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Phyciodes pulchella camillus W. H. Edwards, 1871
(Field Crescent)

Type Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Pinned Specimens
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Live Adults photo collection
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Live Adults photo collection
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Larval Foodplants and Habitats
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Distribution and Larval Foodplants:
 

Larval Foodplants: Asteraceae: Eurybia glauca  (Nutt.) Nesom, Machaeranthera bigelovii var. bigelovii  (Gray) Greene, Symphyotrichum ascendens (Lindl.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum ericoides var. ericoides  (L.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum falcatum var. falcatum  (Lindl.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum foliaceum var. foliaceum  (DC.) Nesom, Symphyotrichum laeve var. laeve  (L.) A.& D. Löve, Symphyotrichum lanceolatum var. hesperium  (Gray) Nesom, Symphyotrichum porteri  (Gray) Nesom

Synonymy

(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Phyciodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 29. Type-species: Papilio cocyta Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 7, pl. 101, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 46. The arrangement of species in this genus follows Wahlberg et al. (2003), Syst. Entomol. 28(2): 257-273.

 

Phyciodes pulchella (Boisduval, 1852)

The use of this name over campestris (Behr, 1863) and pratensis (Behr, 1863), follows Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 65-73, reiterated by Kondla and C. Guppy (2002), J. Lepid. Soc. 56(3): 171-172. While the various aspects of the applicability of this name were discussed by these authors, some dispute the issue (e.g., Layberry, et al. (1998), Butts. Can.: 191), and a petition to the I.C.Z.N. may be needed to resolve the matter.

Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 306, no. 49.

Original Combination: Melitaea pulchella

Type Locality: “dans une grande partie de la Californie”; redefined as “dans le centre de la Californie” by Boisduval (1868), Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 20, no. 50; defined as “San Francisco, California” by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 73. [San Francisco County]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 18, figs. 102 ♂ D, 103 ♂ V. This specimen was earlier designated as neotype by Scott (1994), Papilio (n.s.) 7: 72, figs. 179 ♂ D, 180 ♂ V, but it appears to be a syntype.

Species-genus gender conformation is pulchellus.

=    pratensis (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 86, no. 4.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. pratensis

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “on grassy hillsides...in some localities near San Francisco” from the description; neotype from “Old Cemetery, San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in CAS, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 99, figs. 25 ♂ D, 26 ♂ V.

=    campestris (Behr, 1863)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]3(6): 86, no. 3.

Original Combination: M[elitaea]. campestris

Type Locality: “California” implied from the title of the paper, “especially on marshy places...peculiar to the lower regions” from the description; neotype from “Old Cemetery, San Francisco, San Francisco County, California.”

Types: Type(s) destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire; neotype in CAS, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (6): 100, figs. 28 ♀ D, 29 ♀ V.

As first reviser, precedence was given to pratensis over campestris by W. H. Edwards (1872), Synop. N. A. Butts.: 18, no. 15.

 

Phyciodes pulchella camillus W. H. Edwards, 1871

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 268-269, no. 4.

Original Combination: Phyciodes Camillus

Type Locality: “Colorado”; defined as “Fairplay, Park County, Colorado” by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 451.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 453, fig. 30 ♂ D&V.

                   =    emissa W. H. Edwards, 1871

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 269-270, no. 5.

Original Combination: Phyciodes Emissa

Type Locality: “Colorado”; defined as “Denver, Denver County, Colorado” by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entmol. Soc. 92(3): 451.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 455, fig. 31 ♀ D&V.

                         =    ‡”rohweri” T. Cockerell, 1913

Entomol. 46(606): 308, fig. 1 (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Phyciodes camillus] Ab. rohweri

Type Locality: “North Boulder Creek, Boulder County, Colorado, in the Canadian Zone”

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

                         =    ‡”tristis” T. Cockerell, 1913

Entomol. 46(606): 308, fig. 2 (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Phyciodes camillus] Ab. tristis

Type Locality: “Jim Creek, Boulder County, Colorado”

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

Bibliography

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1966. The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards--Part II, Melitaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92(3): 357-468, 34 figs. {Sep, 20 Oct 1966} 

Cockerell, Theodore Dru Allison. 1913. Two new varieties of Phyciodes camillus, Edwards. Entomologist 46(11)[606]: 308-309. {Nov 1913} [description of Phyciodes camillus ab. rohweri, Phyciodes camillus ab. tristis

Edwards, William Henry. 1871. Descriptions of new species of North American butterflies. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 3(3/4): 266-277. {Mar; pre-print [Sep] 1871; paper [30 Apr 1872]} [description of Phyciodes Camillus,, Phyciodes Emissa

Edwards, William Henry. [1885]. Description of the preparatory stages of Phyciodes Camillus, Edw. Papilio 4(7/8): 128-131. {Sep-Oct 1884 [22 Jan 1885]} cited in Papilio 4(9/10): 189 

Ferris, Clifford Duras and Frederick Martin Brown. 1981. Butterflies of the Rocky Mountain States. Oklahoma; Univ. Oklahoma Press: 442 pp., 4 cpls., many figures [contributions from Donald Eff, Scott Ellis, Michael Fisher, Lee D. Miller, James Scott and Raymond Stanford] {1981} 

Fisher, Michael S. 2006. The butterflies of Colorado. Nymphalidae ‑ Part 3. The subfamily Nymphalinae and relatives. The checkerspots, crescentspots and the true nymphs. Fort Collins; Lepidoptera of North America 7.3; Contributions of the C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University: vi + 120 pp., photos {30 Sep 2006} 

Forbes, William Trowbridge Merrifield. 1945. The genus Phyciodes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalinae). Entomologica Americana (n.s.)24: 139-207. {Oct 1944, 24 May 1945} 

Hall, Arthur. 1928-1930. A revision of the genus Phyciodes Hubn. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the Hill Museum 2(2)(supplement 1): 1-20, pls. 1-3 {18 Jun 1928} 2(3)(supplement): 21-44 {17 Nov 1928}; 3(1)(supplement): 45-94 {30 Apr 1929}; 3(2)(supplement): 95-146 {29 Aug 1929}; 3(3)(supplement): 147-170 {30 Dec 1929}; 4(1)(supplement): 171-204 {28 Jul 1930}; 4(2)(supplement): 205-206; add. Page {29 Dec 1930} 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hübner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 43(3): 77-243, 490 figs. {29 Oct 1981} 

Scott, James A. 1992. Hostplant records for butterflies and skippers (mostly from Colorado) 1959-1991, with new life histories and notes on oviposition, immatures, and ecology. Papilio (n.s.) 6: 1-171, 10 tables {5 Jul 1992}

Scott, James A. 1994. Biology and systematics of Phyciodes (Phyciodes). Papilio (n.s.) 7: 1-120, 227 figs., 12 tables {18 Nov 1994} 

Scott, James A. 1998. Phyciodes (Phyciodes): New discoveries, new subspecies, and convergence. Papilio (n.s.) 10: 1-42, 41 figs., 5 tables {20 Feb 1998} [description of Phyciodes (Phyciodes) pulchella owimba

Scott, James A. 2006. Butterfly hostplant records, 1992-2005, with a treatise on the evolution of Erynnis, and a note on new terminology for mate-locating behavior. Papilio (New Series) 14: 74 pp., cartoon {28 Apr 2006} 

Wahlberg, Niklas, Rita Oliviera and James A. Scott. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variations and species delimittions. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 257-273, 4 figs., 2 tbls., 1 app. {Apr 2003}

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