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Phyciodes p. pulchella (Boisduval, 1852)
(Field Crescent)

Type Specimens photo collection:

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Live Adults photo collection Page 1:

Live Adults photo collection Page 2:

Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Larval Foodplants: Asteraceae: Symphyotrichum foliaceum var. foliaceum  (DC.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum greatae  (Parish) Nesom, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hesperium  (Gray) Nesom, Symphyotrichum lentum  (Greene) Nesom

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.

 

Phyciodes pulchella (Boisduval, 1852)

The use of this name over campestris (Behr, 1863) and pratensis (Behr, 1863), follows Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 65-73, reiterated by Kondla and C. Guppy (2002), J. Lepid. Soc. 56(3): 171-172. While the various aspects of the applicability of this name were discussed by these authors, some dispute the issue (e.g., Layberry, et al. (1998), Butts. Can.: 191), and a petition to the I.C.Z.N. may be needed to resolve the matter.

 

Phyciodes pulchella pulchella (Boisduval, 1852)

Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 306, no. 49.

Original Combination: Melitaea pulchella

Type Locality: “dans une grande partie de la Californie”; redefined as “dans le centre de la Californie” by Boisduval (1868), Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 20, no. 50; defined as “San Francisco, California” by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 73. [San Francisco County]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 18, figs. 102 ♂ D, 103 ♂ V. This specimen was earlier designated as neotype by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 72, figs. 179 ♂ D, 180 ♂ V, but it appears to be a syntype.

Species-genus gender conformation is pulchellus.

                   =    pratensis (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 86, no. 4.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. pratensis

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “on grassy hillsides...in some localities near San Francisco” from the description; neotype from “Old Cemetery, San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in CAS, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 99, figs. 25 ♂ D, 26 ♂ V.

                   =    campestris (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 86, no. 3.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. campestris

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “especially on marshy places...peculiar to the lower regions” from the description; neotype from “Old Cemetery, San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in CAS, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 100, figs. 28 ♀ D, 29 ♀ V.

As first reviser, precedence was given to pratensis over campestris by W. H. Edwards (1872), Synop. N. A. Butts.: 18, no. 15.

Bibliography

Behr, Hans Herman. 1863. On Californian Lepidoptera--No. III. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 3(1)([sig.]6): 84-93. {Dec 1863} [description of Melitaea campestris, Melitaea pratensis

Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse d'Echauffour. 1852. Lépidoptères de la Californie. Annales de la Société entomologique de France (2)10(2): 275-324. {[Aug] 1852} [description of Melitaea pulchella

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse d'Echauffour. 1868-1869. Lépidoptères de la Californie. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 12: 1-28 (1868); 37-94 ([1 Nov] 1869) [missing pp. 29-37 through printer's error] {1868-1869} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1927. Butterflies of California. A popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of California embracing all of the 477 species and varieties at present recorded from the state. Author, Los Angeles, California. 334 pp., 63 pls. {1927} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1930. Studies in Pacific Coast Lepidoptera (continued). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 28(3): 50-58, pls. 25-33 {Sep-Dec 1929, 15 Feb 1930} 

Comstock, John Adams. 1931. Studies in Pacific Coast Lepidoptera (continued). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 29(3): 135-142, pls. 28-32 {Sep-Dec 1930, 15 Jan 1931} 

Davenport, Kenneth E. 1983. Geographic distribution and checklist of the butterflies of Kern County, California. Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 37(1): 46-69 {19 Aug 1983}

Davenport, Kenneth E. 2004. The Yosemite butterflies. The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 5(1): 1-75, figs. {29 Dec 2004} 

Davenport, Kenneth E., Norbert G. Kondla, Charles Grisham and C. Howard Grisham. 2007. The Yosemite butterflies: color plates. The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey 5(2): 1-83, color figs. {15 Mar 2007} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1870-[1873]. Synopsis of North American butterflies. Philadelphia; The American Entomological Society: vi + 52 pp. {[Aug] 1870; 1872, [Jan 1873]} 

Emmel, Thomas Chadbourne and John F. Emmel. 1973b. The butterflies of southern California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 26: xi + 148 pp., 10 pls., 77 figs. {30 Nov 1973} 

Emmel, John F., Thomas Chadbourne Emmel and Sterling O. Mattoon. 1998. 2. The types of California butterflies named by Jean Alphonse Boisduval: designation of lectotypes and a neotype, and fixation of type localities. Pp. 3-76, 269 figs., in: T. C. Emmel (Ed.), Systematics of western North American butterflies. Gainesville; Mariposa Press; {[18] Dec 1998} 

Emmel, John F., Thomas Chadbourne Emmel and Sterling O. Mattoon. 1998. 6. The types of California butterflies named by Herman Behr: designations of neotypes and fixation of type localities. Pp. 95-114, 78 figs., in: T. C. Emmel (Ed.), Systematics of western North American Butterflies. Gainesville; Mariposa Press; {[18] Dec 1998} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomoogica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981} 

Kondla, Norbert G. and Crispin S. Guppy. 2002. Nomenclatural correctness of Phyciodes pratensis vs. Phyciodes pulchellus (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists= Society 56(3): 171-172 {11 Oct 2002} 

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Scott, James A. 1994. Biology and systematics of Phyciodes (Phyciodes). Papilio (n.s.) 7: 1-120, 227 figs., 12 tables {18 Nov 1994} 

Scott, James A. 1998. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): New discoveries, new subspecies, and convergence. Papilio (New Series) 10: 1-42, 41 figs., 5 tbls. {20 Feb 1998} 

Scott, James A. 2006. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): More progress. Papilio (New Series) 13: 38 pp., 5 tbls., cartoon {28 Apr 2006}

Tilden, James William. [1970]. Concerning the names and status of certain North American members of the genus Phyciodes. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 8(3): 94-98. {3 Sep 1969 [21 Dec 1970]} 

Tilden, James William. 1974. Melitaea pulchella Boisduval, 1852, a replacement name. Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 28(4): 252-253. {27 Dec 1974} 

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimittions. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003} 

Warren, Andrew D. 2005. Butterflies of Oregon: their taxonomy, distribution, and biology. Fort Collins; Contributions of the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University: 405 pp., 3 maps. {15 Mar 2005}

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