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Texola perse (W. H. Edwards, 1882)
(Arizona Checkerspot)

Pinned Specimens photo collection:

Live Adults photo collection:

Immatures photo collection:

Larval Foodplants and Habitats photo collection:

Distribution and Larval Foodplants:

S AZ, SW NM, N Sonora, NW Chihuahua

Larval Foodplants: Acanthaceae: Anisacanthus thurberi (Torr.) Gray


(From: A Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada, Jonathan P. Pelham)

Genus Texola Higgins, 1959

Lepid. News 12(5-6): 161, figs. 1b, 2b ♂ genitalia, 3b palp, 4b FW veination (dymas), 5b FW (dymas). Type-species: Eresia elada Hewitson, 1868, Ill. exot. Butts. 4(33): [49], pl. Eresia VII [19], figs. 54, 55, by original designation.


Texola elada (Hewitson, 1868)

Ill. exot. Butts. 4(33): [49], pl. Eresia VII [19], figs. 54 ♂ D, 55 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eresia Elada

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

            =    callina (Boisduval, 1869)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 54, no. 39.

Original Combination: Melitaea Callina

Type Locality: “dans la Sonora, nous avons reçu du Mexique plusiers individus de cette même espece”; lectotype is labeled, probably erroneously, “Sonora.”

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by Higgins (1960), Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 112(14): 452-453; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): pl. 59, fig. 21 ♂ D. F. Brown (1965), J. Lepid. Soc. 19(4): fig. 4 ♂ D&V, and J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (2): 31, figs. 231 ♂ D, 232 ♂ V.

J. Emmel et al. (1998), ibid., discussed this taxon and the uncertainty about its type locality. The lectotype was loaned to W. H. Edwards by Boisduval, but Boisduval died before it could be returned. The subsequent figure of a specimen of Texola elada ulrica by Oberthür (1914), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(2): pl. 260, fig. 2185 ♂ D&V, and designation of that figure as the “type” of callina by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 92, confused the issue; F. Brown (1965), J. Lepid. Soc. 19(4): 207-211, detailed this confusion. The actual type locality remains unknown; there currently are no populations of Texola in Lorquin’s “Sonora” (the vicinity of Los Angeles, California).

            =    socia (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 470-471, no. 18.

Original Combination: Eresia socia

Type Locality: not stated; “Mexico” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Location of type(s) not known.


Texola elada perse (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(8): 136.

Original Combination: Melitaea Perse

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper. [Graham County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1966), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 92(3): 386-387, fig. 10 % D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): 132, pl. 16, fig. 19 ♂ D.

‡”suffusa” Ottolengui, 1895

Entomol. News 6(7): 217.

Original Combination: Melitaea perse var. suffusa

This name was listed as a Neumoegen “type”, but without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Bailowitz, Richard A. and James P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of southeastern Arizona. Tucson, Arizona; Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc.: ix + 342 pp., 4 pls., figs. {1991} 

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1944. Notes on Mexican Butterflies, IV. Journal of the New York entomological Society 52(4): 343-360. {[19] Dec 1944} 

Barnes, William and James Halliday McDunnough. 1916. Notes on North American diurnal Lepidoptera. Contributions to the Natural History of the Lepidoptera of North America 3(2): 49-156, 8 pls. {15 Dec 1916} 

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse d'Echauffour. 1868-1869. Lépidoptères de la Californie. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique 12: 1-28 (1868); 37-94 ([1 Nov] 1869) [missing pp. 29-37 through printer's error] {1868-1869} [description of Melitaea Callina

Brown, Frederick Martin. 1966. The types of the nymphalid butterflies described by William Henry Edwards--Part II, Melitaeinae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 92(3): 357-468, 34 figs. {Sep, 20 Oct 1966} 

Edwards, William Henry. 1882. Descriptions of new species of diurnal Lepidoptera taken by Mr. H. K. Morrison, at Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona, 1882. Papilio 2(8): 136-143 {[28] Oct 1882} [description of Melitaea Perse

Godman, Frederick du Cane and Osbert Salvin. 1879-1901. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Zoology: Insecta. Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera. London; Taylor & Francis, 3 volumes (Vols. 36-38): 1(Nym., Rio.)(1879-1886); xlv+487 pp.; 2(Pier., Pap., Lyc., Hes.)(1887-1901): 782 pp.; 3(plates): 1-48 (1879-1886); 49-112 (1887-1901) 

Higgins, Lionel George. 1959. Four new melitaeine genera (Nymphalidae). Lepidopterists= News 12(5-6): 161-164, 5 figs. {1958, 30 Apr 1959} [description of Texola

Higgins, Lionel George. 1960. A revision of the melitaeine genus Chlosyne and allied species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 112(14): 381-467, 134 figs. {31 Dec 1960} 

Holland, William Jacob. 1931. The butterfly book. New and thoroughly revised edition.  A popular and scientific manual, describing and depicting all the butterflies of the United States and Canada. Garden City, New York; Doubleday, Doran & Co.  xii + 424 pp., 77 pls., 198 + [1] text figures. {1931}

Hoffmann, Carlos Christian. 1940. Catálogo systemático y zoogeográphico de los Lepidópteros Mexicanos, Primera parte. Papilionoidea. Anales del Instituto de Biología. Universidad Nacional de México 11(2): 639-739, 2 maps. {[after 28 Dec] 1940} 

Maza, Roberto F. de la. 1987. Mariposas Mexicanas. Guía para su colecta y determinación. México; Fondo de Cultura Económica: 304 pp., 67 pls., 58 figs. {Oct 1987} [Ed. 2 1991] 

Ottolengui, Rodrigues. 1895. Types in the Neumoegen Collection.--1. Entomological News 6(7): 216-219 {Sep 1895} [nomen nudum Melitaea perse var. suffusa

Röber, Johannes Karl Max 1913-1914. Gattung Phyciodes. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(162): pl. 92 {5 Jun 1913}; (183): 434-440, pl. 90 {10 Dec 1913}; (188): 449-450, pls. 88, 89. {[before 10 Feb] 1914}; (189): pl. 91. {14 Apr 1914} 

Seitz, Adalbert. 1913. 3. Gattung Melitaea. In: A. Seitz (Ed.), Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 5(182): 429-432; (187): 433-434; pl. 88 {1913}

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