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Phyciodes cocyta selenis (W. Kirby, 1837)
(Northern Crescent)

Pinned Specimens photo collection Page 1:

Pinned Specimens photo collection Page 2:

Live Adults photo collection Page 1:

Live Adults photo collection Page 2:

Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

Larval Foodplants: Asteraceae: Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (P. Mill.) Nees, Symphyotrichum foliaceum var. foliaceum  (DC.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum frondosum  (Nutt.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum laeve var. geyeri  (Gray) Nesom


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.


Phyciodes cocyta (Cramer, 1777)

Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V (fig. C ♀ V is not the same species); (16): 148 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Nymph[alis]. Phaler[ata]. Cocyta

Type Locality: Not stated for figs. A and B, “Surinamen” “Suriname” for fig. C; neotype from “Black Rock, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.”

Types: Neotype in AMNH, designated by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 36, fig. 111 ♂ D.

=    ‡morpheus (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 530, no. 370.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus]. R[uralis]. Morpheus

Type Locality: “America boreali”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Preoccupied by Papilio morpheus Pallas, 1771, Reise verschied. Prov. Russisich. Reichs 1, Anhang: 471, no. 64. Fabricius (1793), Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 155-156, no. 479, cited this name in association with Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777.

=    arctica dos Passos, 1935

Can. Entomol. 67(4): 87.

Original Combination: Phyciodes tharos arctica

Type Locality: “Port au Port, Table Mountain, Newfoundland” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.


Phyciodes cocyta selenis (W. Kirby, 1837)

In: Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. [4]: 289, no. 1.

Original Combination: Melitaea Selenis

Type Locality: “North America”; defined as “Cumberland House Sask.” by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 35; neotype from “Grosky Rd., The Pas, Manitoba.”

Types: Neotype in BMNH, designated by Scott (2006), Papilio (n.s.) 13: 15; figured by Scott (2006), Papilio (n.s.) 12: pl. 5, 4th row right ♂ D, 5th row right ♂ V.

                   =    marcia (W. H. Edwards, 1868)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(2): 207-208.

Original Combination: Melitaea Marcia

Type Locality: “New York to Louisiana...Kanawha River, W. Va.”; defined as “Hunter, Greene Co., New York” by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 432; lectotype from “Coalburgh, Kanawha Valley, West Virginia.” [Kanawha County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by Gatrelle (2004), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 4(8): 9, fig. 43 ♂ D&V. A previous “lectotype” designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 433, fig. 25 ♂ D&V, is invalid since it is not a syntype (Code Article 74.2).

                         =    ‡”reaghi” Reiff, 1913

Entomol. News 24(7): 305, pl. 10, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Phyciodes tharos form nov. reaghi

Type Locality: “Franklin, Mass.” [Norfolk County, Massacusetts]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

                         =    ‡”herse” G. Hall, 1924

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 32(2): 110.

Original Combination: Phyciodes tharos pascoensis form vern. herse

Type Locality: “Taft, British Columbia”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                         =    ‡”nigrescens” G. Hall, 1924

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 32(2): 111.

Original Combination: Phyciodes tharos pascoensis f. ab. nigrescens

Type Locality: “Taft, B. C.” [British Columbia]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                         =    ‡”dyari” Gunder, 1928

Can. Entomol. 60(7): 167, pl. B, fig. 18 ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Phyciodes tharos tr. f. dyari

Type Locality: “Webster, N. H.” [Merrimack County, New Hampshire]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

                         =    ‡”mcdunnoughi” Gunder, 1928

Can. Entomol. 60(7): 167, pl. B, figs. 19 ♀ D, 19a ♀ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Phyciodes campestris tr. f. mcdunnoughi

Type Locality: “Olds ?, T. N. W.” [Alberta]

Types: “Holotype” in CNC.

dos Passos (1964), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (1): 82, spelled this name macdunnoughi, representing an unjustified emendation.


Aaron, Charles E. 1884. On the caterpillars of North American Papilionidae and Nymphalidae. Papilio 4(5/[6]): 83-91. {May-Jun [22 Jul] 1884} cited in Papilio 4(9/10): 189. [Translated from Gruber, August, 1884, Jena Zeitschrift für naturwissenschaft 17 (N.F. 10)

Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1966. The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards--Part II, Melitaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92(3): 357-468, 34 figs. {Sep, 20 Oct 1966} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1868. Notes on a remarkable variety of Papilio turnus, and descriptions of two species of diurnal Lepidoptera. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 2(2): 207-210. {Oct (pre-print [Oct]) 1868; paper [8 Feb 1869]} [description of Melitaea Marcia]

Edwards, William Henry. 1868-1897. The butterflies of North America. Boston; Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 1: [i], ii, [163], v, 52 pp., 50 pls. (1868-1872); 2: [i], [358] pp., 51 pls. (1874-1884); 3: [viii], [432] pp., 51 pls. (1887-1897). 

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Fisher, Michael S. 2006. The butterflies of Colorado. Nymphalidae ‑ Part 3. The subfamily Nymphalinae and relatives. The checkerspots, crescentspots and the true nymphs. Fort Collins; Lepidoptera of North America 7.3; Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University: vi + 120 pp., photos {30 Sep 2006} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomologica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

Gunder, Jean Daniel. 1926. Several new aberrant Lepidoptera (Rhopalocera). Entomological News 37(1): 1-9, pl. 1 {[7] Jan 1926} [description of Phyciodes tharos tr. f. dyari, Phyciodes campestris tr. f. mcdunnoughi

Guppy, Crispin S. & Jon H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. Including western Alberta, southern Yukon, the Alaska panhandle, Washington, northern Oregon, northern Idaho, northwestern Montana. Vancouver-Toronto; Royal British Columbia Museum, Univ, British Columbia Press: 414, 75 figs., text figures, maps. {2001}

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930} 

Hall, Gaylord C. 1924. Notes on Polygonia j-album, Cercyonis alope, Phyciodes tharos, heodes epixanthe and Euphydryas gilletti. Journal of the New York entomological Society 32(2): 109-111, pl. 11 {[15] Jun 1924} [description of Phyciodes tharos pascoensis form vern. herse, Phyciodes tharos pascoensis f[orm]. ab. nigrescens

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981} 

Kirby, William. 1837. [Lepidoptera: Diurna]. Part 4, Insects, pp. 286-300; pls. 3, 4, in: John Richardson Fauna Boreali-Americana or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America: containing descriptions of the objects of Natural History collected on the late Northern Land Expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin. Assisted by William Swainson and The reverend William Kirby; Norwich, England; Josiah Fletcher: v-xxxix + 325 pp., 8 cpls., 1 p. errata. [description of Melitaea Selenis

Layberry, Ross A., Peter W. Hall, J. Donald Lafontaine (plates by John T. Fowler). 1998. The butterflies of Canada. Toronto, Buffalo & London; University of Toronto Press: 280 pp., 32 pls., 294 maps and illus. {1998} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1978. Experimental hybridization between the nymphalid butterflies Phyciodes tharos and P. campestris montana. Evolution 32(3): 594-601, 3 figs., 3 tbls. {24 Oct 1978} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1979. Experimental hybridization between Phyciodes tharos and P. batesii (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 33(1): 6-20, 1 fig., 6 tbls. {4 Jun 1979} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1980. Phenotypic differentiation and hybrid breakdown with Phyciodes "tharos" (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 73(6): 715-721, 1 fig., 5 tbls. {15 Nov 1980} 

Oliver, Charles G. 1982. Experimental iybridization between Phyciodes tharos and P. phaon (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 36(2): 121-131, 2 figs., 4 tbls. {24 Sep 1982} 

Porter, Adam H. and Joseph C. Mueller. 1998. Partial genetic isolation between Phyciodes tharos and P. cocyta (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 52(2): 182-205, 2 figs., 5 tbls. {21 Jul 1998}

Pyle, Robert Michael. 2002. Butterflies of Cascadia. Seattle; Seattle Audubon Society: 420 pp., figs., drawings, photos. {2002} 

Reiff, William. 1913. Some new forms of Lepidoptera from Massachusetts. Entomological News 24(7): 305-310, pl. 10 {Jul, [30 Jun] 1913} [descriptions of Phyciodes tharos form nov. reaghi

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Scott, James A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1991, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio (n.s.) 6: 1-171, 10 tables {5 Jul 1992} 

Scott, James A. 1998. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): New discoveries, new subspecies, and convergence. Papilio (n.s.) 10: 1-42, 41 figs., 5 tables {20 Feb 1998} 

Scott, James A. 2006. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): More progress. Papilio (New Series) 13: 38 pp., 5 tbls., cartoon {28 Apr 2006} 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard. 1888-1889. The Butterflies of the eastern United States and Canada with Special Reference to New England. Cambridge; Samuel Hubbard Scudder, 1(introduction, Nymphalidae): xxiv +  766 pp., frtspc. (colored); 2(Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Hesperiidae): xii + 767-1774, frtspc. (colored), 1 map; 3(appendix, plates): i-viii, 1775-1958, frtspc., pls. 1-89 (14 colored), 3 maps {[Nov 1888], [1Apr] 1889} 

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimittions. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003}

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