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Parnassius smintheus pseudorotgeri Eisner, 1966
(Rocky Mountain Parnassian)

Type Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

SW CO; San Juan Mtns.

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Parnassius Latreille, 1804

Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 24(tab.): 185, no. 472, 199. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by monotypy. Koçak (1981), Priamus 1(2): 51 (nota), claimed that Parnassius was first used as a proper genus by Schneider (1785), Nomen. Entomol.: 34 (as “2 Parnassius F.”). Schneider did not use the name in a generic sense, but as an interposed adjective; Wagener (1988), Nota Lepid. 11(3): 237-238, discussed this issue. Nomina collectiva are descriptive epithets applying to individual variants below the subspecies-level. They frequently lack a description or indication and are almost always cited in some kind of quadrinomial combination. In the following synonymies, nomina collectiva are referenced for each taxon, but not listed individually.

      =    ‡Doritis [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 283, no. 22. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Dalman (1816), K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(1): 60. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804.

      =    ‡Parnassis Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 90. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Hemming (1939), Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B)8(7): 136. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804. This name may have been a misspelling, emendation, or a new description by Hübner; see Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) Suppl. 9: 345.

      =    ‡Therius Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 75. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Hemming (1933), Entomol. 66(844): 199. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804.

=    Tadumia Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 116. Type-species: Parnassius acco Gray, [1853], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1(Pap.): 76, no. 350, pl. 12, figs. 5, 6, by original designation.

=    Kailasius Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 118. Type-species: Parnassius charltonius G. Gray, [1853] Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1(Pap.): 77, no. 355, pl. 12, fig. 7, by original designation.

=    Koramius Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 120. Type-species: Doritis delphius Eversmann, 1843, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16(3): 541, pl. 7, fig. 1A, B, by original designation.

=    Lingamius Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 538-540. Type-species: Parnassius hardwickii G. Gray, 1831, Zool. Miscell. (J. E. Gray) (1): 32, by original designation. This name was proposed twice by Bryk (1932), Parnassiana 2(1): 1, and Parnassiana 2(2): 20; no diagnosis or type-species designation was included in either publication. Since these names were proposed after 1930, they are not available (Code Articles 13.1.1, 13.3, 67.4.1).

=    Eukoramius Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 630, 673-674. Type-species: Parnassius imperator Oberthür, 1883, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 6(3)(bull.)2(5): lxxvi-lxxvii, by monotypy. This name was proposed by Bryk (1934), Parnassiana 3(3): 43; without a diagnosis or type-species designation; since this name was proposed after 1930, it is not available (Code Articles 13.1.1, 13.3, 67.4.1).

=    Driopa Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 65-67. Type-species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 42, by original designation.

=    Erythrodriopa Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 67. Type-species: Parnassius ariadne Lederer, 1853, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 3: 354, by original designation.

=    Sachaia Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 67-68. Type-species: Parnassius tenedius Eversmann, 1851, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 24(2)(11): 621-622, no. 10, by original designation.

      =    ‡Adoritis Koçak, 1989

Priamus 4(4): 165-167. Type-species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 42, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Driopa Korshunov, 1988.

=    Quinhaicus Korshunov, 1990

Chlenist. Gelmint. sbornik trudov: 99. Type-species: Parnassius szechenyii Frivaldszky, 1886, Természettud. Füz. 10(1): 39, pl. 4, figs. 1, 1a, by original designation.

=    Kreizbergius Korshunov, 1990

Chlenist. Gelmint. sbornik trudov: 102. Type-species: Parnassius simo G. Gray, [1852], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 76, no. 351, pl. 12, figs. 3, 4, by original designation.

=    Eversmanniodriopa Korb, 2005

Cat. Butt. ex USSR: 13. Type-species: Parnassius eversmanni [Ménétriés], [1850], in: Simashko, Russk. Fauna (17)(Lepid.): Pl. 4, fig. 5 ♂ D&V, legend, by original designation.

 

Parnassius smintheus E. Doubleday, 1847

In: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (1)(3): 26; 27, no. 8, pl. 4*, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius Smintheus

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains”; defined as “vicinity of Rock Lake, [near Jasper] Alberta (53o27'N, 118.o16'W)” by J. Shepard (1984), Quaest. Entomol. 20(1): 40-41.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Shepard (1984), Quaest. Entomol. 20(1): 41.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 150, (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 96, and (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): 25, no. 273.

=    nanus Neumoegen, 1890

Entomol. Am. 6(4): 61-62.

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus var. nanus

Type Locality: “near Fort Calgarry [sic!]...at Spence's Bridge, both places being in British Columbia” [Fort Calgary is in Alberta]

Types: Syntypes in USNM; two figured by Skinner (1916), Entomol. News 27(5): pl. 12, figs. 4 ♀ D (‘Ft. Calgary’), 5 ♂ D (“British Columbia”).

McDunnough (1936), Can. Entomol. 68(10): 223, discussed the Spence’s Bridge locality. Upon any future lectotype designation, the position of this taxon in the synonymy of P. smintheus may require revision.

=    manitobaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 55.

Original Combination: [Parnassius phoebus] manitobaënsis

Type Locality: “Manitoba, End-Mountains”; corrected to “End Mountain, Alta.” by McDunnough (1936), Can. Entomol. 68(2): 43; further defined as “End Mountain, near Exsham, Alberta” by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 96. [Exshaw]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

=    ‡”nigerrima” Verity, [1907]

Rhop. palae. (7/8): pl. 16, fig. 23 ♀ D (“holotype”) [28 Feb 1907]; (11-12): 108 [31 Oct 1907]; (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: Parnassius delius var. smintheus forme hermodur ab. nigerrima

Type Locality: “Montagnes Rocheuses de la Colombie Britannique” implied from the legend to plate 16.

Types: “Holotype” in ZMKU.

Date of publication is that of plate 16; original combination is from page 108.

=    ‡”minor” Verity, [1907]

Rhop. palae. (7/8): pl. 16, fig. 21 ♂ D (“holotype”) [28 Feb 1907]: (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. smintheus forme minor

Type Locality: “Montagnes Rocheuses de la Colombie Britannique” implied from the legend to plate 26.

Types: “Holotype” in ZMKU.

Date of publication is that of plate 16; original combination is from the legend to plate 16.

=    ‡”minusculus” Bryk, 1912

Soc. Entomol. 27(12): 58, fig. 4 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius v. smintheus ab. minusculus

Type Locality: “Colorado” apparently in error.

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

Original combination given on figure.

=    ‡”ernestinae” Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 51.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus smintheus form ernestinae

Type Locality: “Ptarmigan-Paß 135o 20'/ 50o 20” [Alberta]

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

=    ‡”verity” Ehrmann, 1918

Lepidoptera 2(4): 30.

Original Combination: Parnassius verity

Proposed to replace minor Verity, [1907], but unavailable names cannot be replaced (Code Article 1.3.4).

‡”rocky” Grum-Grshimaïlo, 1890

In: Romanov, Mém. Lépid. 4: 149 (note 9).

Original Combination: [Parnassius Smintheus var.] Rocky

Proposed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

 

Parnassius smintheus pseudorotgeri Eisner, 1966

Zoöl. Meded. 41(8): 144.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus pseudorotgeri

Type Locality: “Elwood-Pass, Rio Grande Co., Colorado, U.S.A.”

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

Eisner (1964), Zoöl. Meded. 40(16): 135-136, credited this name to F. Chermock; a nomen nudum. Subsequently, Eisner (1966), adopted the name and described it based on his own specimens.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1966), Zoöl. Meded. 41(8): 144.

Bibliography

 

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