parnassius golovinus

Type Locality: “Golovin Bay” [NW Alaska]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): pl. 69, figs. 3 ♂ D (lectotype) 4 ♂ V (paralectotype), 5 ♀ D (paralectotype), 6 ♀ V (paralectotype).

Bibliography

 

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