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A CATALOGUE

OF THE

BUTTERFLIES OF THE UNITED STATES

AND

CANADA

WITH A COMPLETE BIBLIOGRAPHY

OF THE

DESCRIPTIVE AND SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE

by

Jonathan P. Pelham

Research Associate

McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity

Florida Museum of Natural History

University of Florida, P. O. Box 112710

Gainesville, FL 32611-2710.

Curatorial Associate of Lepidoptera

Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture

University of Washington, Box 353010

Seattle, WA 98195 3010

zapjammer@frontier.com

Revised 14 February, 2012

Catalog Format

The systematic arrangement of the catalogue is intuitive once a few principles are stated. Each species entry is numbered sequentially; genera and subgenera are not numbered.Subspecific entries for each species are indented once, and are preceded by lower-case Roman letters in alphabetical sequence. Dates in brackets indicate that these have been subsequently determined from sources external to the original document. Misspellings are generally excluded except where they have been widely used or misinterpreted. All nomina nuda are included in the body of the catalogue for completeness. Annotations may be included under each entry when appropriate. Alternate taxonomic arrangements are included in many cases. Synonyms are listed under each valid name.


Genus-level synonymies

The synonyms of a genus are arranged so that:

=   subjective synonyms

are not indented, are preceded by an “=” symbol, and are italicized.

      =   permanently invalid synonyms

(e.g., homonyms, objective synonyms, unjustified replacement names, etc.) are indented once, preceded by an “=” symbol, a double dagger symbol, and are italicized.

‡"nomina nuda”

these are indented once, placed in quotes, preceded by a double dagger (but not an “=” symbol), and are not italicized.


Species-level synonymies

The synonyms of a species or species group taxon are arranged so that:

=   subjective synonyms

are not indented, are preceded by an “=” symbol and are italicized.

      =   permanently invalid synonyms

(e.g., homonyms, objective synonyms, unjustified replacement names, etc.) are indented once, preceded by an “=” symbol, a double dagger, and are italicized.

      =   ‡"unavailable names"

(e.g., forms, aberrations, quadrinomials, etc.) these are indented once, placed in quotes preceded by an “=” symbol, a double dagger, and are not italicized.

‡"nomina nuda"

these are indented once, placed in quotes, without either an “=” symbol or a double dagger, and are not italicized.

Species for which the nominate subspecies does not occur in the area covered have a “*” before the nominate entry. The symbol “†” is employed where a taxon is considered extirpated from the region covered.


Subspecies arrangement

The arrangement of subspecies follows a north to south or east to west geographic arrangement, similar to that presented in Howe (1975), so that geographically contiguous populations appear next to each other in the catalog. This may appear arbitrary in situations where taxa are arrayed along both the Sierra Nevada-Cascade Mountains, and also in the Rocky Mountains, but it is preferable to a sequence that is either alphabetic or according to seniority.


Museums and repositories

At one time it was thought that the summary work of Heppner and Lamas (1982) was sufficient for determining the acronyms used in the catalogue for the deposition of types and other matters. Several reviewers noted the awkwardness and novelty of NMNH for the collections housed in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington and NHML for the Natural History Museum, London, so I have adhered to the older and widespread USNM and BMNH. These and the remainder of the acronyms employed in the catalogue are detailed at the Bishop Museum website (http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/codens/codensearch.html)

AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NewYork, United States

ANIC: Australian National Insect Collection, CSIRO, Canberra City, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States; most of the butterflies went to CMP

BCPM: Royal British Columbia Museum [British Columbia Provincial Museum], Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

BMNH: The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)], London, England

CAS: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States

CMNH: Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States (most of the ANSP butterflies now in CMNH)

CNC: Canadian National Collection of Insects, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

CUIC: Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

DEI: Deutsches Entomologisches Institut im ZALF, Müncheberg, Germany

DCM: Dartmouth College Collection, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States

DCMP: Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

DMNH: Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, Colorado, United States

DSM: Darwin State Museum, Moscow, Russia

DZUP: Universidade Federal do Paraná, Museu de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

EMAU: Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität; Greifswald; Germany

EMEC: Essig Museum of Entomology, University of California, Berkeley, California United States

FMNH: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois, United States

HMUG: Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

HNHM: Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum [Hungarian Natural History Museum], Budapest, Hungary

EIHU: Entomological Insitute, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

ICNB: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Bogotá, Columbia

IMLA: Fundación e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Universidad nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina

INHS: Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign (Urbana), Illinois, United States

IRSN: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles; Brussels, Belgium

IPBV: Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Branch, Vladivostok, Russia

IZAC: Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Instituto de Zoologia, Havana, Cuba

LACM: Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles, California, United States

LEM: Lyman Entomological Museum, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada

LNKD: Landesammlungen für Naturkunde, Karlsruhe, Germany

LSUK: Linnean Society, London, England

MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia," Buenos Aires, Argentina

MAMU: Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

MCPM: Milwaukee City Public Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

MCSN: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria", Genova, Italy

MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

MGCL: McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity; Gainesville, Florida, United States; including: Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville

MHNG: Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland

MHNS: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile

MLPA: Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina

MRAC: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium

MNHP: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MNHC: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Habana [=Havana], Cuba

MNMS: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain

MSNM: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milano, Italy

MTD: Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden, Germany

MUSM: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru

MWNH: Staatliches Museum Wiesbaden, Department of Natural Science, Wiesbaden, Germany

NHMB: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland

NMW: Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria

NHRS: Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden

NMID: National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland

NVMC: Nevada State Museum, Carson City, Nevada, United States

NYSM: New York State Museum, Albany, New York, United States

OSAC: Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States

OSU: Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

PMNH: Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

RMNH: Nationaal Natuurhistorische Museum ("Naturalis") [Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie], Leiden, Netherlands

RPM: Reading Public Museum, Reading, Pennsylvania, United States

RSME: National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland

SDMC: San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego, California, United States

SEMC: Snow Museum of Entomology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, United States

SIIS: Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, New York, NewYork, United States

SMF: Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany

SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Stuttgart, Germany

SZMN: Biological Institute, Siberian Department, Academy of Sciences; Novosibirsk, Russia

UCMC: University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States

UMO: University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, United Kingdom

UNAM: Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico

UNSM: University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States

USNM: National Museum of Natural History [formerly, United States National Museum], Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., United States

UZIU: Universitets Zoologiska Institut, Uppsala, Sweden

ZIN: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

ZMHB: Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt‑Universität Zoologisches Museum, Humboldt Universität, Berlin, Germany

ZMKU: Zoological Museum, Kiev, Ukraine

ZMUC: Zoologisk Museum, Universitets Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

ZMUH: Zoologische Institut und Zoologisches Museum, Universität von Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany

ZSMC: Zoologische Sammlungen des Bayerischen Staates/Zoologische Staatssammlung, Munich, Germany


Acknowledgements

Numerous individuals have contributed additions and corrections since the publication of the catalogue; too many to single all of them out. Outstanding in this regard are (in alphabetical order): John Calhoun, Crispin Guppy, Gerardo Lamas, Guy Van de Poel, and James A. Scott.

Superfamily HESPERIOIDEA Latreille, 1809

Gen. Crust. Ins. 4: 187, 207 (as "Hesperides"). Type-genus: Hesperia Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 258, no. 187.


Family HESPERIIDAE Latreille, 1809

The family-group arrangement follows A. Warren et al. (2008), Cladistics 24(5) 642-676, and Warren et al. (2009), Syst. Entomol. 34(3): 467-523, based on molecular and morphological characters.


Subfamily Eudaminae Mabille, 1877

Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(179): 162. Type-genus: Eudamus Swainson, 1831, Zool. Illustr. (2)2(11): pl. 48, unnumbered text.


Genus Phocides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103. Type-species: Phocides cruentus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103, no. 1082 (= Hesperia polybius Fabricius (1793), Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 337, no. 281; synonym), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 248, no. 857.

=    Erycides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 110. Type-species: Papilio pigmalion Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(21): 87, pl. 245, figs. A, B; (24): 176 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 67. First reviser choice of Phocides over Erycides was made by Godman & Salvin (1893), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(110): 292.

=    Dysenius Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 67. Type-species: Erycides albicilla Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(11): 169, no. 16 (= Erycides lilea Reakirt, [1867], Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(5): 339, no. 47; synonym: a subspecies of Hesperia polybius Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 337, no. 281), by original designation.


*1.        Phocides pigmalion (Cramer, 1779)

Uitl. Kapellen 3(21): 87, pl. 245, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V; (24): 176 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a] Pigmalion.

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost (van der Meulen collection).

=    tenuistriga Mabille & Boullet, 1912

Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. (9)16(2): 16, 21-22.

Original Combination: P[hocides]. Tenuistriga Stgr.

Type Locality: “Colombie...Perou...Brésil”; suggested to be “Colombia” by Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 13, from the “type” in BMNH.

Types: Syntypes in BMNH and MNHP.

=    iocularis Röber, 1925

Entomol. Mitt. 14(2): 159-160.

Original Combination: Phocides iocularis

Type Locality: “Kolumbien”

Types: Lectotype in MTD, designated by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Zool. 6(1): 134.

=    disparilis Röber, 1925

Entomol. Mitt. 14(2): 160.

Original Combination: Phocides disparilis

Type Locality: “Kolumbien”

Types: Holotype in MTD.

a.   Phocides pigmalion okeechobee (Worthington, 1881)

Papilio 1(8): 133.

Original Combination: Erycides Okeechobee

Type Locality: “Marco Island, Florida” [Collier County]

Types: Syntype in USNM.

2.         Phocides belus Godman & Salvin, 1893

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(88): 293, no. 2; 3(111): pl. 76, figs. 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Phocides belus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Ventana...Tampico...Paso de San Juan”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by Hanson et al. (2003), News Lepid. Soc. 45(2): 41, 42-43, 8 figs., cover.

*3.        Phocides polybius (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 337, no. 281; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 24, fig. 2, actually figured on pl. 71, D; also figured by Donovan (1800), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [51], fig. 2 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Polybius

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost; based on specimens figured by Jones.

=    ‡palemon (Cramer, 1777)

Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 54, pl. 131, fig. F ♀ D; (34): 150 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Palemon

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Syntype in RMNH.

Preoccupied by Papilio palaemon Pallas, 1771, Reise verschied. Prov. Russisch. Reichs 1: 471 (Code Article 58.1).

=    cruentus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103, no. 1082; cited Papilio palemon Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): pl. 131, fig. F.

Original Combination: P[hocides]. Cruentus

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio palemon Cramer, 1777, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    palaemonides Röber, 1925

Entomol. Mitt. 14(2): 159.

Original Combination: Phocides palaemonides

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of holotype not known.

Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Zool. 6(1): 144, determined this synonymy.

=    ‡”gunderi” R. Williams & E. Bell, 1931

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 57(3): 251.

Original Combination: Phocides palemon ab. gunderi

Type Locality: “Rockstone, Essequebo River, British Guiana”

Types: “Holotype” (#7573) in CMNH.

a.   Phocides polybius lilea (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(5): 339, no. 47.

Original Combination: Erycides lilea

Type Locality: “Mexico, near Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Syntype in CMNH.

=    albicilla (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(11): 169, no. 16.

Original Combination: [Erycides] albicilla

Type Locality: Not stated; syntype labeled “Mexiko.”

Types: Syntype in ZMHB.

=    socius (Butler & H. Druce, 1872)

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 112.

Original Combination: E[rycides]. Socius

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica” implied from the title and introduction to the paper.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    ‡cruentus (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 67, no. 2.

Original Combination: D[ysenius]. cruentus

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Syntype (#15308) in MCZ.

Preoccupied by Phocides cruentus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103.

=    sanguinea (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 68, no. 3.

Original Combination: E[rycides]. sanguinea

Type Locality: “Texas (Capt. Pope, Mexican Boundary Survey)”

Types: Lectotype (#7174) in CMNH, designated by Skinner and R. Williams (1922), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48(2): 112, no. 3.

=    imbreus Plötz, 1879

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 40(7-9): 406, no. 4; cited unpublished pl. 1198.

Original Combination: [Erycides] Imbreus

Type Locality: “Central-Amer”

Types: Holotype (#4942) in ZMHB.

=    spurius (Mabille, 1880)

Bull. Séances Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1880(6): 62; also described in Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (5)10(2): xlvi.

Original Combination: E[rycides]. spurius

Type Locality: Not stated; lectotype from “Bogota.” [Colombia]

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19 (supl. 1): 38.

=    decolor (Mabille, 1880)

Bull. Séances Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1880(6): 62; also described in Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (5)10(2): xlvi.

Original Combination: E[rycides]. decolor

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    albiciliata Röber, 1925

Entomol. Mitt. 14(2): 159.

Original Combination: Phocides albiciliata

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Holotype in MTD, detailed by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Zool. 6(1): 134.


Genus Proteides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 105. Type-species: Papilio mercurius Fabricius, 1787, Mantissa Ins. 2: 86, no. 780, by designation of Butler (1870), Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(76): 93.

=    Dicranaspis Mabille, 1878

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 21: 24. Type-species: Papilio idas Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(22): 118, pl. 260, figs. A, B; (24): 175 (index) (= Papilio mercurius Fabricius, 1787, Mant. Ins. 2: 86, no. 780; homonym), by monotypy.


4.         Proteides mercurius (Fabricius, 1787)

a.   Proteides mercurius mercurius (Fabricius, 1787)

Mantissa Ins. 2: 86, no. 780.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus]. U[rbicola]. Mercurius

Type Locality: “Cajennae” [French Guiana]

Types: Syntype in ZMUC.

=    ‡idas (Cramer, 1779)

Uitl. Kapellen 3(22): 118, pl. 260, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V; (24): 175 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Idas

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Preoccupied by Papilio idas Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2: 284, as established by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 269.

b.   Proteides mercurius sanantonio (Lucas, 1857) (emended)

In: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 626-627.

Original Combination: Eudamus San-Antonio

Type Locality: “dans l’île de Cuba” “Le nom de San-Antonio appelle celui du cap nord-est de l’île de Cuba”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.


Genus Epargyreus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 105. Type-species: Papilio tityrus Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 532, no. 382 (= Papilio clarus Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(4): 66, pl. 41, figs. E, F; (8): 152 (index); homonym), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 70.

=    Eridamus Burmeister, 1875

Revue Mag. Zool. (3)3: 51-59. Type-species: Goniurus tmolis Burmeister, 1875, Rev. Mag. Zool. (3)3: 64, pl. 1, figs. 1 (larva), 8, 9 (portions of larva), by designation of Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 44.


5.         Epargyreus zestos (Geyer, 1832)

a.   Epargyreus zestos zestos (Geyer, 1832)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl [106], figs. 615 ♀ D, 616 ♀ V (1826); (text): 9, no. 308 (1832, name given).

Original Combination: Proteides Zestos

Type Locality: “Surinam”, probably in error.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103, listed Proteides zestos without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    oberon (Worthington, 1881)

Papilio 1(8): 132-133.

Original Combination: Endamus Oberon

Type Locality: “Marco Island, Florida” [Collier County]

Types: Syntype in USNM.

=    arsaces Mabille, 1903

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17a): 24.

Original Combination: E[pargyreus]. arsaces

Type Locality: “Ile Saint-Thomas” [United States Virgin Islands]

Types: Type(s) in BMNH.

6.         Epargyreus clarus (Cramer, 1775)

a.   Epargyreus clarus clarus (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(4): 66, pl. 41, figs. E ♂ D, F ♂ V; (8): 152 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicola Clarus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname” in error; corrected to “Dayton (Rockingham Co.), Virginia” by Dixon (1955), Entomol. News 66(1): 7.

Types: Type(s) probably lost. L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 3, stated that a neotype was in CMNH, designated by Dixon (1955), Entomol. News 66(1): 7. I was unable to determine that there was any neotype designation by Dixon, only a series was mentioned.

=    ‡tityrus (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 532, no. 382.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus]. U[rbicola] Tityrus

Type Locality: “America”; defined as “Dayton (Rockingham Co.), Virginia” by Dixon (1955), Entomol. News 66(1): 7.

Types: Syntypes in ZMUC.

Preoccupied by Papilio tityrus Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 77.

=    argentosus Hayward, 1933

Revta. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 5(23): 175, pl. 9, fig. 7 [actually pl. 10, fig. 4] ♂ genitalia, pl. 11, fig. 4 [actually pl. 14, fig. 7] ♂ V.

Original Combination: Epargyreus argentosus

Type Locality: “Tierra del Fuego” in error.

Types: Holotype in MACN.

=    argenteola (Matsumura, 1940)

Insecta Matsumurana 15: 1-2, fig. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype).

Original Combination: Bibacis [sic!] argenteola

Type Locality: “Formosa...Nôkô in the Prov. Taichu near Hori” in error; corrected to “Nearctic” by Evans (1949), Cat. Hesp. Europ. Asia Austr. Brit. Mus.: 477.

Types: Holotype in EIHU.

Shirôzu (1947), Zephyrus 9(4): 270-271, determined that argenteola is a synonym of tityrus (= clarus) and Hsu et al. (2006), Zool. Stud. 45(3): 324, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, discuss and figure the holotype.

=    ‡”obliteratus” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(10): 1402.

Original Combination: Epargyreus tityrus obliteratus

Type Locality: “near Boston” [Massachusetts]

Types: “Holotype” may be in MCZ.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”smythi” R. Williams, 1927

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 53(3): 262; cited Smyth (1908), Entomol. News 19(5): pl. 10, upper figure (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Epargyreus tityrus aberration smythi

Type Locality: “Charleston, South Carolina” [Charleston County]

Types: “Holotype “ in USNM.

b.   Epargyreus clarus huachuca Dixon, 1955

Entomol. News 66(1): 7-9.

Original Combination: Epargyreus clarus huachuca

Type Locality: “Huachuca Mts., Cochise Co., Arizona”

Types: Syntytpes in CMNH.

c.   Epargyreus clarus profugus Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 523-524, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Epargyreus clarus profugus

Type Locality: “Nevada: Clark County; Virgin Mountains, Cabin Canyon, 1676 m, T15S R71E S4 on USGS Virgin Peak, Nev.-Ariz. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

d.   Epargyreus clarus californicus MacNeill, 1975

In: Howe, Butterflies N. Am.: 572.

Original Combination: Epargyreus clarus californicus

Type Locality: Not stated; lectotype from “China Flat, El Dorado Co., California.”

Types: Lectotype in CAS, designated by Ferris (1989), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 3: 5.

Eudamus tityrus californica Hy. Edwards” was proposed in synonymy by Skinner (1891), in: Smith et al., List Lepid. Bor. Am.: 17, no. 627a; a nomen nudum.

*7.        Epargyreus exadeus (Cramer, 1779)

Uitl. Kapellen 3(22): 118, pl. 260, fig. C ♂ V; (24): 174 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Ple[bejus]. Urbicol[a] Exadeus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost (van der Meulen collection).

a.   Epargyreus exadeus cruza Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 50; cited figures in Skinner (1911), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): pl. 10, and W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 49, figs. 8 ♂ D, 9 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Epargyreus exadeus] cruza

Type Locality: “Mexico, Cordova, Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.


Genus Polygonus Hübner, [1825]

Samml. exot. Schmett., 2: pl. [144]. Type-species: Polygonus lividus Hübner, [1825], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [144], figs. 1-4 (= Papilio leo Gmelin, [1790], Syst. Nat. (ed. 13) 1(5): 2363, no. 836; synonym), by monotypy.

      =    ‡Acolastus Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci., (1871): 71. Type-species: Hesperia savignyi [sic!] Latreille, [1824], Enc. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (716), 741-742, no. 35, by original designation. Preoccupied by Acolastus Gerstäcker, 1855, Mber. dt. Akad. Wiss. Berl. [1855]: 636.

      =    ‡Nennius W. F. Kirby, [1902]

In: Wytsman, Facsimile ed. Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3 (addit. notes): 105. Type-species: Polygonus lividus Hübner, [1825], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [144], figs. 1-4 (= Papilio leo Gmelin, 1790, Syst. Nat. (ed. 13) 1(5): 2363, no. 836; synonym), as replacement name. Proposed to replace Polygonus, erroneously thought to be preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8); a junior objective synonym of Polygonus.


*8.        Polygonus leo (Gmelin, [1790])

Syst. Nat. (ed. 13) 1(5): 2363, no. 836; cited Papilio amyntas Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 533, no. 384.

Original Combination: [Papilio Plebejus Urbanus] Leo

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio amyntas Fabricius, 1775, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡amyntas (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 533, no. 384.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus]. U[rbicola] Amyntas

Type Locality: “America” The type locality of Polygonus lividus was suggested to be “Hispaniola” by W. Comstock (1944), Sci. Surv. Puerto Rico & Virgin Is. 12(4): 541, and the neotype of lividus is the lectotype of amyntas.

Types: Lectotype in ZMUC, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 39.

Preoccupied by Papilio amyntas Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 79.

=    lividus Hübner, [1825]

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [144], 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polygonus Lividus

Type Locality: Not stated; suggested to be “Hispaniola” by W. Comstock (1944), Sci. Surv. Puerto Rico & Virgin Is. 12(4): 541.

Types: Type(s) probably lost. Neotype in ZMUC, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 39. The neotype is the same specimen as the lectotype of amyntas.

Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103, listed Astraptes lividus without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    ishmael Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 54.

Original Combination: [Polygonus leo] ishmael

Type Locality: “Haiti”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

a.   Polygonus leo arizonensis (Skinner, 1911)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): 209, pl. 10 D&V; ♂ genitalia figured by Skinner and R. Williams (1923), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48(4): fig. 5.

Original Combination: Erycides amyntas arizonensis n. var.

Type Locality: “Florence, Arizona” [Pima County]

Types: Syntype (#7073) in CMNH.

b.   Polygonus leo histrio Röber, 1925

Entomol. Mitt. 14(2): 161.

Original Combination: Polygonus (Acolastus) histrio

Type Locality: “Panama” probably in error.

Types: Holotype in MTD, detailed by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Zool. 6(1): 134.

Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 39, determined that the holotype of this taxon represents the phenotype found in Florida and Cuba.

9.         Polygonus savigny (Latreille, [1824])

a.   Polygonus savigny savigny (Latreille, [1824])

Enc. méth., 9(Ins.)(2): (716), 741-742, no. 35.

Original Combination: Hesperia Savigny

Type Locality: “Antilles”

Types: Lectotype in MNHP, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 40.

The lectotype is conspecific with Polygonus manueli, as determined by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), ibid., so the name savigny must be given priority; frequently misspelled savignyi, but this an incorrect subsequent spelling.

=    manueli E. Bell & W. Comstock, 1948

Am. Mus. Novit. (1379): 4-6, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Polygonus manueli

Type Locality: “New Bremen, Brasil” [Santa Catharina]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

One paratype, possibly mislabeled, from “Royal Palm Hammock, [Miami-Dade County] Florida” was figured by Klots (1951), Field Guide Butterflies N. Am.: pl. 26, fig. 4 ♂ D.

‡”mimeticus” J. Zikán & W. Zikán, 1968

Pesq. agropec. bras. 3: 62.

Original Combination: Polygonus mimeticus

Proposed without a description; a nomen nudum.


Genus Chioides Lindsey, 1921

Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 25-26. Type-species: Eudamus albofasciatus Hewitson, 1867, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 3-4, no. 2, by original designation.


10.       Chioides albofasciatus (Hewitson, 1867)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 3-4, no. 2; figured by Hewitson (1875), Ill. exot. Butterflies 5(96): pl. Eudamus II, fig. 15 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus albofasciatus

Type Locality: “Guatemala (Polochic Valley)”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Austin and A. Warren (2002), Dugesiana 9(2): 17-18, recently corroborated the species-level status of this taxon.

11.       Chioides zilpa (Butler, 1872)

Lepid. Exot. (8): 109, pl. 40, fig. 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: G[oniurus]. Zilpa

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    namba Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 58; cited W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 49, fig. 18 ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Chioides zilpa] namba

Type Locality: “Magdalena, N. Sonora, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Austin and A. Warren (2002), Dugesiana 9(2): 18, determined this synonymy.


Genus Typhedanus Butler, 1870

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 497. Type-species: Typhedanus zephus Butler, 1870, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 497, by monotypy (not Cobalus umber Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 203, sensu Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 452).


12.       Typhedanus undulatus (Hewitson, 1867)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 4, no. 4; figured by Hewitson (1873), Ill. exot. Butterflies 5(96): pl. Eudamus II, fig.16 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus undulatus

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    sumichrasti (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 69, no. 5.

Original Combination: T[hymele]. Sumichrasti

Type Locality: “Tehuantepec” [Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Syntype (#15309) in MCZ.

=    elongatus (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 55(3): 4, no. 8; cited unpublished pl. 8.

Original Combination: Goniurus Elongatus

Type Locality: “Brasilien”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC, ZMHB, or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 133, suggested this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    nicasius (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 4, no. 9; cited unpublished pl. 1.

Original Combination: Goniurus Nicasius

Type Locality: “Brasil”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC, ZMHB, or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 133, suggested this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.


Genus Polythrix E. Watson, 1893

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 16, 19. Type-species: Eudamus metallescens Mabille, 1888, Naturaliste (2)2(28): 108-109, fig. 2, by original designation.


13.       Polythrix mexicanus H. Freeman, 1969

J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 2): 10, pl. 5, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polythrix mexicanus

Type Locality: “Seven miles south of Valles (grounds of Hotel Covadonga), San Luis Potosi, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in AMNH, as noted by H. Freeman (1989), J. Lepid. Soc. 43(3): 244.

Species-genus gender conformation is mexicana.

14.       Polythrix octomaculata (Sepp, [1844])

Surinaam. Vlinders 2(13): 123 [22 Aug 1844]; (15): pl. 58, larva, pupa, ♂ D, ♂ V [27 Aug 1844].

Original Combination: Hesperia Octomaculata

Type Locality: “Surinam” from the title of the work.

Types: Type(s) are lost.

H. Freeman (1967), J. Lepid. Soc. 21(4): 278, and (1979), J. Lepid. Soc. 33(2): 125, detailed the occurrence of this taxon in Texas.

=    decussata (Ménétriés, 1855)

Enum. corp. anim. (1): 97, 123, no. 1013, pl. 5, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Goniuris [sic!] Decussata

Type Locality: “d’Haiti”

Types: Lectotype in ZIN, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 40.

=    decurtata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(11): 170, no. 13.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] decurtata

Type Locality: Not stated; “Brazil” on label of syntype.

Types: Syntype in ZMHB.

=    calenus (Mabille, 1888)

Naturaliste (2)10(27): 99, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Eudamus calenus

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB or MNHP (Staudinger collection).

=    alciphron (Godman & Salvin, 1893)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(109): 285, no. 24; 3(110): pl. 75, figs. 24 ♂ D, 25 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus alciphron

Type Locality: “Mexico, Rincon in Guerrero...Coatepec in Vera Cruz”; holotype from “Rincon.”

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

Steinhauser (1975), Bull. Allyn Mus. (29): 5, considered this a ♀ form and synonym of octomaculata; H. Freeman (1979), J. Lepid. Soc. 33(2): 125, and Austin and A. Warren (2002), Dugesiana 9(2): 19, concurred.

=    elegans (Hayward, 1933)

Revta. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 5(23): 165, pl. 7 [actually pl. 10] fig. 6 ♂ genitalia, pl. 11 [actually pl. 12], fig. 6 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Goniurus elegans

Type Locality: “Misiones” [Prov. Misiones, Argentina]

Types: Holotype in MLPA (Breyer collection).


Genus Aguna R. Williams, 1927

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 53(3): 286. Type-species: Eudamus camagura R. Williams, 1926, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52(2): 81-82, by original designation.

      =    ‡Tmetocerus Poujade, 1896

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1895(4)(26): cxliv. Type-species: Eudamus asander Hewitson, 1867, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 9, no. 13, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Tmetocerus Hartert, 1891, Kat. Vögelsamml. Mus. Senckenberg: 141.


asander group Austin & Mielke, 1998

Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 896.

15.       Aguna asander (Hewitson, 1867)

a.   Aguna asander asander (Hewitson, 1867)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 9, no. 13, figured by Hewitson (1875), Ill. exot. Butterflies 5(96): pl. Eudamus III, fig. 24 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamas asander

Type Locality: “Amazon (Ega)” [Tefé, Brazil]

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by Austin and Mielke (1998), Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 896.

=    panthius (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 186, no. 6.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] panthius

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Austin and Mielke (1998), Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 896.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 134, determined this synonymy based on an examination of the unpublished drawing (pl. 109) made by Plötz. Bailowitz and Brock (1991), Butterflies S.E. Ariz.: 22, also stated that this is a “form” of asander.

=    scheba (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(1-3): 94, no. 56; cited unpublished pl. 117.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Scheba

Type Locality: “Süd-Amerika”

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Austin and Mielke (1998), Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 896.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 134, suggested this synonymy based on his examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    euthymides (Mabille & Boullet, 1912)

Annls. Sci. Nat., Zool. (9)16(2): 65, 69.

Original Combination: [Epargyreus Asander] Var. Euthymides Plötz

Type Locality: Not stated; referred to Plötz’ unpublished plate 107.

Types: Type(s) probably based on Plötz’ unpublished figures only.

Mabille (1903), in: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. 17a: 24, introduced this name (as Epargyreus euthymides) without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

metophis group Austin & Mielke, 1998

Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 906.

16.       Aguna metophis (Latreille, [1824])

Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (713), 729, no. 2; figured by Boisduval (1836), Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: pl. 13, fig. 5 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Metophis

Type Locality: “Bresil”

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by Austin and Mielke (1998), Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 906.

claxon group Austin & Mielke, 1998

Revta. bras. Zool. 14(4): 910.

17.       Aguna claxon Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 60.

Original Combination: [Aguna] claxon

Type Locality: “Mexico, Atoyac, Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.


Genus Zestusa Lindsey, 1925

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 106. Type-species: Plestia staudingeri Mabille, 1888, Naturaliste (2)2(31): 146, fig. 1, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Plestia Mabille, 1888, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).

      =    ‡Plestia Mabille, 1888

Naturaliste (2)2(31): 146. Type-species: Plestia staudingeri Mabille, 1888, Naturaliste (2)2(31): 146, fig. 1, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Plestia Stål [1871], Ofvers. K. VetenskAkad. Förh. 27(7): 768 (nota).


18.       Zestusa dorus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(8): 140-141.

Original Combination: Eudamus Dorus

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Mount Graham, Graham County, Arizona, between 5,000 and 8,000 feet above sea level” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 600.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 602, fig. 1 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 45, fig. 11 ♂ D&V.


Genus Codatractus Lindsey, 1921

Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 26. Type-species: Heteropia imitatrix Mabille, 1889, Naturaliste (2)3(49): 68, fig. 3 (= Telegonus imalena Butler, 1872, Lepid. Exot.: 109, pl. 40, fig. 1; synonym), as replacement name. Proposed to replace Heteropia Mabille, 1889, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).

      =    ‡Heteropia Mabille, 1889

Naturaliste (2)3(49): 68. Type-species: Heteropia imitatrix Mabille, 1889, Naturaliste (2)3(49): 68 (= Telegonus imalena Butler, 1872, Lepid. Exot.: 109, pl. 40, fig. 1; synonym), by designation of E. Watson (1893), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 22. Preoccupied by Heteropia Carter, 1886, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5)18: 47.


19.       Codatractus alcaeus (Hewitson, 1867)

a.   Codatractus alcaeus alcaeus (Hewitson, 1867)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 3, no. 1; figured by Hewitson (1875), Ill. exot. Butterflies 5(96): pl. Eudamus II, fig. 9 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus alcaeus

Type Locality: “Nicaragua”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    montezuma (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 70, no. 10.

Original Combination: T[hymele]. Montezuma

Type Locality: “Tehuantepec” [Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Syntype (#15317) in MCZ.

20.       Codatractus arizonensis (Skinner, 1905)

Entomol. News 16(7): 232; figured by Skinner (1911), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): pl. 10.

Original Combination: [Heteropia melon] [var.] arizonensis

Type Locality: “Baboquivaria [sic!] Mts., Pima County, Arizona”

Types: Syntype (#7074) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 49, fig. 15 ♂ D.

21.       Codatractus valeriana (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(1-3): 99, no. 76; cited unpublished pl. 130.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Valeriana

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Mielke and A. Warren (2004), Revta. bras. Zool. 21(2): 308, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, where the status of this taxon was resolved.

=    mysie (Dyar, 1904)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 12(1): 40.

Original Combination: Thorybes mysie

Type Locality: “Patagonia Mountains, Arizona” [Santa Cruz County]

Types: Lectotype (#7737) in USNM, designated by Burns (1996), J. Lepid. Soc. 50(3): 210, figs. 52, 59, 66 ♂ genitalia, 79 ♂ D, 80 ♂ V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, figs. 8 ♂ D, 8a ♂ V.


Genus Urbanus Hübner, [1807]

Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pls. [150], [151], [155], [159]. Type-species: Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 163 (as figured by Hübner [1807], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [155]), by designation of Hemming (1933), Entomol. 66(844): 200. Steinhauser (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. (62): 1-43, revised the proteus group, and (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (111): 1-16, detailed species-group names in this genus.

      =    ‡Thymele [Illiger], 1807

Allg. Lit.-Zeit. 2(303): 1180. Type-species: Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 163, designated by Bridges (1985), Notes on Family- and Genus-group names (IV): 123. Suppressed by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 232, and placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 48; it is also a junior objective synonym of Urbanus Hübner, [1807].

      =    ‡Goniurus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 104. Type-species: Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 163, by designation of Westwood (1852), in: Gen. diurn. Lepid. 2(54): 510. A junior objective synonym of Urbanus Hübner, [1807].

      =    ‡Eudamus Swainson, 1831

Zool. Illustr. (2)2(11): pl. 48, unnumbered text. Type-species: Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 163, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Urbanus Hübner, [1807].

‡”Lyroptera” Plötz, 1881

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 42(10-12): 500. This name was introduced by Plötz (citing Hopffer) in the synonymy of Eudamus Swainson, 1831. Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 271, stated that the type-species is Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy; L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 7, duplicated this citation. This is incorrect because “Lyroptera” Plötz is a nomen nudum and not available.


22.       Urbanus proteus (Linnaeus, 1758)

a.   Urbanus proteus proteus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 163; cited Merian (1719), Ins. Surinam: pl. 63, fig. 2; figured by Clerck [1764], Icon. Ins. 2: pl. 42 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus urbicola]. Proteus

Type Locality: “Americes”; “neotype” from “Cherrypoint, Craven Co., N[orth] C[arolina]”, as designated by Steinhauser (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. (62): 13, but see below.

Types: Lectotype in UZIU, designated by Aurivillius (1882), K. svenska. VetenskAkad. Handl. (4)19(5): 119-120. A subsequent “lectotype”, in MWNH, was designated by Mielke (1989), Rev. bras. Zool. 6(3):450-451, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, and a “neotype”, in MGCL, was designated by Steinhauser (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. no. 62: 13 figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V.

The lectotype designated by Aurivillius may not be this species. If not, it may be necessary to ask the I.C.Z.N. to establish a neotype that conforms with the consistent use of this name; see Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 373-374.

=    proteoides (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 11; cited unpublished pl. 33.

Original Combination: Goniurus Proteoides

Type Locality: “Nd. America”

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 133, identified this synonymy through examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

‡”fortis” Skinner & Ramsden, 1924

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 75: 309.

Original Combination: Urbanus fortis

This name was listed in the synonymy of proteus without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

23.       Urbanus belli (Hayward, 1935)

An. Soc. Cient. Argent. 119(6): 256; figured by Hayward (1948), Gen. Spec. Anim. Argent. 1: pl. 15, fig. 12 V.

Original Combination: Goniurus belli

Type Locality: “Salta” [Argentina]

Types: Holotype in MLPA (Breyer collection).

Recorded from Texas by A. Warren (1997), News Lepid. Soc. 39(3): 41, figs. F-J.

=    alva Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 87.

Original Combination: [Urbanus viterboana] alva

Type Locality: “Mexico, Atoyac, Veracruz”

Types: Holotype in BMNH; figured by Steinhauser (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. (62): fig. 14 ♂ V.

24.       Urbanus pronus Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 89.

Original Combination: [Urbanus] pronus

Type Locality: “Ambato, Ecuador”

Types: Holotype in BMNH; figured by Steinhauser (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. (62): fig. 17 ♂ V.

=    plinius E. Bell, 1956

Am. Mus. Novit. (1778): 1-5; figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, 17 ♂ genitalia (holotype?).

Original Combination: Urbanus plinius

Type Locality: “Santa Cruz, Bolivia”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

25.       Urbanus esmeraldus (Butler, 1877)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1877(2): 146-147, no. 233.

Original Combination: Goniurus esmeraldus

Type Locality: “Villa bella”; interpreted to be “Villa Nova, Amazons” by Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 89. [Brazil]

Types: Holotype in BMNH; figured by Steinhauser (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. (62): fig. 19 ♂ V.

26.       Urbanus dorantes (Stoll, 1790)

a.   Urbanus dorantes dorantes (Stoll, 1790)

Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 172; (3): pl. 39, fig. 9 ♂ V; 383 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus] Urbic[ola]. Dorantes

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost (Breukelerwaerth collection).

=    torones (Hübner, 1821)

Index exot. Lepid.: [6].

Original Combination: Goniurus Torones

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Proposed for the figures in Hübner [1807], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [155], figs 1 ♂ D, 3 ♂ V (as Urbanus proteus).

=    atletes (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862)

Wien entomol. Monatschr. 6(6): 183, no. 169.

Original Combination: Eudamus Atletes

Type Locality: “Brasilia et Nova Granada”; suggested to be “Brazil” by Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 92.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    amisus (Hewitson, 1867)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 5, no. 5; figured by Hewitson (1875), Ill. exot. Butterflies 5(96): pl. Eudamus II, fig. 10 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus Amisus

Type Locality: Not stated; suggested to be “Nicaragua” by Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 92.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    protillus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(11): 171, no. 19.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] protillus

Type Locality: Not stated; suggested as “Tropical America” by R. Williams (1926), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52(2): 62.

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

=    corydon (Butler, 1870)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 492-493, no. 4; figured by Butler (1871), Lepid. Exot. (3): 65, pl. 25, fig. 2 ♂ V (holotype?).

Original Combination: Goniurus Corydon

Type Locality: “Cuba”; corrected to “Central Valleys of Guatemala” by Butler (1871), Lepid. Exot. (3): 65.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    retractus (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 9, no. 24; cited unpublished pl. 24.

Original Combination: Goniurus Retractus

Type Locality: “Laguayra” [Venezuela]

Types: Holotype may be in ZIN or ZSMC.

=    kefersteinii (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 11, no. 32; cited unpublished pl. 32.

Original Combination: Goniurus Kefersteinii

Type Locality: “Caracas” [Venezuela]

Types: Holotype may be in ZIN.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 133, determined this synonymy through examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    ‡”rauterbergi” (Skinner, 1895)

Entomol. News 6(4): 113.

Original Combination: Eudamus protillus var. rauterbergi n. var. ♂

Type Locality: “Comal County, Texas”; holotype labeled “New Braunfels, Comal Co., Tex.”

Types: “Holotype” (#7062) in CMNH; figured by R. Williams (1926), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52(2): pl. 2, fig. 1; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 49, fig. 12 ♂ V.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

27.       Urbanus teleus (Hübner, 1821)

Index exot. Lepid.: [3].

Original Combination: Goniurus Teleus

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Proposed for the figures in Hübner [1808], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [154], figs. 2 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V (as Urbanus dorantes).

=    eurycles (Latreille, [1824])

Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (714), 730, no. 5; cited Papilio proteus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 163, Papilio dorantes Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 172; (3): pl. 39, fig. 9; 383 (index), and P. simplicius Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 171, pl. 39, figs. 6, 6e; 384 (index).

Original Combination: Hesperia Eurycles

Type Locality: “Bresil”

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

=    zalanthus (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 3, no. 6; cited unpublished pl. 5.

Original Combination: Goniurus Zalanthus

Type Locality: “Allagra” [Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]

Types: Holotype (#5070) in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 133, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    latipennis (Mabille & Vuillot, 1891)

Novit. Lepid. (5): 36, pl. 5, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Goniurus latipennis

Type Locality: “Cayenne” [French Guiana]

Types: Holotype may be in MNHP.

28.       Urbanus tanna Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 94.

Original Combination: [Urbanus] tanna

Type Locality: “Santa Rita, Colombia, Cauca River”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

29.       Urbanus simplicius (Stoll, 1790)

Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 171, pl. 39, figs. 6 ♂ D, 6e ♂ V; 384 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbic[ola]. Simplicius

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    gracillcauda (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 2, no. 1.

Original Combination: Goniurus Gracillcauda

Type Locality: “Central America”

Types: Holotype may be in ZIN or ZSMC.

=    pilatus (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 2, no. 3; cited unpublished pl. 2.

Original Combination: Goniurus Pilatus

Type Locality: “Bahia, Surinam”

Types: Syntypes (#5068, 5069) in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 133, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    thiemei (Ehrmann, 1907)

Can. Entomol. 39(9): 321-322.

Original Combination: Thymele Thiemei

Type Locality: “San Pedro Sula, Honduras, Central America”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    borja (Ehrmann, 1907)

Can. Entomol. 39(9): 322.

Original Combination: Thymele Borja

Type Locality: “Barja [sic!], Bolivia, South America”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

30.       Urbanus procne (Plötz, 1881)

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 55(3): 3, no. 4; cited unpublished pl. 3.

Original Combination: Goniurus Procne

Type Locality: “Brasilien”

Types: Holotype may be in ZIN or ZSMC.

31.       Urbanus doryssus (Swainson, 1831)

a.   Urbanus doryssus doryssus (Swainson, 1831)

Zool. Illustr. (2)2(11): pl. 48, fig. 2 ♂ D, unnumbered text.

Original Combination: Eudamus Doryssus

Type Locality: “vicinity of Bahia” [Brazil]

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

Drury (1782), Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: 22, index, pl. 17, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, figured this species as Papilio orion, citing Cramer (1777), Uitl. Kapellen 2(13): 92, pl. 155, figs. A, B. This was a misidentification of Cramer’s species, not a proposal of a new name. Until revisionary work by Steinhauser is published, the synonymy of this species follows Mielke (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. 2: 383-385.

=    brachius (Geyer, 1832)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl. [105], figs. 609 ♂ D, 610 ♂ V [1826]; (text): 8, no. 305 (1832, name given).

Original Combination: Goniurus Brachius

Type Locality: “Brasil”

Types: Type probably lost.

This name was mentioned (as Goniurus brachyus) by Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 104, without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    leucites (Mabille, 1888)

Naturaliste (2)10(27): 98-99, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Eudamus Leucites

Type Locality: “Colombie”

Types: Holotype in ZMHB (Staudinger collection).

=    cleopatra (Ehrmann, 1907)

Can. Entomol. 39(9): 323.

Original Combination: Goniurus Cleopatra

Type Locality: “Suapure, Venezuela”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    ‡”interruptus” (R. Williams, 1926)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 52(2): 65; figured by R. Williams (1927), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 53(3): pl. 25, fig. 3.

Original Combination: [Eudamus doryssus] form interruptus

Type Locality: “San Pedro Sula, Honduras”

Types: “Holotype” (#7120) in CMNH.

Consistent with Williams’ use of “race” and “form,” this is an infrasubspecific name.


Genus Astraptes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103. Type-species: Papilio aulestes Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(24): 161, pl. 283, figs. E, F, G (= Papilio aulestis Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(24): 173 (index); incorrect original spelling), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 122, no. 137. Hemming (1934), Gen. Names Holarct. Butterflies 1: 158, made a first reviser choice of Astraptes Hübner, [1826] over Telegonus Hübner, [1826]. dos Passos (1959), Lepid. News 12(5-6): 195-198, employed the index spelling of aulestis, thereby avoiding homonymy, but this is subject to a review of Cramer names given a binomial combination in the index. Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 63, incorrectly determined that Papilio narcosius Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 171, pl. 39, fig. 8; 384 (index), was the oldest available name for Papilio aulestes Cramer, 1780, based on this perceived homonymy. Steinhauser (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (111): 1-16, detailed species-group names in this genus.

=    Telegonus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 104. Type-species: Papilio talus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(15): 122-123, pl. 176, fig. D; (16): 151 (index), by designation of Butler (1870), Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(75): 56.

=    Euthymele Mabille, 1878

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 21: 24. Type-species: Hesperia mercatus Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 332, no. 260 (= Papilio fulgerator Walch, 1775, Naturforscher 7: 115, pl. 1, figs. 2a, 2b; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 86.

‡”Creteus” Westwood, 1852

In: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (2)(54): 511. This name was introduced by Westwood in the synonymy of Goniloba, which he described as new. Since this name was unintentional (Westwood meant to use Carystus), it is a nomen nudum; see Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 129.


*32.      Astraptes fulgerator (Walch, 1775)

Naturforscher 7: 115, pl. 1, figs. 2a ♂ D, 2b ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Fulgerator

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Hebert et al. (2004), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101(41): 14812-14817, determined that there may be multiple species-level taxa represented by this name. It is therefore impossible to arrange an accurate synonymy at this time; the synonymy below follows Mielke (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. (2): 169-173.

=    mercatus (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 332, no. 260; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 87, fig. D.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Mercatus

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    fulminator (Sepp, [1841])

Surinaam. Vlinders. 1(9): 75, pl. 34, D, V, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Fulminator

Type Locality: “Surinam” implied from the title of the work.

Types: Type(s) are lost.

=    ‡”discalis” (Bryk, 1953)

Ark. Zool. (ns)5: 136, no. 312.

Original Combination: Thymele fulgerator fa. discalis

Type Locality: “Roque...Bananenplantage, Ricinus-Blatt, SO Moyob” [Peru]

Types: “Holotype” in NHRS.

Bryk described subspecies in this paper, so this name is clearly infrasubspecific.

a.   Astraptes fulgerator azul (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(5): 340, no. 48.

Original Combination: Goniloba azul

Type Locality: “Mexico, near Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Syntype(s) may be in ANSP or CMNH.

The synonymy below is subject to review in light of possible cryptic species; see Hebert et al. (2004), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101(41): 14812-14817, and A. V. Brower (2006), Syst. Biodivers. 4(2):127-132.

=    misitra (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 42(10-12): 502, no. 8; cited unpublished pl. 61.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Misitra

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Syntypes (#4983-4984) in ZMHB.

=    albifasciatus (Röber, 1925)

Entomol. Mitt. 14(1): 96.

Original Combination: Thymele albifasciatus

Type Locality: “Bolivia (Rio Songo, 750 m...)” [La Paz]

Types: Lectoype in MTD, designated by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Zool. 6(1): 135.

=    catemacoensis H. Freeman, 1967

J. Lepid. Soc. 21(2): 117-118, pl. 1, 2nd row, ♂ D&V (holotype), 3rd row ♀ D&V, ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Astraptes catemacoensis

Type Locality: “Mexico, Catemaco, Vera Cruz”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

H. Freeman (1982), J. Lepid. Soc. 36(3): 236-237, synonymized this taxon (which he described) under A. f. azul.

33.       Astraptes egregius (Butler, 1870)

a.   Astraptes egregius egregius (Butler, 1870)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 494, no. 1; figured by Butler (1871), Lepid. Exot. (3): 65, pl. 25, fig. 11 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Telegonus egregius; Hesperia egregia Herrich-Schäffer, in litt.

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

*34.      Astraptes alardus (Stoll, 1790)

Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 171, pl. 39, fig. 7 ♂ D, 7f ♂ V; 382 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbic[ola] Alardus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    fabrici (Ehrmann, 1918)

Lepidoptera 2(4): 29.

Original Combination: Telegonus fabrici

Type Locality: “Cauca Valley, Venezuela”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

a.   Astraptes alardus latia Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 111.

Original Combination: [Astraptes alardus] latia

Type Locality: “Costa Rica”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

*35.      Astraptes alector (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867)

Reise Novara Zool. (3): 508, no. 883, pl. 71, figs. 2 ♂ D, 3 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus Alector

Type Locality: “Nova Granada: Bogotá” [Colombia]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

a.   Astraptes alector hopfferi (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(1-3): 90, no. 35; cited unpublished pl. 88.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Hopfferi Alector ? var

Type Locality: “Süd-Amerika”

Types: Type may be in ZSMC.

=    uridon (Dyar, 1912)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 42(1885): 43.

Original Combination: Thracides uridon

Type Locality: “Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#14221) in USNM.

=    gilberti H. Freeman, 1969

J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 2): 8-9, pl. 3, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, pl. 4, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Astraptes gilberti

Type Locality: “Seven miles south of Valles, (Grounds of Hotel Covadonga) San Luis Potosi, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodiver. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 549, proposed this synonymy.

*36.      Astraptes anaphus (Cramer, 1777)

Uitl. Kapellen 2(15): 126, pl. 178, fig. F ♂ D; (16): 147 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Anaphus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Holotype in RMNH, discussed by de Jong (1983), Tijdschr. Entomol. 126(11): 240.

=    leucogramma (Sepp, [1830])

Surinaam. Vlinder. 1(4): 37, pl. 15, D, V, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Leucogramma

Type Locality: “Surinam” implied from the title of the work.

Types: Type(s) are lost.

=    anaphides (Mabille & Boullet, 1912)

Annls. Sci. Nat., Zool. (9)16(2): 75, 88.

Original Combination: [Telegonus Anaphus] Anaphides nov. var.

Type Locality: “Brésil”; “Bahia” on label of the type.

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

Steinhauser (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (111): 7, considered this an unavailable name. Under current rules the use of “form” or “variety” before 1961 may be interpreted as indicating a species-group name (Code Article 45.6.4), which I believe is consistent with Mabille and Boullet’s intent.

a.   Astraptes anaphus annetta Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 118.

Original Combination: [Astraptes anaphus] annetta

Type Locality: “Tres Rios, 5,000 ft.: Costa Rica”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.


Genus Autochton Hübner, 1823

Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: 13. Type-species: Autochton itylus Hübner, 1823, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: 13, pl. [44], figs. 249, 250, by monotypy.

      =    ‡Cecrops Hübner, 1818

Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: 30. Type-species: Cecrops zarex Hübner, [1818], Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: 30, no. 92, pl. [32], figs. 183, 184, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Cecrops Leach, 1816, Ency. Brit. Suppl. to 4th -6th eds. 1(2): 405.

=    Cecropterus Herrich-Schäffer, 1869

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(9): 131. Type-species: Cecrops zarex Hübner, 1818, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: 30, no. 92, pl. [32], figs. 183, 184, as a replacement name. Proposed to replace Cecrops Hübner, [1818], preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).

=    Rhabdoides Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): 1854. Type-species: Eudamus cellus Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837], Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (25): pl. 73, 4 figs., by monotypy.


37.       Autochton cellus (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (25): pl. 73, figs. [1] ♂ D, [2] ♂ V, [4] larva, [5] pupa.

Original Combination: Eudamus Cellus

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text), but “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot. A. Clark (1936), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 95(7): 14, suggested that the model for Abbot’s figure came from the vicinity Jacksonborough, Screven County, Georgia, but Abbot spent most of his time in Burke County.

Types: The plate was a reproduction of an Abbot drawing. The types are the specimens that he painted and are probably lost. A “holotype” in BMNH was mentioned by Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 121, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

Burns (1984), Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. (405): 1-38, reviewed this species.

=    festus (Geyer, 1837)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 5: pl. [156], figs. 907 ♀ D, 908 ♀ V [1836]; (text): 27, no. 454 (1837, name given).

Original Combination: Cecrops Festus

Type Locality: Not stated

Types: Type(s) probably lost, but may be in ZMHB, ZSMS or NMW.

=    mexicana (Draudt, 1922)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(309): 871; (313): pl. 169a ♂&♀ D.

Original Combination: [Rhabdoides cellus] form mexicana

Type Locality: “Mexiko...Orizaba” [Veracruz]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in SMF.

Steinhauser (1975), Bull. Allyn Mus. (29): 9, considered this to be a subspecies-level taxon.

=    ‡”aereofuscus” (Gunder, 1925)

Entomol. News 36(7): 196, no. 6, pl. 5, fig. 6 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Rhabdoides cellus ab. ♂ aereofuscus

Type Locality: “Baboquivari Mountains, Pima County, Arizona”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”leilae” (A. Clark, 1934)

Science 80(2068): 164; figured by A. Clark (1936), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 95(7): pl. 2, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Rhabdoides cellus] var. leilae

Type Locality: “vicinity of Washington” [District of Columbia]; further defined as “Maryland, woods just north of the unpaved portion of the Conduit Road 1.1 miles southeast of Great Falls, or just over one-half mile west of the point where the paved road from Washington turns north up the hill, leaving the conduit” by A. Clark (1936), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 95(7): 12.

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

38.       Autochton pseudocellus (Coolidge & Clemence, [1910])                                       

Entomol. News 22(1): 3.

Original Combination: Achalarus pseudocellus

Type Locality: “Ramsey Canon, Huachuca Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona. 5,000-7,000 feet altitude”

Types: Syntypes in LACM.

This taxon has apparently been extirpated from the United States, as noted by Bailowitz and Brock (1991), Butterflies SE Ariz.: 32.

39.       Autochton cincta (Plötz, 1882)

Berl. Entomol. Z. 26(2): 261, no. 9; cited unpublished pl. 232.

Original Combination: [Cecropterus] Cincta

Type Locality: “Oaxaca” [Mexico]

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

Species-genus gender conformation is cinctus.

=    rotundatus (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liii.

Original Combination: Telegonus rotundatus

Type Locality: “America meridionali”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.


Genus Achalarus Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 71. Type-species: Papilio lycidas J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 39, pl. 20, 4 figs. (= Proteides lyciades Geyer, 1832, in: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl. [108], figs. 621, 622; 10, no. 311; preoccupied), by original designation.

=    Murgaria E. Watson, 1893

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 19, 37. Type-species: Telegonus albociliatus Mabille, 1877, Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(179): 162, no. 12, by original designation.


40.       Achalarus lyciades (Geyer, 1832)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl. [108], figs. 621 ♀ D, 622 ♀ V [1826]; (text): 10-11, no. 311 (1832, name given); cited Papilio lycidas J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 39-40, pl. 20.

Original Combination: Proteides Lyciades

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio lycidas J. E. Smith, 1797, with the same data (Code Article 60.3). This name was mentioned (as Proteides lyciades) by Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 105, without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    ‡lycidas J. E. Smith, 1797

In: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 39-40, pl. 20, figs. ♂ D, ♂ V, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Lycidas

Type Locality: “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot.

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing; the specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost.

Preoccupied by Papilio lycidas Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(10): 25, pl. 113, fig. A; (16): 149 (index).

‡”hedysarum” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(10): 1418.

Original Combination: Papilio hedysarum Abb.

This name was mentioned in the synonymy of Achalarus lyciades without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

41.       Achalarus casica (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 187, no. 17.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] casica

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 135, determined this synonym through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    epigena (Butler, 1870)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 493; figured by Butler (1871), Lepid. Exot. (3): 65, pl. 25, fig. 6 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus Epigena; Myscelus Epigena, Herrich-Schäffer, in litt.

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

‡”orestes” W. H. Edwards, 1877

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 58.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Orestes

Lintner intended to describe “Eudamus orestes” in 1867, but never did. Edwards listed it as a Lintner manuscript name. In this and all other listings the name “orestes” is a nomen nudum; see F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 602-603.

42.       Achalarus tehuacana (Draudt, 1922)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(309): 871; (313): pl. 169b ♂ V.

Original Combination: R[habdoides] tehuacana

Type Locality: “Tehuacan, Puebla” [Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in SMF.

Recorded from Texas by Hardy et al. (2010), News Lepid. Soc. 52(4): 107-111,127, 18 figs.

43.       Achalarus albociliatus (Mabille, 1877)

a.   Achalarus albociliatus albociliatus (Mabille, 1877)

Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(179): 162, no. 12.

Original Combination: Teleg[onus].? albociliatus

Type Locality: “Colombia, Panama, Guatemala”; suggested to be “Colombia” by Evans (1952), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 127.

Types: Syntypes in IRSN.

44.       Achalarus toxeus (Plötz, 1882)

Berl. Entomol. Z. 26(2): 258, no. 6; cited unpublished pl. 212.

Original Combination: [Aethilla] Toxeus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#5054) in ZMHB.

=    coyote (Skinner, 1892)

Can. Entomol. 24(7): 164.

Original Combination: Eudamus coyote

Type Locality: “Southern Texas”; lectotype from “nr. Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas.”

Types: Syntype(s) (#7075) in CMNH; one figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, figs. 7 ♂ D, 7a ♂ V.

=    nigrociliata (Mabille & Boullet, 1912)

Annls. Sci. Nat., Zool. (9)16(2): 158, 159.

Original Combination: [Murgaria Albociliata] Var. Nigrociliata

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Holotype in MNHP.


Genus Thessia Steinhauser, 1989

Bull. Allyn Mus. (127): 11-12. Type-species: Eudamus athesis Hewitson, 1867, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 8, no. 11, by original designation.


45.       Thessia jalapus (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(1-3): 100, no. 81; cited unpublished pl. 134.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Jalapus

Type Locality: “Jalappe” [Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Holotype (#4960) in ZMHB.

=    xerxes (E. Bell, 1934)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 29(3): 90-92, pl. 6, fig. 2 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Telegonus xerxes

Type Locality: “British Honduras” [Belize]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.


Genus Thorybes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 71. Type-species: Papilio bathyllus J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 43, pl. 22, by original designation.

      =    ‡Lintneria W. H. Edwards & Butler, 1877

In: W. H. Edwards, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 57, 67. Type-species: Papilio daunus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 44, pl. 126, fig. F; (16): 148 (index) (= Papilio bathyllus J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 43, pl. 22; probably a misidentified type species), by original designation. Preoccupied by Lintneria Butler, 1876, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 9: 620. This genus has been treated as described twice in the same document (e.g., L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 11, 177) but it is clear that the reference in the text (p. 57) is only that. In the description (p. 67), Hesperia zampa is mentioned as one of the species contained within the new genus Lintneria, but the type is given as above. See comments under Systasea.

=    Cocceius Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(114): 336. Type-species: Eudamus pylades Scudder, 1870, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 207, by original designation.


46.       Thorybes drusius (W. H. Edwards, [1884])

Can. Entomol. 15(11): 211.

Original Combination: Eudamus Drusius

Type Locality: “So. Arizona”

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 605, fig. ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 4 ♂ D.

=    paucipuncta Dyar, 1916

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 51(2139): 4.

Original Combination: Thorybes paucipuncta

Type Locality: “Sierra de Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#19256) in USNM.

47.       Thorybes bathyllus (J. E. Smith, 1797)

In: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 43-44, pl. 22, figs. ♂ D, ♀ D, ♀ V, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Bathyllus

Type Locality: “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot; suggested to be “Burke County, Georgia” by Calhoun (2006), J. Lepid. Soc. 60(1): 31.

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing. The male specimen which was the model for the image on plate 22 was selected as lectotype by Calhoun (2006), J. Lepid. Soc. 60(1): 31, fig. 21 ♂ D; it is probably lost.

=    ‡daunus (Cramer, 1777)

Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 44, pl. 126, fig. F ♂ D; (16): 148 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Daunus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”, probably in error.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

The original description and illustration do not unambiguously identify this skipper. The type locality as given is outside the range of T. bathyllus, but may be erroneous. Calhoun (2007), J. Lepid. Soc. 60(1): 105-112, analyzed the original drawing and confirmed that Papilio daunus Cramer, 1777, is a nomen dubium.

=    syloson (Mabille, 1903)

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17a): 39.

Original Combination: Cocceius syloson

Type Locality: “Cayenne”, in error. Mabille and Boullet [1919], Annls. Sci. Nat., Zool. (10)2(4-6): 232, corrected this to “Etats-Unis.”

Types: Syntypes in MNHP.

48.       Thorybes pylades (Scudder, 1870)

a.   Thorybes pylades pylades (Scudder, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 207; cited T. Harris (1862), Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 312, fig. 135 ♂ D&V (as Eudamus bathyllus).

Original Combination: Eudamus Pylades

Type Locality: “Massachusetts”

Types: Syntypes in MCZ; a possible syntype was figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(11): pl. 9, fig. 5 ♂ D&V.

=    ‡”immaculata” (Skinner, 1911)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): 177.

Original Combination: Eudamus pylades immaculata n. var. male

Type Locality: “Philadelphia” [Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” (#7175) in CMNH.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”integra” Lanktree, 1968

Entomol. Rec. & J. Var. 80(9): 215-216, pl. XII, fig. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 7 ♂ genitalia (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Thorybes pylades ab. integra

Type Locality: “N. E. of Port Franks in the hinterland of Lake Huron's south-eastern shore”

Types: Location of “holotype” not known.

b.   Thorybes pylades indistinctus Austin & J. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (42): 501-502, figs. 1a ♂ D, 1b ♂ V (holotype); 2a ♀ D, 2b ♀ V.

Original Combination: Thorybes pylades indistinctus

Type Locality: “California: San Diego County; Laguna Mountains, Boiling Springs”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

c.   Thorybes pylades albosuffusa H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(3): 72.

Original Combination: Thorybes pylades albosuffusa new form

Type Locality: “Fort Davis...Texas” [Jeff Davis County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

While this name was initially described as infrasubspecific, H. Freeman (1949), Texas J. Sci. 1(3): 41, listed it as Thorybes pylades albosuffusa and explained its application as a subspecies-level taxon, making this name available from its original publication (Code Article 45.6.4.1).

49.       Thorybes confusis E. Bell, 1923

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 48(3): 205-206.

Original Combination: Thorybes confusis

Type Locality: “Tampa, Florida” [Hillsborough County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH; paratypes figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ V.

W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): 335, deliberately emended this name to confusus, an unjustified emendation (contra W. Forbes (1960), Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 371 (part 4): 67).

50.       Thorybes diversus E. Bell, 1927

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 22(4): 217.

Original Combination: Thorybes diversus

Type Locality: “Plumas County, California”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

*51.      Thorybes mexicana (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 188, no. 21.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] mexicana

Type Locality: Not stated; syntype labeled “Mexico.”

Types: Syntype in ZMHB.

Species-genus gender conformation is mexicanus.

=    ananius (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(1-3): 99, no. 77; cited unpublished pl. 131.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Ananius

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) in ZMHB.

Bridges (1988), Cat. Hesp. (I): 11, suggested that ananius was intended as a replacement name for mexicana. If so, it would be a junior objective synonym.

a.   Thorybes mexicana aemilea (Skinner, 1893)

Entomol. News 4(2): 64-65.

Original Combination: Eudamus Aemilea

Type Locality: “Fort Klamath, Oregon” [Klamath County]

Types: Syntypes (#7076) in CMNH; one figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: 325, pl. 46, fig. 39 ♂ D.

b.   Thorybes mexicana nevada Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 71, no. 3.

Original Combination: T[horybes]. Nevada

Type Locality: “Sierra Nevada, California (Henry Edwards)”

Types: Syntype (#15828) in MCZ; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 3 ♀ (probably a ♂) D.

c.   Thorybes mexicana blanca Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 7.

Original Combination: Thorybes mexicana blanca

Type Locality: “Crooked Creek lab, 10150', 3 airline mi. N Inyo Co. line, Mono Co., California”

Types: Holotype in EMEC.

d.   Thorybes mexicana dobra Evans, 1952

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (2): 131.

Original Combination: [Thorybes mexicana] dobra

Type Locality: “Fort Grant, Arizona” [Graham County]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.


Genus Cabares Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(114): 337. Type-species: Thanaos potrillo Lucas, 1857, in: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 641, by original designation.


52.       Cabares potrillo (Lucas, 1857)

a.   Cabares potrillo potrillo (Lucas, 1857)

In: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 641.

Original Combination: Thanaos Potrillo

Type Locality: “habite l’île de Cuba” “Ce nom est donné à cette espèce, en souvenir de la montagne aui s’éleve jusq’a 3,000 mètres de haut, non loin de la Trinité”; thus, implied to be “Pico Potrerillo.”

Types: Type(s) probably in MNHP.

=    paterculus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1863)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 17(9): 141-142.

Original Combination: Thanaos paterculus

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7148) in ANSP.


Genus Spathilepia Butler, 1870

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(75): 57. Type-species: Papilio clonius Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(7): 126-127, pl. 80, figs. C, D; (8): 152 (index), by original designation.


53.       Spathilepia clonius (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(7): 126-127, pl. 80, figs. C ♂ D, D ♂ V; (8): 152 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Clonius

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost (collection L. Juliaans).


Genus Cogia Butler, 1870

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 508. Type-species: Cogia hassan Butler, 1870, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 508, by monotypy.

=    Phoedinus Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(114): 335. Type-species: Eudamus caicus Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 188, no. 19, by designation of Lindsey (1921), Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 35. Not homonymous with “Phoedinus” Doumerc [1835]: 821, 825 (index), which is an incorrect subsequent spelling of Phaedinus Duponchel, 1834, Annls. Entomol. Soc. Fr. 3: 38; not homonymous with “Phoedinus” Duponchel, 1836, Mag. Zool. 6: pl. (Ins.), which is also an incorrect subsequent spelling of Phaedinus Duponchel, 1834; not homonymous with “Phoedinus” Guérin-Méneville, 1838, Rev. Zool. (Soc. Cuvier) 1838: 286, which is a duplication of the above misspelling. Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 20, stated that Godman and Salvin selected the type-species of this genus, but Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 359, correctly fixed the type-species as indicated. Tilden (1949), Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 48(1): 4-6, and (1975), J. Lepid. Soc. 29(1): 60-61, discussed the validity of this genus (and the supposed homonymy), as well as its relationship to Cogia. L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 13-14, accepted the erroneous homonymy. Ferris (1989), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (3): 7, placed Phoedinus as a synonym of Cogia.

      =    ‡Anaperus Mabille & Boullet, 1919

Annls. Sci. Nat., Zool. (10)2(4-6): 232. Type-species: Eudamus caicus Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 188, no. 19, as a replacement name; introduced to replace Phoedinus, erroneously thought preoccupied. Preoccupied by Anaperus Tröschel, 1860, Inhaltsverz. S. B. Ges. Nat. Fr. Berl. 1860: 16, and also a junior objective synonym of Phoedinus.

      =    ‡Caicella Hemming, 1934

Stylops 3(6): 144. Type species: Eudamus caicus Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 188, no. 19, as replacement name. Introduced to replace Phoedinus, erroneously thought preoccupied (and Anaperus, preoccupied); a junior objective synonym of Phoedinus.


54.       Cogia hippalus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

a.   Cogia hippalus hippalus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(2): 27.

Original Combination: Eudamus Hippalus

Type Locality: “Tucson and at Prescott”; lectotype from “Tucson.” [Pima County, Arizona]

Types: Lectotype (#33620) in USNM, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 609, fig. 4 ♂ D&V.

=    gila (Plötz, 1886)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 47(1-3): 91-92, no. 86b.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Gila

Type Locality: “Arizona”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 151, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing (pl. 1370) made by Plötz.

55.       Cogia outis (Skinner, 1894)

Entomol. News 5(10): 332; figured by Skinner (1911), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): pl. 10.

Original Combination: Eudamus outis

Type Locality: “Blanco County, Texas”; holotype labeled “Round Mt., Texas.”

Types: Syntype (#7072) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 11 ♂ D.

*56.      Cogia caicus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

a.   Cogia caicus moschus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(8): 141-142.

Original Combination: Eudamus Moschus

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper; suggested to be “vicinity of Fort Grant at the foot of Mount Graham, Graham County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 606.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 607, fig. 3 % D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 13 ♂ D (lectotype), 14 ♂ V (paralectotype).

57.       Cogia calchas (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 188, no. 22.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] calchas

Type Locality: Not stated; holotype from “Rio.” [Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]

Types: Holotype in NMW.

=    terranea (Butler, 1872)

Lepid. Exot. (8): 111, pl. 40, fig. 8 ♂ V.

Original Combination: S[pathilepia]. Terranea

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    ‡”anacreon” (Plötz, 1881)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(1-3): 99, under no. 78.

Original Combination: [Eudamus] Calchas [synonym] Anacreon

Type Locality: ‘Venezuela”

This name was listed in synonymy without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Subfamily Pyrginae Burmeister, 1878

Descr. phys. Rép. Argentine 5(Lépid.)(1): 245. Type-genus: Pyrgus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 109. Though this name is junior to Pyrrhopygini Mabille, 1877, it is maintained as the most widely used name for this family group (Code Article 35.5).


Tribe Pyrrhopygini Mabille, 1877

Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(179): 161. Type-genus: Pyrrhopyge Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 103.


Subtribe Pyrrhopygina Mabille, 1877


Genus Apyrrothrix Lindsey, 1921

Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 15-16. Type-species: Erycides araxes Hewitson, 1867, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 2, by original designation. The generic arrangement follows Mielke (2002), Revta. bras. Entomol. 19(1):217-228.


*58.      Apyrrothrix araxes (Hewitson, 1867)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (1): 2, no. 2.

Original Combination: Erycides Araxes

Type Locality: "Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    cyrillus (Plötz, 1879)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 40(10-12): 529, no. 38; cited unpublished pl. 1251.

Original Combination: [Pyrrhopyga] [sic!] Cyrillus

Type Locality: “Oaxaca” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype (#4926) in ZMHB.

a.   Apyrrothrix araxes arizonae (Godman & Salvin, 1893)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(107): 253, under no. 12.

Original Combination: Pyrrhopyge arizonae

Type Locality: “Arizona...the neighborhood of Fort Grant” [Graham County]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

This was treated as a species-level taxon by Burns and Janzen (2001), J. Lepid. Soc. 55(1): 38; a status questioned by Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 3.


Tribe Celaenorrhinini Swinhoe, 1912

In: Moore, Lep. Ind. 10(109): 1. Type-genus: Celaenorrhinus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett.


Genus Celaenorrhinus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 106-107. Type-species: Papilio eligius Stoll, 1781, Uitl. Kapellen 4(30): 123-124, pl. 354, fig. H; (34): 249 (index), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 137, no. 236. de Jong (1982), J. Nat. Hist. 16(5): 695-705, discussed the morphology and systematics of Celaenorrhinus, and added Charmion and Orneates to the synonymy. Austin and Steinhauser (1996), Insecta Mundi 10(1/4): 36-37, corroborated this.

=    Ancistrocampta C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862

Wien. entomol. Monatschr. 6(6): 183. Type-species: Ancistrocampta syllius C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862, Wien. entomol. Monatschr. 6(6): 184, no. 170, by monotypy.

=    Hantana Moore, [1881]

Lepid. Ceylon 1(4): 179. Type-species: Eudamus infernus R. Felder, 1868, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 18: 283 (= Eudamus spilothyrus R. Felder, 1868, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 18: 283; synonym), by original designation. First reviser choice of spilothyrus over infernus was made by Evans (1926), J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 31(1): 67.

=    Gehlota Doherty, 1889

J. asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. II 58(1): 131. Type-species: Plesioneura sumitra Moore, [1866], Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1865(3): 787, by designation of E. Watson (1893), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 49.

=    Narga Mabille, 1891

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(16): lxx. Type-species: Narga chiriquensis Mabille, 1891, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(16): lxx (= Tagiades monartus Plötz, 1884, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 49, no. 41; synonym), by designation of E. Watson (1893), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 130.

=    Orneates Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(114): 345. Type-species: Eudamus aegiochus Hewitson, 1876, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)18(106): 350, by original designation.

=    Charmion de Nicéville, 1894

J. asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. II 63(1): 48. Type-species: Hesperia ficulnea Hewitson, 1868, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 37, no. 33, by original designation.

=    Apallaga Strand, 1911

Entomol. Rundsch. 28(18): 143. Type-species: Apallaga separata Strand, 1911, Entomol. Rdsch. 28(18): 144 (= Pterygospidea mokeezi Wallengren, 1857, K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. (4)2(1)(no. 4): 54, no. 3; subspecies), by monotypy.


59.       Celaenorrhinus fritzgaertneri (Bailey, 1880)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 3(7): 62-63.

Original Combination: Pleusioneura [sic!] FritzGaertneri

Type Locality: “an old deserted mine...at a depth of eighty feet...near the Volcano de San Miguel, in the vicinity of Lama Larga in the Republic of Salvadore...six hundred feet above the sea level” [El Salvador]

Types: Location of type not known (USNM?).

=    variegatus Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(119): 383, no. 2; 3(121): pl. 85, figs. 2 ♂ D, 3 ♂ V, 4 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Celaenorrhinus variegatus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Dos Arroyos, Venta de Zopilote, Tierra Colorada in Guerrero...Jalapa, Coatepec...Guatemala, Volcan de Santa Maria...Nicaragua, Chontales”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

Steinhauser (1975), Bull. Allyn Mus. (29): 10, determined that this taxon represents non-seasonal dimorphism.

60.       Celaenorrhinus stallingsi H. Freeman, 1946

Entomol. News 57(8): 185-186, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Celaenorrhinus stallingsi

Type Locality: “Monterrey, Mexico” [Nuevo León]

Types: Holotype in PMNH; figured by Howe (1975), Butterflies N. Am.: pl. 45, fig. 11 ♂ D&V.


Tribe Carcharodini Verity, 1940

Farfalle diurne Ital. 1: 10 (as “Carcharodidi”). Type-genus: Carcharodus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 110. I.C.Z.N. Opinions 181 and 270 placed Carcharodus on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 686.


Genus Arteurotia Butler & H. Druce, 1872

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 112. Type-species: Arteurotia tractipennis Butler & H. Druce, 1872, Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 112, by original designation.


61.       Arteurotia tractipennis Butler & H. Druce, 1872

a.   Arteurotia tractipennis tractipennis Butler & H. Druce, 1872

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 112; figured by Butler (1874), Lepid. Exot.: pl. 64, fig. 5 ♂ D.

Original Combination: A[rteurotia]. Tractipennis

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica” implied from the title and introduction to the paper.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    ribbei (Staudinger, 1876)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25: 117, no. 34.

Original Combination: Helias (?) Ribbei

Type Locality: “aus Chiriqui” [Panama]

Types: Type(s) probably in ZMHB.


Genus Nisoniades Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 108. Type-species: Papilio bromius Stoll, 1787, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (1): 37, pl. 8, figs. 1, 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d; (3): 382 (index) (= Papilio mimas Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(5): 83, pl. 52, figs. E, F; (8): 152 (index); synonym), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 228, no. 752.

      =    ‡Pellicia Plötz, 1879

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 40(4/6): 176, 179. Type-species: Pellicia macarius Herrich-Schäffer, 1870, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 24(9/10): 160, no. 1, by original designation. Preoccupied by Pellicia Herrich-Schäffer, 1870, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 24(9/10): 159.


62.       Nisoniades rubescens (Möschler, 1877)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 26: 340-341, pl. 4, fig. 29.

Original Combination: [Pellicia] Rubescens

Type Locality: “Surinam...Brasilien”; suggested to be “Surinam” by Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 49, as implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntypes should be in NMW.

=    bromias (Godman & Salvin, 1894)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(118): 370, no. 4; 3(119): pl. 83, figs. 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ V, 15 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Pellicia bromias

Type Locality: “Mexico, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, Dos Arroyos, Atoyac, Teapa...Guatemala, Dueñas...Costa Rica, Caché...Panama, Chiriqui”; suggested to be “Mexico” by Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 49.

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    triangulus (Mabille, 1898)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 66(2/3): 198-199.

Original Combination: Achlyodes triangulus

Type Locality: “Tanampaya, Bolivie”

Types: Syntypes probably in ZMHB (Staudinger collection).

=    clara (Mabille & Boullet, 1917)

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1916(20): 323.

Original Combination: Pellicia Bromias var. clara

Type Locality: “Guyane française, Brésil, Argentine”; suggested to be “French Guiana” by Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 49.

Types: Syntypes in MNHP.

=    nigra (Mabille & Boullet, 1917)

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1916(20): 323.

Original Combination: Pellicia Bromias var. nigra

Type Locality: “Brésil, Argentine...Colombie, Guyane, Bolivie”; suggested to be “Brazil” by Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 49.

Types: Syntypes in MNHP.


Genus Pellicia Herrich-Schäffer, 1870

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 24(9/10): 159. Type-species: Pellicia dimidiata Herrich-Schäffer, 1870, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 24(9/10): 160, no. 1, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 243, no. 824.

=    Hemipteris Mabille, 1889

Naturaliste (2)3(61): 216. Type-species: Hemipteris fumida Mabille, 1889, Naturaliste (2)3(61)[11(61)]: 216 (= Pellicia tyana Plötz, 1882, Berl. Entomol. Z. 26(2): 255, no. 12), by monotypy.


63.       Pellicia arina Evans, 1953

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 58; cited Godman & Salvin (1894), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 3(119): pl. 83, figs. 16 ♂ D, 17 ♂ V (as Pellicia costimacula).

Original Combination: [Pellicia costimacula] arina

Type Locality: “Mexico, Atoyac, Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Steinhauser (1989), Bull. Allyn Mus. (127): 29, detailed the species-level status of this taxon, corroborating L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 15, 208, note 37.

64.       Pellicia dimidiata Herrich-Schäffer, 1870

a.   Pellicia dimidiata dimidiata Herrich-Schäffer, 1870

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 24(9/10): 160. no. 5; cited unpublished Plötz pl. 199.

Original Combination: Pellicia Dimidiata

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 136, determined the following synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawings made by Plötz.

=    didia Möschler, 1877

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 26: 340, pl. 4, fig. 28.

Original Combination: [Pellicia] Didia

Type Locality: “aus dem Innern Suriname”

Types: Holotype may be in NMW.

=    corinna Plötz, 1882

Berl. Entomol. Z. 26(2): 254, no. 9; cited unpublished pl. 199.

Original Combination: [Pellicia] Corinna

Type Locality: “Laguayra, Mex.” [Venezuela]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

=    nivonicus (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 14, no. 3, cited unpublished pl. 956.

Original Combination: [Achlyodes] Nivonicus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

=    bilinea Mabille, 1889

Naturaliste (2)3(61): 216-217, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Pellicia bilinea

Type Locality: “Chiriqui” [Panama]

Types: Syntype probably in ZMHB (Staudinger collection).

=    bobae (Weeks, 1906)

Entomol. News 17(6): 203; figured by Weeks (1911), Ill. diurn. Lepid. 2: pl. 7, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Pamphila bobae

Type Locality: “Suapure, Venezuela”

Types: Holotype (#16717) in MCZ.

=    hypsipyle Hayward, 1947

Acta zool. Lilloana 4: 121-122, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Pellicia hypsipyle

Type Locality: “Villavicencio, Colombia”

Types: Holotype in IMLA.


Genus Windia H. Freeman, 1969

J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 2): 16-17. Type-species: Windia windi H. Freeman, 1969, J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 2): 17-18, pl. 6, figs. 7, 8, pl. 15, fig. 6, by original designation.


65.       Windia windi H. Freeman, 1969

J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 2): 17-18, pl. 6, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V (holotype); pl. 15, fig. 6 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Windia windi

Type Locality: “Salada, Colima, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Recorded from Arizona by Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 7.


Genus Noctuana E. Bell, 1937

Am. Mus. Novit. (914): 7-8. Type-species: Helias noctua C. Felder & R. Felder, 1867, Reise Novara Zool. (3): 533, no. 942, pl. 74, figs. 1, 2, by original designation.


66.       Noctuana stator (Godman & Salvin, 1899)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(148): 460, no. 3; 3(148): pl. 91, figs. 33 ♂ D, 34 ♂ V, 35 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Theagenes stator

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by [Anonymous] (2000), Am. Butterflies 8(1): 43.


Genus Bolla Mabille, 1903

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17a): 46, 72. Type-species: Bolla pullata Mabille, 1903, in: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17a): 72 (= Staphylus imbras Godman & Salvin, 1896, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid Rhop 2(131): 435, no. 11; 3(131): pl. 89, figs. 27 ♂ D, 28 ♂ genitalia, 29 ♀ D; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1921), Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 43. Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 79, credited Mabille with an original type-species designation, but that was in error as Mabille merely mentioned Bolla in conjunction with pullata.


67.       Bolla brennus (Godman & Salvin, 1896)

a.   Bolla brennus brennus (Godman & Salvin, 1896)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(131): 434-435, no. 9; 3(131): pl. 89, fig. 23 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Staphylus brennus

Type Locality: “Panama...Volcan de Chiriqui 2500 to 4000 feet, David...Chiriqui”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

68.       Bolla clytius (Godman & Salvin, 1897)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(137): 442, no. 2; 3(138): pl. 90, figs. 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Pholisora clytius

Type Locality: “Mexico, Tres Marias Is.” [Nayarit]

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    semitincta Dyar, 1924

Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 12(1-3): 15.

Original Combination: Bolla semitincta

Type Locality: “Colima, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in USNM.


Genus Staphylus Godman & Salvin, 1896

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(131): 429. Type-species: Helias ascalaphus Staudinger, 1876, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25: 116, no. 31, by original designation.

=    Scantilla Godman & Salvin, 1896

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(131): 437. Type-species: Scantilla opites Godman & Salvin, 1896, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(131): 437; 3(138): pl. 90, figs. 3, 4, 5 (= Tagiades vincula Plötz, 1886, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 47(1-3): 113; synonym), by monotypy.


69.       Staphylus ceos (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(8): 140.

Original Combination: Pholisora Ceos

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper; suggested to be “vicinity of Fort Grant, in canyons at foot of Mount Graham, Graham County, Arizona”, by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 612.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 613, fig. 6 ♂ D&V.

70.       Staphylus mazans (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(4): 335, no. 35.

Original Combination: Carcharodus mazans

Type Locality: “Mexico (near Vera Cruz)” [Veracruz]

Types: Type(s) may be lost.

Reakirt described many taxa from “coll. W. H. Edwards” Some of his types are in the Strecker collection (FMNH), and others might be in W. H. Edwards’ collection (CMNH). L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 208, note 40, were unable to find the type(s) of this taxon.

71.       Staphylus hayhurstii (W. H. Edwards, 1870)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(1): 10, 22, no. 18.

Original Combination: Hesperia Hayhurstii

Type Locality: “Missouri”; suggested to be “vicinity of Sedalia, Missouri” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 610-611.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 611, fig. 5 ♂ D&V.


Genus Pholisora Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 72. Type-species: Hesperia catullus Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 348, no. 323, by original designation.


72.       Pholisora catullus (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 348, no. 323; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 80, fig. 2 D&V; figured by Donovan (1800), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [50], fig. 4 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Catullus

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

73.       Pholisora mejicanus (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(4): 334, no. 32.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Mejicanus

Type Locality: “Mexico (near Vera Cruz)” [Veracruz]

Types: Type(s) may be in FMNH.

Godman & Salvin (1897), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(137): 441; 3: pl. 90, figs. 11 ♂ D, 12 ♂ V, used mexicana, but cited mejicanus as a synonym, so mexicana is an unjustified emendation.


Genus Hesperopsis Dyar, 1905

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13(3): 118. Type-species: Thanaos alpheus W. H. Edwards, 1876, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 206, by original designation. Stanford (1981), in: Ferris and F. Brown, Butterflies Rocky Mtn. States: 87, detailed the genus-level status of this taxon.


74.       Hesperopsis libya (Scudder, 1878)

a.   Hesperopsis libya joaquina J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (15): 202-203, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V (holotype); 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperopsis libya joaquina

Type Locality: “California: Kern County; McKittrick”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

b.   Hesperopsis libya libya (Scudder, 1878)

Bull. U. S. Geol. Geogr. Surv. Terr. 4(1)(10): 258.

Original Combination: Heteropterus libya

Type Locality: “Beaver Dam”; determined to be “Littlefield, Mohave Co., Arizona: 1846', T40N R15W, 36o 53' N/113o 56' W” by F. Brown (1967), J. Lepid. Soc. 21(2): 134.

Types: Syntype (#16590) in MCZ.

c.   Hesperopsis libya confertiblanca Scott, 1992

Papilio (n.s.) 6: 173.

Original Combination: Hesperopsis libya confertiblanca

Type Locality: “N Montrose, Montrose Co. Colo.”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

d.   Hesperopsis libya lena (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Can. Entomol. 14(1): 5-6.

Original Combination: Ancyloxypha Lena

Type Locality: “Montana”

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 645-646, fig. 24 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 36 ♂ V.

75.       Hesperopsis alpheus (W. H. Edwards, 1876)

a.   Hesperopsis alpheus oricus (W. H. Edwards, 1879)

Can. Entomol. 11(3): 51.

Original Combination: Pholisora oricus

Type Locality: “Nevada” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Buffalo Canyon, Desatoga Mtns., Churchill County in areas of Atriplex canescens” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 643-645; corrected to “Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada” by Austin (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (50): 629, who determined that there are no oricus populations at the type locality as defined by F. Brown and L. Miller.

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): fig. 23 ♂ D&V.

MacNeill (1970), Entomol. News 81(7): 182-183, elevated this taxon to the subspecies-level.

=    arizonensis Mabille & Boullet, 1917

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1917(4): 100.

Original Combination: Hesperopsis arizonensis

Type Locality: “Arizona, U. S.”

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

b.   Hesperopsis alpheus alpheus (W. H. Edwards, 1876)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 206.

Original Combination: Thanaos Alpheus

Type Locality: “New Mexico”; defined as “sage brush country in Colfax County, New Mexico” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 641.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 643, fig. 22 ♂ D&V.

=    texana Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 8.

Original Combination: Pholisora alpheus texana

Type Locality: “Boca Chica, 20-22 mi. E. Brownsville, Cameron Co. Texas”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

Species-genus gender conformation is texanus.

76.       Hesperopsis gracielae (MacNeill, 1970)

Entomol. News 81(7): 177-179, figs. 1 top row ♂&♀ D, 2nd row ♂&♀ D (spring), 2 top row ♂&♀ V, 2nd row ♂&♀ V (fall) (including holotype?), 5 ♂ head, 6 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Pholisora gracielae

Type Locality: “California, San Bernardino Co., Bennett Wash, vicinity Parker Dam”

Types: Holotype in CAS.

Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 8, and (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 500, considered this taxon to be conspecific with alpheus.


Tribe Erynnini Brues & F. Carpenter, 1932

Bull. Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool. 73: 235-236, couplet 156c (as “Erynninae”). Type-genus: Erynnis Schrank, 1801, Fauna boic. 2(1): 152, no. 197. Brues and Carpenter diagnosed Erynninae in a key; this is the only valid proposal of a family-group name based of the genus Erynnis properly identified.


Genus Gorgythion Godman & Salvin, 1896

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(128): 424. Type-species: Helias pyralina Möschler, 1876, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 26: 343, pl. 4, fig. 31 (= Goniloba begga Prittwitz, 1868, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 29(4-6): 198, no. 60; subspecies), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 88.

=    Escalophoides Köhler, 1923

Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 18(12)(Sonderheft): 33. Type-species: Helias tucumana Burmeister, 1878, Descr. phys. Rép. Argentine 5(Lépid.)(1): 261-262, no. 7 (= Goniloba begga Prittwitz, 1868, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 29(4-6): 198, no. 60; subspecies), by monotypy.


*77.      Gorgythion begga (Prittwitz, 1868)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 29(4-6): 198, no. 60.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] Begga

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

=    tucumana (Burmeister, 1878)

Descr. phys. Rép. Argentine 5(Lépid.)(1): 261-262, no. 7.

Original Combination: Helias Tucumana

Type Locality: “Tucuman, Argentina” implied from name and title of the book.

Types: Type(s) should be in MACN.

a.   Gorgythion begga pyralina (Möschler, 1877)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 26: 343, pl. 4, fig. 31 D.

Original Combination: [Helias?] Pyralina

Type Locality: “Paramaribo...dem Innern Surinams”

Types: Type(s) probably in ZMHB.

=    marginata Schaus, 1902

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 24(1262): 431.

Original Combination: Gorgythion Marginata

Type Locality: “Peru”

Types: Holotype (#5982) in USNM.


Genus Sostrata Godman & Salvin, 1895

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(121): 397. Type-species: Leucochitonea scintillans Mabille, 1876, Bull. Séances Soc. Entomol. Fr. (5)6(3): cc (= Hesperia bifasciata Ménétriés, 1829, Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 1: 193, pl. 7, figs. 6, 7; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 101.


78.       Sostrata nordica Evans, 1953

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 126.

Original Combination: [Sostrata bifasciata] nordica

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Llorente et al. (1990), Publ. esp. Mus. Zool. 1: 30, A. Warren et al. (1998), J. Lepid. Soc. 52(1): 51, A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 552, and other recent authors, have treated nordica as a species-level taxon.


Genus Mylon Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(119): 384. Type-species: Leucochitonea lassia Hewitson, 1868, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 49, no. 10, by original designation.

=    Eudamidas Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(121): 386. Type-species: Papilio melander Cramer 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(23): 141, pl. 270, fig. H; (24): 175 (index) (= Papilio maimon Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 534, no. 395; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 86.


79.       Mylon pelopidas (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 350, no. 331; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 27, fig. 2 D&V.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Pelopidas

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Recorded from Arizona by K. Davis et al. (2005), News Lepid. Soc. 47(4): 103, 104, figs. 1-4, 106, 110-111, fig. 114.

=    ozema Butler, 1870

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)18(4): 515, no. 4.

Original Combination: Achlyodes Ozema

Type Locality: “Nicaragua...Honduras, St. Paulo, Tapejos”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    ‡”brunnea” Mabille & Boullet, 1917

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1917(1): 323.

Original Combination: Mylon ozema ab. brunnea

Type Locality: “Mexique, Brésil”

Types: “Holotype” in MNHP.


Genus Grais Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(119): 381. Type-species: Anastrus stigmaticus Mabille, 1883, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liv, by original designation.


80.       Grais stigmaticus (Mabille, 1883)

a.   Grais stigmaticus stigmaticus (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liv.

Original Combination: Anastrus stigmaticus

Type Locality: “Brasilia”; “Chiriqui (Panama)” on label of holotype.

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

Species-genus gender conformation is stigmatica.

=    fumosus (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 26, no. 31; cited unpublished pl. 1017.

Original Combination: [Antigonus] Fumosus

Type Locality: “Brasilien”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.


Genus Timochares Godman & Salvin, 1896

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(128): 417. Type-species: Leucochitonea trifasciata Hewitson, 1868, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 50, no. 11, by designation of Lindsey (1921), Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 55.


81.       Timochares ruptifasciata (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 27, no. 33; cited unpublished pl. 1018.

Original Combination: [Antigonus] Ruptifasciata

Type Locality: “Süd-Amerika”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Species-genus gender conformation is ruptifasciatus.

=    obscurior Draudt, 1923

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(324): 907; (329): pl. 176i, fig. [7] ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Timochares trifasciata] form obscurior

Type Locality: Not precisely stated; lectotype from “Honduras: San Pedro Sula.”

Types: Lectotype (#L 4052) in SMF, designated by Mielke and Schroeder (1994), Senckenberg. biol. 73(1/2): 139, fig. 10 ♂ genitalia.

Austin and A. Warren (2002), Dugesiana 9(2): 26, determined this synonymy.


Genus Anastrus Hübner, [1824]

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [149]. Type-species: Anastrus obscurus Hübner, [1824], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [149], figs. 3, 4, by monotypy.

=    Echelatus Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(119): 378. Type-species: Anastrus varius Mabille, 1883, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liv (= Achlyodes sempiternus Butler & H. Druce, 1872, Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 114; synonym), by selection of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 85.

=    Gorgophone Godman & Salvin, 1894

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(119): 378. Type-species: Gorgophone meliboea Godman & Salvin, 1894, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(119): 378; 3(120): pl. 84, figs. 13, 14, by monotypy.


82.       Anastrus sempiternus (Butler & H. Druce, 1872)

a.   Anastrus sempiternus sempiternus (Butler & H. Druce, 1872)

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 114.

Original Combination: A[chlyodes]. Sempiternus

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica” implied from the title and introduction to the paper.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by Bordelon and Knudson (2003), News Lepid. Soc. 45(1): 5 figs. A, B, 7.

=    varius Mabille, 1883

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liv-lv.

Original Combination: Anastrus varius

Type Locality: “Venezuela”

Types: Type(s) may be in MNHP.


Genus Chiomara Godman & Salvin, 1899

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(147): 453. Type-species: Achlyodes mithrax Möschler, 1879, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 28: 225, no. 34, by original designation.


83.       Chiomara georgina (Reakirt, 1868)

a.   Chiomara georgina georgina (Reakirt, 1868)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 20(1/2): 88, no. 53.

Original Combination: Pyrgus Georgina

Type Locality: “Mexico, near Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Type(s) apparently lost.

Reakirt described many taxa from “coll. W. H. Edwards” Some of his types are in the Strecker collection (FMNH), and others might be in W. H. Edwards’ collection (CMNH). L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 208, note 40, were unable to find the type(s) of this taxon. A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 554, and other recent authors, treated this as a species-level taxon.

84.       Chiomara mithrax (Möschler, 1879)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 28: 225, no. 34.

Original Combination: Achlyodes mithrax

Type Locality: “Colombien”

Types: Type(s) probably in NMW.

Recorded from Arizona by Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 8.

=    noctula (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 15, no. 12; cited unpublished pl. 965.

Original Combination: [Achlyodes] Noctula

Type Locality: “Parà” [Brazil]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB or lost.

=    gundlachi Skinner & Ramsden, 1924

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 75: 314.

Original Combination: Cycloglypha gundlachi

Type Locality: “Guantanamo, Cuba”

Types: Holotype (#7083) in CMNH.

‡”selma” (W. F. Kirby, 1879)

Cat. Coll. Diurn. Lepid. Hewitson: 243.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Selma

Type Locality: “Cayenne, Amazon, Venezuela, Rio...Bolivia...Nicaragua...Minas Geraes...Calabar...Delagoa Bay...Ega”

This name was mentioned without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Gesta Evans, 1953

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 171, 200. Type-species: Thanaos gesta Herrich-Schäffer, 1863, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 17: 142, by original designation.


85.       Gesta invisus (Butler & H. Druce, 1872)

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 114.

Original Combination: T[hanaos]. Invisus

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica” implied from the title and introduction to the paper.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Austin and A. Warren (2002), Dugesiana 9(2): 30, and other recent authors, treated G. invisus as a species-level taxon.

=    gorgona (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 15, no. 11; cited unpublished pl. 963.

Original Combination: Achlyodes gorgona

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 148, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    llano (Dodge, 1903)

Can. Entomol. 35(3): 78.

Original Combination: Nisoniades llano

Type Locality: “Llano, Texas” [Llano County]

Types: Holotype was in CAS, destroyed in the 1905 San Francisco earthquake and fire.


Genus Ephyriades Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 111. Type-species: Papilio otreus Stoll, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 4(28): 78, pl. 328, fig. F, (34): 252 (index) (= Papilio philemon Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 534, no. 392; synonym: a subspecies of Papilio arcas Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 38, pl. 19, figs. 5, 6; 2: index), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 164, no. 384.

=    Melanthes Mabille, 1903

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17a): 47, 80. Type-species: Nisoniades brunnea Herrich-Schäffer, 1865, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 18(11/12): 172, no. 3, by designation of Lindsey (1921), Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 48.

=    Brachycoryne Mabille, 1883

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liii (as “Brachycorynae”). Type-species: Papilio flyas Stoll, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 4(28): 78, pl. 328, fig. E; (34): 249 (index) (= Papilio philemon Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 534, no. 392; synonym: a subspecies of Papilio arcas Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 38, pl. 19, figs. 5, 6; 2: index), by monotypy. It has been considered by some (e.g., Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 80) that this name only became available when Mabille later published it in 1904 (in: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17b): 47, 81); however, Brachycoryne Mabille, 1883, is available from its first use (Code Article 32.5.2.7).


*86.      Ephyriades brunnea (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 18(11/12): 172, no. 3.

Original Combination: [Nisoniades] brunnea

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper and label of the syntype.

Types: Syntype (#7155) in ANSP.

Species-genus gender conformation is brunneus.

=    electra (Lintner, 1881)

Can. Entomol. 13(4): 63-65.

Original Combination: Eudamus Electra

Type Locality: “Hamilton, Ontario”; apparently an accidental import.

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

a.   Ephyriades brunnea floridensis E. Bell & W. Comstock, 1948

Am. Mus. Novit. (1379): 17-18, fig. 14, ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Ephyriades brunnea floridensis

Type Locality: “Key Largo, Florida” [Monroe County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.


Genus Erynnis Schrank, 1801

Fauna boic. 2(1): 152, no. 197. Type-species: Papilio tages Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 168, by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 71.

      =    ‡Thymele [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 287, no. 39. Type-species: Papilio tages Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 168, by designation of Westwood (1840), Intro. Class. Ins. 2, Syn.: 88. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 232 placed this name on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 49; it is also a junior objective synonym of Erynnis Schrank, 1801.

      =    ‡Thymale Oken, 1815

Lehrbuch Naturgesch. 3(Zool.)(1): 757, 758. Type-species: Papilio tages Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 168, by designation of Hemming (1933), Entomol. 66(845): 225. This is possibly an incorrect subsequent spelling of Thymele [Fabricius], 1807, and is also a junior objective synonym of Erynnis Schrank, 1801. The original publication was placed on the list of rejected works in Opinion 417 and this name is unavailable (Code Article 80.7.2).

      =    ‡Astycus Hübner, 1822

Syst.-alph. Verz.: 1, 3, 5, 6, 8-10. Type-species: Papilio tages Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 168, by designation of Hemming (1933), Entomol. 66(844): 200. A junior objective synonym of Erynnis Schrank, 1801.

      =    ‡Thanaos Boisduval, [1834]

Icon. Hist. Lépid. Europ. 1(23): 240. Type-species: Papilio tages Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 168, by designation of Blanchard (1840), in: Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. 3: 469. This name is a junior objective synonym of Erynnis Schrank, 1801; it was unjustifiably emended to “Thanatos” by [Dunning & Pickard] [1859], Accentuated List Brit. Lepid.: 6.

      =    ‡Hallia Tutt, 1906

Nat. Hist. Brit. Butterflies 1(8/9): 261. Type-species: Thanaos marloyi Boisduval, [1834], Icon. Hist. Lépid. Europ. 1(24): 241, pl. 47, figs. 6, 7, by original designation. Preoccupied by Hallia Edwards & Haime, 1850, Brit. foss. Corals (Pal. Soc. 3): lxvi.

=    Erynnides Burns, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 24-25. Type-species: Nisoniades propertius Scudder & Burgess, 1870, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 298, fig. 11, by original designation.


icelus group Burns, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 27.

87.       Erynnis icelus (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 288, fig. 3 ♂ valvae; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2 (8): pl. 28; (9): pl 77; (10): pl. 85; (11): pl. 9, fig. 6 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Icelus

Type Locality: “New England” Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(10): 1510-1511, mentioned several possible localities “in the White Mountain valleys and even in the subalpine region of the White Mountains in abundance...in Massachusetts...from Andover...Amherst Notch...Nantucket...vicinity of Boston...in Connecticut...New Britain”; a syntype is from “Center.” [Karner, Albany County, New York]

Types: Syntype in NYSM.

Lintner (1872), Entomol. Contr. 2: 30-31, pl. 7, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, redescribed this taxon from “Center” and “Schoharie, N. Y.”

=    bautista (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 36, no. 2; cited unpublished pl. 1048 (as tages).

Original Combination: [Nisoniades] Bautista

Type Locality: “Californien”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

‡”hamamaelidis” (Scudder, 1889)

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(10): 1507.

Original Combination: Nisoniades hamamaelidis Fitch manuscript

Proposed for a manuscript name of Fitch’s without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

88.       Erynnis brizo (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

a.   Erynnis brizo somnus (Lintner, 1881)

Papilio 1(5): 73-74.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Somnus

Type Locality: “Indian River, Florida”; suggested to be “Georgiana, approximately 5 km south of the city of Merritt Island, Brevard County, Florida” by Calhoun (1993), J. Lepid. Soc. 47(1): 50.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by Calhoun (1993), J. Lepid. Soc. 47(1): 50, fig. 1 ♂ D (lectotype); figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 3 ♂ D (lectotype), 4 ♀ D (paralectotype).

b.   Erynnis brizo brizo (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (23): pl. 66, figs. [1] ♂ D, [2] ♂ V, [3] ♀ D; drawings of larva and pupa suspect.

Original Combination: Thanaos Brizo

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text), but “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot. A. Clark (1936), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 95(7): 14, suggested that the model for Abbot’s figure came from the vicinity of Jacksonborough, Screven County Georgia, but Abbot spent most of his time in Burke County.

Types: The plate was a reproduction of a John Abbot drawing. The types are the specimens that he painted and are probably lost. There may be “types” in USNM or BMNH, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

c.   Erynnis brizo burgessi (Skinner, 1914)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 40(3): 203, fig. ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Thanaos burgessi

Type Locality: “Arizona...Mt. Graham”; holotype labeled “Mt. Graham, Arizona.” [Graham County]

Types: Holotype (#7089) in CMNH; a paratype figured by figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 7 ♂ D.

d.   Erynnis brizo lacustra (W. G. Wright, 1905)

Butterflies W. Coast: 69, no. 480; 253, no. 480, pl. 32, figs. 480 ♂ D (lectotype), 480a ♂ V.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Lacustra

Type Locality: “Central California”; “Blue Lakes, California” [Lake County]

Types: Lectotype (#4325) in CAS, designated by Burns (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 58-59.

In its original description, this name was incorrectly applied to E. pacuvius callidus (Grinnell, 1904), a problem resolved by Burns (1964), ibid.

juvenalis group Burns, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 27.

89.       Erynnis juvenalis (Fabricius, 1793)

a.   Erynnis juvenalis juvenalis (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 339-340, no. 291; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 78, fig. 1.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Juvenalis

Type Locality: “America”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    juvenis (Hübner, [1819])

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 108, no. 1163, cited Papilio juvenalis J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: pl. 21.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Juvenis

Type Locality: Not stated, but “Georgia” implied from John Abbot’s figures; “Virginia” is also mentioned by Abbot in his notes for this drawing.

Types: Described, by indication, from a John Abbot drawing. The specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost. The figures on plate 21 represent Erynnis brizo and either Erynnis juvenalis or Erynnis horatius (Calhoun pers. comm. 2006).

=    costalis (Westwood, [1852])

In: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (2): pl. 79, fig. 3 ♂ D; (54): 519, no. 5.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Costalis

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    ennius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 296, fig. 9 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Ennius

Type Locality: “New England”

Types: Holotype (#15836) in MCZ.

=    plautus (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 304, fig. 16 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Plautus

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Holotype (#15830) in MCZ.

b.   Erynnis juvenalis clitus (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Papilio 2(9/10): 180.

Original Combination: Thanaos Clitus

Type Locality: Not stated; subsequently listed from “Mt. Graham” by W. H. Edwards (1883), Papilio 3(3): 65; the lectotype is from this locality. [Graham County, Arizona]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 621, figs. 9 ♂ D&V, 10 ♂ genitalia.

W. H. Edwards described this taxon from a mixed series in his possession, but W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 124, selected a specimen from Neumoegen’s collection, not seen by Edwards, as the “type.” F. Brown and L. Miller determined that the true type-series was that in Edwards’ own collection and acted accordingly.

=    maestus (Godman, 1899)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(148): 457; 3: pl. 91, fig. 18 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Thanaos maestus

Type Locality: “North America, Arizona.--Mexico, Pinal, Puebla”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

90.       Erynnis telemachus Burns, 1960

Wasmann J. Biol. 18(1): 148-151, figs. 1♂ D (holotype), 2 ♀ D, 3-4 ♂ genitalia (holotype), 6 section of D forewing.

Original Combination: Erynnis telemachus

Type Locality: “Hualapai Mountains, elevation 6,500 feet, 10 miles southeast of Kingman, Mohave County, Arizona”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

91.       Erynnis propertius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 298, fig. 11 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Propertius

Type Locality: “California”

Types: Syntypes (#15837) in MCZ; Lintner (1881), Papilio 1(5): 71, discussed the type-series, which included two specimens from “Mokiah Pass”, one from “Juniper Mountains”, one from “Sierra Nevada” and four from “California” Obviously, a Californian specimen should be designated lectotype.

Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 212, included this taxon as a subspecies of E. juvenalis (Fabricius, 1793); Burns (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 94-107, subsequently detailed its species-level status.

=    tibullus (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 299, fig. 12 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Tibullus

Type Locality: “California”

Types: Holotype (#15829) in MCZ.

92.       Erynnis meridianus E. Bell, 1927

a.   Erynnis meridianus meridianus E. Bell, 1927

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 35(3): 261; ♂ genitalia figured by Lindsey et al. (1931), Denison Univ. Bull. 31(2), J. Sci. Lab. 26(1): pl. 25, fig. 6.

Original Combination: Erynnis meridianus

Type Locality: “White Mountains, Arizona”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

93.       Erynnis scudderi (Skinner, 1914)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 40(3): 215, fig. ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Thanaos scudderi

Type Locality: “Fort Grant, Arizona”; suggested to be “somewhere on Mount Graham” by Burns (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 113. [Graham County] Scott (2008), Papilio (n.s.) 19: 29, suggests “Huachuca Mts., Ariz.” because he claims this species does not occur on Mount Graham. [Cochise County]

Types: Holotype (#7088) in CMNH; a paratype figured by figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 9 ♂ D.

Burns (1964), ibid., discussed the type locality of this species, emphasizing that Fort Grant is a lowland locality and that the type must have come from the flanks of Mt. Graham.

94.       Erynnis horatius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 301-302, fig. 13 ♂ valvae; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): pl. 9, figs. 7 ♀ D, 10 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Horatius

Type Locality: “Massachusetts...New England, Texas”

Types: Syntype (#15832) in MCZ.

=    virgilius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 302, fig. 14 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Virgilius

Type Locality: “New England”

Types: Type(s) may be in MCZ.

=    petronius (Lintner, 1881)

Papilio 1(5): 70-71.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Petronius

Type Locality: “Indian River, Florida” [Brevard County]

Types: Syntypes (#6248, 6249) in NYSM.

This name was listed as “Nisoniades petronius”, but not described, by Mead (1875), Rep. Coll. diurn. Lepid. 5(Zool.): 786; a nomen nudum.

95.       Erynnis tristis (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Erynnis tristis tristis (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 311; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, fig. 2081 ♂ D&V (lectotype).

Original Combination: Thanaos tristis

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; suggested to be “San Francisco, San Francisco County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20, figs. 120 ♂ D, 121 ♂ V.

b.   Erynnis tristis tatius (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Papilio 2(9/10): 179-180.

Original Combination: Thanaos Tatius

Type Locality: Not stated; subsequently listed from “Mt. Graham” by W. H. Edwards (1883), Papilio 3(3): 65. [Graham County, Arizona]

Types: Holotype (#33630) in USNM, figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, figs. 15 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): figs. 11 ♂ D&V, 12 ♂ genitalia.

=    albomarginatus (Godman, 1899)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(148): 458, no. 5; 3(148): pl. 91, figs. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♂ V, 21 ♂ genitalia, 22 ♀ D, 23 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Thanaos albomarginatus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Cordova...Guatemala, Chisoy Valley...San Gerónimo...Costa Rica...Irazu...Panama, Chiriqui...Volcan de Chiriqui...Colombia”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

zarucco group Burns, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 28.

96.       Erynnis martialis (Scudder, [1870])

Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 1(2): 335, no. 35.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Martialis

Type Locality: “New Jefferson...open prairie...lower half of Dallas county”; on page 328 Scudder stated “New Jefferson may be anywhere along a devious, hundred-mile route beginning at Denison, including Wall Lake and Grant City, and terminating at New Jefferson.” [Iowa]

Types: Syntype (#15834) in MCZ.

=    ausonius (Lintner, 1872)

Entomol. Contr. 2: 34-35, pl. 7, figs. 11 ♂ D, 12 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Ausonius

Type Locality: “Center” [Karner, Albany County, New York]

Types: Holotype (#3256) in NYSM; ♂ genitalia figured by Cook (1905), J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 14(3): pl. 2, fig. 2.

‡”quercus” (Butler, 1870)

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(77): 97.

Original Combination: [Thanaos] quercûs

This name was mentioned in the synonymy of martialis without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

97.       Erynnis pacuvius (Lintner, 1878)

a.   Erynnis pacuvius pacuvius (Lintner, 1878)

Entomol. Contr. 4: 60-61.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Pacuvius

Type Locality: “New Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#5200) in NYSM.

W. H. Edwards (1877), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 57, no. 485, listed Thanaos pacuvius in reference to a Lintner publication. There was no prior description of pacuvius by Lintner and this is a nomen nudum.

b.   Erynnis pacuvius lilius (Dyar, 1904)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 27(1376): 788.

Original Combination: Thanaos lilius

Type Locality: “Kaslo, British Columbia” inferred from text; holotype from “Kaslo, elevation 1,670 feet, Kootenai District, British Columbia”, as noted by Burns (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 159.

Types: Holotype (#7333) in USNM.

c.   Erynnis pacuvius pernigra (F. Grinnell, 1905)

Entomol. News 16(2): 34-35.

Original Combination: Thanaos pernigra

Type Locality: “Mt. Tamalpais, Marin Co., California...in Mill Valley, on the slopes of Mt. Tamalpais”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Species-genus gender conformation is perniger.

d.   Erynnis pacuvius callidus (F. Grinnell, 1904)

Entomol. News 15(4): 114-115, figs. 1 valve, 2 uncus, 3 penis.

Original Combination: Thanaos callidus

Type Locality: “Mt. Wilson, Sierra Madre Mountains, Los Angeles County, California. Altitude, 5886 feet” [San Gabriel Mtns.]

Types: Lectotype in AMNH, designated by dos Passos (1947), Am. Mus. Novit. (1337): 1.

98.       Erynnis zarucco (Lucas, 1857)

In: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 641-642.

Original Combination: Thanaos Zarucco

Type Locality: “habite l’île de Cuba”

Types: Type(s) probably in MNHP.

=    diogenes (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 34, no. 62; cited unpublished pl. 1041.

Original Combination: [Antigonus] Diogenes

Type Locality: “Cuba”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

=    terentius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 292, fig. 6 ♂ valvae; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): pl. 9, fig. 15 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Terentius

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Syntype (#15833) in MCZ.

Scott (1998), Papilio (n.s.) 11: 8, made a first reviser choice of terentius over ovidius (below). Furthermore, he suggested that terentius be regarded as a mainland subspecies of zarucco. A more substantial analysis is needed. This synonymy follows Mielke (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. 3: 551-553.

=    ovidius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 295, fig. 8 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Ovidius

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Type(s) may be in MCZ.

=    naevius (Lintner, 1881)

Papilio 1(5): 69.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Naevius

Type Locality: “Indian River, Florida” [Brevard County]

Types: Syntypes (#7771, 6247) in NYSM.

99.       Erynnis funeralis (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 293, fig. 7 ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Nisoniades funeralis

Type Locality: “This Texan species”

Types: Syntype (#15831) in MCZ.

Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 209, followed by Scott (1981), J. Res. Lepid. 20(1): 60, and (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 492, no. 656, considered this taxon to be a subspecies of zarucco (Lucas, 1857); the arrangement employed by Mielke (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. 3: 526-528, is followed here.

=    clericalis Burmeister, 1875

Revue Mag. Zool. (3)3: 60-61, 64, pl. 1, figs. 3 larva, 7 pupa, 10 larval head capsule (not 5).

Original Combination: Phlebodes clericalis

Type Locality: “Cordova” [Córdoba, Argentina]

Types: Syntype in MACN.

=    australis (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): liv.

Original Combination: Nisoniades australis

Type Locality: “E Colombia”

Types: Type(s) may be in MNHP.

persius group Burns, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 28.

100.      Erynnis baptisiae (W. Forbes, 1936)

Psyche 43(4): 111-112, fig. 2 ♂ genitalia, valvae.

Original Combination: Thanaos baptisiae

Type Locality: “Woods Hole, Mass.” [Barnstable County, Massachusetts]

Types: Holotype (#1391) in CUIC.

101.      Erynnis lucilius (Scudder & Burgess, 1870)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: 287, fig. 2 ♂ valve; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2 (9): pl. 36, figs. 4, 5, 6; (11): pl. 9, fig. 4 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Lucilius

Type Locality: “New England”

Types: Syntype (#2966) in NYSM.

Lintner (1872), Entomol. Contr. 2: 32-35, pl. 7, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♂ V, subsequently redescribed this species from “Schoharie...Bethlehem” [New York]

102.      Erynnis afranius (Lintner, 1878)

Entomol. Contr. 4: 63-64.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Afranius

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

103.      Erynnis persius (Scudder, 1863)

Forbes (1936), Psyche 43(4): 104-113, demonstrated that Scudder confused this species and baptisiae, both in biological and morphological details. L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 21, note 60, claimed to follow Burns (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 37: 191-194, in their application of names to this complex. Burns, however, advised against using subspecies for E. persius until the group could be studied in more detail. Austin (1981), J. Res. Lepid. 19(4): 242, concurred. The situation remains unclear and subspecies are employed following L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), ibid., and Ferris (1989), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (3): 69.

a.   Erynnis persius persius (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 170, no. 58; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): pl. 9, fig. 1 ♂ D&V; (9): pl. 36, figs. 1, 2, 3, but some of these figures might represent baptisiae; ♂ valvae figured by Scudder & Burgess (1870), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 13: fig. 1.

Original Combination: Nisoniades Persius

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; “New England” implied from the title of the paper. The “type” is from “Mass” according to W. Forbes (1936), Psyche 43(4): fig. 5. Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(10): 1472, mentioned “the White Mountains” as one locality where this species was collected.

Types: Syntype (#15835) in MCZ.

b.   Erynnis persius borealis (M. Cary, 1906)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 31(1488): 455.

Original Combination: Thanaos propertius var. borealis

Type Locality: “mouth North Nahanni River, Mackenzie” [Nunavut]

Types: Holotype (#9869) in USNM.

c.   Erynnis persius avinoffi (W. Holland, 1930)

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 19(3): 156-157; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, figs. 28 ♂ D (holotype), 29 ♀ D (paratype).

Original Combination: Thanaos avinoffi

Type Locality: “various points in the Yukon Valley, the valley of the Kuskokwim, and various other points in Alaska”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

d.   Erynnis persius fredericki H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(3): 74.

Original Combination: Erynnis persius fredericki

Type Locality: “near Lead, Spearfish Canyon...South Dakota” [Lawrence County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

‡”rutilius” Mead, 1875

Rep. Coll. diurn. Lepid. 5(Zool.): 787.

Original Combination: Thanaos Rutilius Scudder, manuscript

Type Locality: “Turkey Creek Junction” [Jefferson County, Colorado]

This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Tribe Achlyodidini Burmeister, 1878

Descr. phys. Rép. Argentine 5(Lép.)(1): 245, 254 (as “Achlyodidae”). Type-genus: Achlyodes Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 108.


Genus Achlyodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 107-108. Type-species: Papilio busirus Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(22): 119-120, pl. 261, figs. A, B, C; 3(24): 174 (index), by designation of Butler (1870), Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(77): 98.

      =    ‡Sebaldia Mabille, 1903

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17a): 77. Type-species: Papilio busirus Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(22): 119-120, pl. 261, figs. A, B, C; (24): 174 (index), by monotypy. A junior objective synonym of Achlyodes Hübner, [1819].


104.      Achlyodes pallida (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 19: 478-479, no. 38.

Original Combination: Helias pallida

Type Locality: “Jalapa, Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by A. Warren et al. (2003), News Lepid. Soc. 45(4):128-131, figs. 1-6.

=    ozotes Butler, 1870

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)18(4): 515, no. 3.

Original Combination: Achlyodes Ozotes

Type Locality: “Venezuela”, “Venezuela, Bogota, Bolivia”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    selva Evans, 1953

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 178.

Original Combination: [Achlyodes] selva

Type Locality: “Jalapa, Mexico” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Austin and A. Warren (2002), Dugesiana 9(2): 26, determined this synonymy.


Genus Eantis Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: pl. 13 [=9B], fig. 6. Type-species: Urbanus thraso Hübner, [1807], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [151], figs. 1-4, by monotypy. A. Warren (1996), Phylog. Rev. Skippers mithridates Spec. Group: 188 pp. and (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 553, placed our species in Eantis.


105.      Eantis tamenund (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 205, 215-216, no. 20.

Original Combination: Hesperia Tamenund

Type Locality: “near Waco, Texas”; suggested to be “probably close to Norse, Bosque County, Texas” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 615.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 617, fig. 8 ♂ D&V.


Tribe Pyrgini Burmeister, 1878


Genus Carrhenes Godman & Salvin, 1895

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(121): 388. Type-species: Leucochitonea fuscescens Mabille, 1891, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(16): lxii, by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 81.


106.      Carrhenes canescens (R. Felder, 1869)

a.   Carrhenes canescens canescens (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 476-477, no. 34.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea canescens

Type Locality: “Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Type(s) may be in NMW.


Genus Xenophanes Godman & Salvin, 1895

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(121): 387. Type-species: Papilio tryxus Stoll, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 4(28): 87, pl. 334, figs. G, H, by original designation.


107.      Xenophanes tryxus (Stoll, 1780)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(28): 87, pl. 334, figs. G, H (as tryxus); (34): 252 (index, as trixus).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Tryxus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    salvianus (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 348-349, no. 325; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 94, fig. 4 D&V; figured by Donovan (1800), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [50], fig. 2 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Salvianus

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    ruatanensis Godman & Salvin, 1895

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(121): 388, no. 2.

Original Combination: Xenophanes ruatanensis

Type Locality: “Honduras, Ruatan I.”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    euphemie (Ehrmann, 1907)

Can. Entomol. 39(9): 318.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea euphemie

Type Locality: “Suapure, Venezuela”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    perplexus E. Bell, 1942

An. Esc. Nac. Cienc. Biol. Méx. 2(4): 456-457, no. 5, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Xenophanes perplexus

Type Locality: “Guerrero” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype in AMNH; the description erroneously stated that the holotype (#4772) is in ENCB.


Genus Antigonus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 108. Type-species: Urbanus erosus Hübner, [1812], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl [153], figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, by monotypy.

=    Chaetoneura C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862

Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 6(6): 185-186. Type-species: Chaetocneme hippulus C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 6(6): 186, no. 172 (= Hesperia nearchus Latreille, [1813], in: Humboldt and Bonpland, Voy. Rég. Équinox., Part 2 (Observ. Zool.) 2(10): 135, pl. 43, figs. 3, 4; synonym), by original designation.

=    Systaspes Weeks, 1901

Ill. diurn. Lepid. 1: 20, 29, 116. Type-species: Antigonus corrosus Mabille, 1878, Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(188): 198, no. 23, by monotypy.


108.      Antigonus emorsa (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 479- 480.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea emorsa

Type Locality: “von der Haupstadt Mexico in der Nähe von Cuernavaca” [Morelos, Mexico]

Types: Holotype probably in NMW.

Species-genus gender conformation is emorsus.

=    albimedia (Draudt, 1922)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(321): 904; (329): pl. 176f, fig. [7] ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Systasea emorsa] form albimedia

Type Locality: “Mexiko”; lectotype from “Guerrero.”

Types: Lectotype (#L 4051) in SMF, designated by Mielke and Schroeder (1994), Senckenberg. biol. 73(1/2): 139, fig. 9, ♂ genitalia.

109.      Antigonus erosus (Hübner, [1812])

Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl [153], figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Urbanus Erosus

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Types probably lost.

Recorded from Texas by Knudson et al. (2004), News Lepid. Soc. 46(4): 111, 113, 6 figs.

=    westermann (Latreille, [1824])

Enc. méth., 9(Ins.)(2): (725), 791, no. 153.

Original Combination: Hesperia Westermann

Type Locality: “l’Amérique méridionale”

Types: Types may be in MNHP or BMNH.


Genus Systasea W. H. Edwards, 1877

Can. Entomol. 9(6): 120. Type-species: Hesperia zampa W. H. Edwards, 1876, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 207-208, as replacement name for the genus Lintneria Auctorum. Because there was misunderstanding over the original description of Lintneria, this name was proposed to replace a “ghost.” According to Code Article 67.8, the type-species of Systasea is Papilio daunus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 44, pl. 126, fig. F; (16): 148 (index) (see Thorybes bathyllus); this issue needs to be addressed by the I.C.Z.N. in a petition to assign Hesperia zampa W. H. Edwards, 1876 as the type-species of Systasea. For now, traditional usage is maintained.

      =    ‡Lintneria W. H. Edwards, 1877

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 57. Type-species: Hesperia zampa W. H. Edwards, 1876, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 207-208, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Lintneria Butler, 1876, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 9: 620.

      =    ‡Plesiocera Mabille, 1891

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(17): cvi. Type-species: Plesiocera filipalpis Mabille, 1891, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(17): cvi (= Leucochitonea pulverulenta R. Felder, 1869, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 478; synonym), by monotypy. Preoccupied by Plesiocera Macquart, 1841, Mém. Soc. R. Sci. Lille 1840: 360. The generic and specific diagnoses of Plesiocera filipalpis were based on the body of S. pulverulenta with a glued-on satyrine head.


110.      Systasea pulverulenta (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien. 19: 478, no. 37.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea pulverulenta

Type Locality: “Orizaba” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in NMW.

=    taeniatus (Plötz, 1884)

Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 37: 41, no. 2; cited unpublished pl. 1068.

Original Combination: [Tagiades] Taeniatus

Type Locality: “Oaxaca” [Mexico]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 149, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    filipalpis (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(17): cvi.

Original Combination: Plesiocera filipalpis

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

As noted above, the specific diagnosis was based on the body of this species with a glued-on satyrine head.

111.      Systasea zampa (W. H. Edwards, 1876)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 207-208.

Original Combination: Hesperia Zampa

Type Locality: “South Apache, Arizona”; corrected to “South [of Fort] Apache, Navajo County Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 613; neotype from “Arizona.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by L. Miller (1970), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 41(5): 183-184, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V, 6 ♂ genitalia; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): fig. 7 ♂ D&V.

The misapplication of the name zampa was explained in the neotype designation, and by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 613-615.

=    evansi (E. Bell, 1941)

Entomol. News 52(6): 165-167, fig. 2 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Antigonus evansi

Type Locality: “Baboquivari Mountains, Arizona” [Pima County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.


Genus Celotes Godman & Salvin, 1899

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(147): 452. Type-species: Pholisora nessus W. H. Edwards, 1877, Can. Entomol. 9(6): 192, by monotypy.


112.      Celotes nessus (W. H. Edwards, 1877)

Can. Entomol. 9(10): 192.

Original Combination: Pholisora nessus

Type Locality: “San Antonio, Texas” [Bexar County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 640, fig. 21♂ D&V.

=    notabilis (Strecker, [1878])

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (14): 131.

Original Combination: Spilothyrus Notabilis

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; “vicinity of New Braunfels and San Antonio, Southwestern Texas” implied from the introductory text. [Comal and Bexar counties]

Types: Syntypes in FMNH.

=    radiatus (Plötz, 1884)

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 23, no. 1, cited unpublished pl. 907.

Original Combination: [Carcharodus] Radiatus

Type Locality: “Texas”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 147, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

113.      Celotes limpia Burns, 1974

Psyche 81(1): 51-55, figs. 1E ♂ D, 1F ♂ V (holotype), 1G ♀ D, 1H ♀ V, 2B ♂ metathoracic pouch, 4 ♂ genitalia, 6 ♀ genitalia, 8 distribution map.

Original Combination: Celotes limpia

Type Locality: “Limpia Canyon, 5000 feet, Davis Mountains., 4 miles WNW of Fort Davis, Jeff Davis County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in MCZ.


Genus Pyrgus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 109. Type-species: Papilio alveolus Hübner, [1803], Samml. europ. Schmett. 1: pl. 92, figs. 466, 467 (= Papilio malvae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 167; synonym), by designation of Westwood [1841], in: Brit. Butterflies Transf. (ed. 1): 123. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 706. As a result of the erroneous type-species designation of Hesperia Fabricius, 1793, by Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 187-189, most of what is now known as Pyrgus was previously called Hesperia. The action of Plötz (1879), Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 40(4-6): 179, of citing malvae as the type-species of Carcharodus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 110, further confused the issue surrounding the identity of Pyrgus. The situation was explained by Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 94-95. Carcharodus does not occur in the Nearctic.

      =    ‡Urbanus Hübner, [1806]

Tentamen: [1]. Type-species: Papilio malvae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 167, by monotypy. The Tentamen was suppressed by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 97. Opinion 278 placed Urbanus Hübner [1806] on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 86.

=    Syrichtus Boisduval, [1834]

Icon. Hist. Lépid. Europ. 1(23): 230. Type-species: Papilio malvae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 167, by designation of Blanchard (1845), Hist. Ins. 2: 348.

=    Scelotrix Rambur, 1858

Cat. Syst. Lépid. Andal.: 63. Type-species: Papilio carthami Hübner, [1813], Samml. europ. Schmett. 1: pl. 143, figs. 726 [actually 720], 723 [not figs. 721-722] (= Papilio fritillarius Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 79, no. 53, as defined by the specimen on pl. 10, fig. 7; synonym), by designation of E. Watson (1893), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 64.

      =    ‡Bremeria Tutt, 1906

Nat. Hist. Brit. Butterflies 1(10/11): 296. Type-species: Syrichtus bieti Oberthür, 1886, Étud. Entomol. 11: 26, pl. 6, fig. 50, by designation of Lindsey (1921), Bull. Labs. Nat. Hist. St. Univ. Iowa 9(4): 37. Preoccupied by Bremeria Alpheraky, 1892, in: Romanoff, Mém. Lépid. 6: 7, and Bremeria Moore, 1896, Lepid. Ind. 3(25): 9.

      =    ‡Teleomorpha B. Warren, 1926

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(1): 18, 46, pl. 10, fig. 7. Type-species: Papilio carthami Hübner, [1813], Samml. europ. Schmett.: pl. 143, figs. 726 [actually 720] ♂, 723 ♂ [not figs. 721-722] (= Papilio fritillarius Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 79, as defined by the specimen on pl. 10, fig. 7), by designation of Hemming (1934), Stylops 3(6): 143. A junior objective synonym of Scelotrix Rambur, 1858.

      =    ‡Hemiteleomorpha B. Warren, 1926

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(1): 19, 72. Type-species: Papilio malvae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 485, no. 167, by designation of Hemming (1934), Stylops, 3(6): 143. A junior objective synonym of Syrichtus Boisduval, [1834].

=    Ateleomorpha B. Warren, 1926

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(1): 19, 87. Type-species: Hesperia onopordi Rambur, [1842], Faune Entomol. Andal. 2(6): 319, pl. 8, fig. 13, by designation of Hemming (1934), Stylops 3(6): 143.


*114.    Pyrgus centaureae (Rambur, [1842])

Faune Entomol. Andal. 2(6): 315-316, pl. 8, fig. 10.

Original Combination: Hesperia Centaureae

Type Locality: “Torneo en Laponie et de la Dalécarlie” [Dalarna, Sweden]

Types: Type(s) may be in MNHP, BMNH, or lost.

de Jong (1972), Tijdschr. Entomol. 115(1): 27, included this species in the subgenus Scelotrix.

a.   Pyrgus centaureae wyandot (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 21-22, no. 13; [2]: pl. 5, fig. 4 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Wyandot

Type Locality: “Long Island...Washington, D. C.”; neotype from “Long Island, New York.”

Types: Neotype (possibly a lectotype) in FMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 632, fig. ♂ D&V.

Shapiro (1974), Search 4(3): 23, suggested that this taxon might be a distinct species, a status that Lindsey (1928), Entomol. News 39: 239-242, disputed. More research is needed; see Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 8-9.

b.   Pyrgus centaureae freija (B. Warren, 1924)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 72(Proc.): lvi-lvii, pl. B, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ V (lectotype), 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ V, 5 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia freija

Type Locality: “Colorado at an altitude of 13,000 ft.; Labrador and other parts of N. America; and in the extreme North of Europe”; lectotype from “Labrador” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Lectotype in MHNG (Reverdin collection) designated by B. Warren (1951), Entomol. 84(1061): 217; figured by B. Warren (1926), Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(1): pl. 14, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, pl. 15, fig. 2 ♂ genitalia.

This taxon was further discussed by B. Warren (1935), Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 83(1): 127-129, pl. 7, W. Forbes (1960), Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 371 (part 4): 67-68, and de Jong (1972), Tijdschr. Entomol. 115(1): 57.

=    ‡”fasciata” (B. Warren, 1926)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(1): 51.

Original Combination: [Hesperia freija] ab. fasciata

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

‡”reducta” Evans, 1942

Revta. Entomol. (Rio de Janeiro) 13(3): 364.

Original Combination: Pyrgus reducta

This name was listed as a synonym of Pyrgus centaureae without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

c.   Pyrgus centaureae loki Evans, 1953

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 214.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus centaureae] loki

Type Locality: “Long [sic!] Peak Trail, Colorado: above timberline” [Long’s Peak, Larimer County]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

115.      Pyrgus ruralis (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Pyrgus ruralis ruralis (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 311-312, no. 68; figured by Oberthür (1912), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 6: pl. 137, fig. 1212 ♀ D&V (lectotype).

Original Combination: Syrichtus ruralis

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Tuolumne Co., Calif.” by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 7; corrected to “Hwy. 70 at Murphy Creek, 2.5 road miles SW of Belden, North Fork Feather River Canyon, 1800' elev., Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20, figs. 123 ♀ D, 124 ♀ V.

=    caespitatis (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 312, no. 69; figured by Oberthür (1912), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 6: pl. 137, figs. 1204 ♂ D&V (lectotype), 1205 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Syrichtus caespitatis

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Marin Co., Calif.” by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 7; corrected to “Hwy. 70 at Murphy Creek, 2.5 road miles SW of Belden, North Fork Feather River Canyon, 1800' elev., Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20, figs. 126 ♂ D, 127 ♂ V.

=    ricara (W. H. Edwards, 1865)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(1): 201, 203, no. 6, pl. 1, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ricara

Type Locality: “Empire City, Colorado Territory”; defined as “vicinity of the former site of Empire City, Clear Creek County, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 626.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 626-628, fig. 15 ♂ D&V.

=    petreius (W. H. Edwards, 1870)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(2): 189, 195, no. 12.

Original Combination: Syrichtus Petreius

Type Locality: “Nevada”; defined as “Little Valley, Washoe County, Nevada” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 628, 630; neotype from “Neva.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 630, fig. 16 ♂ D&V.

b.   Pyrgus ruralis lagunae Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 7, figured by Scott (1975), J. Lepid. Soc. 29(4): fig. 3 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Pyrgus ruralis lagunae

Type Locality: “N. end, E Laguna...Laguna Mts., San Diego Co., Calif.”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

116.      Pyrgus xanthus W. H. Edwards, 1878

Field & Forest 3(9): 142-143.

Original Combination: Pyrgus Xanthus

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; defined as “Rosita, Custer County, Colorado” by Scott (1975), J. Lepid. Soc. 29(4): 217.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 626, fig. 14 ♂ D&V; paralectotype figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 47, fig. 15 ♂ D.

=    macdunnoughi (Oberthür, 1914)

Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(2): 86, pl. 264, fig. 2205 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: [Syrichtus] Mac Dunnoughi

Type Locality: “Arizona”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

117.      Pyrgus scriptura (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Pyrgus scriptura scriptura (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 312, no. 70; figured by Oberthür (1912), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 6: pl. 137, fig. 1206 ♂ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Syrichtus scriptura

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of paper; further refined as “Dans les lieux arides”, by Boisduval (1868), Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 12: 23, no. 71; defined as “Sacramento, Sacramento County, California”, by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20.

Types: Holotype in BMNH, figured by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20, figs. 129 ♂ D, 130 ♂ V.

‡”pseudoxanthus” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 495, no. 664.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus scriptura] form pseudoxanthus

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

b.   Pyrgus scriptura apertorum Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 524, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Pyrgus scriptura apertorum

Type Locality: “Nevada: Clark County; Spring Mountains, Cottonwood Pass Road, 0.6 road miles south of Nevada State Route 160 (Pahrump Road) to Cottonwood Pass, 1340 m, T23S R58E S2, 11, 14 and T22S R58E S35 on USGS Goodsprings, Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

118.      Pyrgus communis (Grote, 1872)

The species-level arrangement presented by Burns (2000), J. Lepid. Soc. 54(2): 52-71, is accepted here, but the synonymy remains tentative and is clearly in need of review.

a.   Pyrgus communis communis (Grote, 1872)

Can. Entomol. 4(4): 69-70.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Syrichtus communis

Type Locality: “central Alabama”; suggested to be “vicinity of Demopolis” by Burns (2000), J. Lepid. Soc. 54(2): 62. [Marengo County]

Types: Syntype (#7170) in ANSP.

=    ‡tessellata (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 73-74, no. 2.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. tessellata

Type Locality: “Pennsylvania, Maryland, Iowa, Florida, Alabama, Texas, Missouri and California”; defined as “Pennsylvania” by Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 219; syntypes from “Dallas, Tex...California.”

Types: Syntypes (#15823) in MCZ.

Preoccupied by Hesperia tessellata Hewitson, [1866], Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (3)2(6): 494.

=    insolatrix Plötz, 1884

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 4, no. 7; cited unpublished pl. 887.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus (Pyrgus)] Insolatrix

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

=    varus Plötz, 1884

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 20, no. 53, cited unpublished pl. 900.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus (Syrichthus)] Varus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

=    ‡”skinneri” (Gunder, 1927)

Entomol. News 38(2): 51, fig. 2 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Urbanus tesselata var. occidentalis ab. skinneri

Type Locality: “Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butterflies Calif.: pl. 62, fig. 7 ♀ D.

‡”albovittata” (Grote, 1873)

Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 1(3): 168.

Original Combination: Hesperia albovittata

Type Locality: “südlichen Theile von Alabama”

Grote referred to specimens in ZMHB under a manuscript name, in a communication with Zeller; it is a nomen nudum.

119.      Pyrgus albescens Plötz, 1884

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 4, no. 5, cited unpublished pl. 889.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus (Pyrgus)] Albescens

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

This taxon has been considered a subspecies or form of P. communis by various authors (e.g., Lindsey et al. (1931), Denison Univ. Bull. 31(2), J. Sci. Lab. 26(1): 46, Tilden (1965), J. Lepid. Soc. 19(2): 91-94, Austin (1981), J. Res. Lepid. 19(4): 242, and (1986), J. Lepid. Soc. 40(1): 55-58), but Burns (2000), J. Lepid. Soc. 54(2): 52-71, and Calhoun (2002), J. Lepid. Soc. 56(2): 98-103, corroborated its species-level status.

=    occidentalis Skinner, 1906

Entomol. News 17(3): 96; figured by Skinner (1906), Entomol. News 17(8): pl. 12, middle row left ♂&♀ D, middle row right ♂&♀ V.

Original Combination: Pyrgus occidentalis

Type Locality: “San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise County, Arizona ...and Brownsville, Texas”; syntype labels read “San Antonio, Texas” and “Alamagordo, N. M.”

Types: Syntype (#7108) in CMNH.

120.      Pyrgus philetas W. H. Edwards, 1881

Papilio 1(4): 43, 46-47, no. 4.

Original Combination: Pyrgus philetas

Type Locality: “Western Texas”; defined as “Archer County” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 623.

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 50, fig. 24 ♀ [not ♂] D and F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): fig. 13 ♀ D&V.

Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 222, considered this taxon a subspecies of oileus. Burns and Kendall (1969), Psyche 76(1): 42-43, demonstrated that philetas and P oileus are distinct species.

121.      Pyrgus oileus (Linnaeus, 1767)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 795-796, no. 269.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus Urbicola]. Oileus

Type Locality: “Algiriae” [Algeria]; suggested to be “Mexico or the U.S.A.” by Evans (1953), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (3): 221.

Types: Type(s) apparently lost, as noted by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 356.

This name was resurrected by Evans (1953), ibid., to replace syrichtus, a name previously in wide use.

=    syrichtus (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 534, no. 394.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus] U[rbicola] Syrichtus

Type Locality: “America”; Fabricius (1793), Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 349, no. 326, listed “in America meridionali”

Types: Syntypes in ZMUC.

Fabricius (1793), Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 349, no. 326, cited Papilio oileus Linnaeus, 1767, which is further justification for this synonymy.

=    montivagus Reakirt, [1867]

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(4): 334, no. 33.

Original Combination: Pyrgus montivagus

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains, Colorado Territory...Mexico, near Vera Cruz”

Types: Syntype(s) in FMNH.

=    adjutrix Plötz, 1884

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 15, no. 38, cited unpublished pl. 882.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus (Scelothrix)] Adjutrix

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 147, suggested that this is “= Hesperia montivaga, Reak.” through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    fumosa (Reverdin, 1919)

Bull. Soc. Lépid. Genève 4(2): 106, pl. 4, fig. 2 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: [Hesperia syrichtus] var. (ab.?) fumosa

Type Locality: “Mexique (Vera Cruz); Arizona; Florida (Key West); Jamaica; Cuba; Porto-Rico; Brésil (Chapada); Cuba (Guantanamo)”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably in MHNG (Reverdin collection).


Genus Heliopyrgus Herrera, 1957

In: Herrera et al., Revta. chil. Entomol. 5: 154. Type-species: Syrichtus americanus Blanchard, 1852, in: Gay, Hist. fis. pol. Chile 7: 44, no. 2, pl. 3, fig. 10, by original designation. Austin and A. Warren (2001), Dugesiana 8(1): 4, resurrected this genus.


122.      Heliopyrgus domicella (Erichson, [1849])

a.   Heliopyrgus domicella domicella (Erichson, [1849])

In: Schomburgk, Reisen Brit.-Guiana 3: 604.

Original Combination: S[yrichthus]. Domicella

Type Locality: “British Guiana” implied from the title of the work. [Guyana]

Types: Location of type(s) not known (ZMHB?).

=    nearchus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(2): 26-27.

Original Combination: Pyrgus Nearchus

Type Locality: “southern Arizona”; suggested to be “vicinity of Tucson” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 637. [Pima County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 639, fig. 20 ♂ D&V.

=    aconita (Plötz, 1884)

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 3, no. 1.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus (Pyrgus)] Aconita

Type Locality: “Georgia”, in error.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC.

123.      Heliopyrgus sublinea (Schaus, 1902)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 24(1262): 434.

Original Combination: Heliopetes sublinea

Type Locality: “Orizaba, Paso de San Juan, Mexico” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype (#5992) in USNM.

Recorded from Texas by Basham et al. (2005), News Lepid. Soc. 47(1): 9-10, 6 figs.


Genus Heliopetes Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 81. Type-species: Papilio niveus Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 33, pl. 22, fig. C; (8): 154 (index) (= Papilio arsalte Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 469, no. 67; synonym), by monotypy.

=    Leucoscirtes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 73. Type-species: Syrichtus ericetorum Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 313, no. 71, by original designation.


124.      Heliopetes ericetorum (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 313, no. 71; figured by Oberthür (1912), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 6: pl. 137, fig. 1210 ♂ D&V (lectotype).

Original Combination: Syrichtus ericetorum

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “vicinity of Sawmill Peak at Griffin Gulch, rim of West Branch Feather River, 2 air miles E. of Magalia, Butte County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20, figs. 132 ♂ D, 133 ♂ V.

=    alba (W. H. Edwards, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(2): 200, 206, no. 6.

Original Combination: Syrichtus Alba

Type Locality: “Arizona”; defined as “vicinity of Fort Whipple” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 635. [Yavapai County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 637, fig. 19 ♂ D&V.

125.      Heliopetes macaira (Reakirt, [1867])

a.   Heliopetes macaira macaira (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(4): 334-335, no. 34.

Original Combination: Pyrgus macaira

Type Locality: “Mexico (near Vera Cruz)” [Veracruz]

Types: A syntype in FMNH.

=    ‡nivea (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 73-74, no. 2.

Original Combination: L[eucoscirtes]. nivea

Type Locality: “Tehuantepec” [Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes (#15321) in MCZ.

Secondarily preoccupied by Papilio niveus Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 33, pl. 22, fig. C ♂ D; (8): 154 (index).

=    locutia (Hewitson, 1875)

Ill. exot. Butterflies 5: [112], pl. Leucochitonea II, figs. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea Locutia

Type Locality: “Taboga Isl., Panama”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    cnemus Godman & Salvin, 1897

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(137): 448-449, no. 8; 3(138): pl. 90, figs. 25 ♀ D, 26 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Heliopetes cnemus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Lake Chapala...Dos Arroyos, Venta de Zopilote, Acapulco in Guerrero, Atoyac in Vera Cruz”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

‡”eulalia” (Plötz, 1885)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 46(1-3): 39, no. 9.

Original Combination: [Leucochitonea] Locutia [synonym] Eulalia

This name was listed in synonymy without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

126.      Heliopetes laviana (Hewitson, 1868)

a.   Heliopetes laviana laviana (Hewitson, 1868)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 48-49, no. 8; figured by Hewitson (1875), Ill. exot. Butterflies 5(95): pl. Leucochitonea II, figs. 15 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea Laviana

Type Locality: “Nicaragua”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    pastor (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 476, no. 33.

Original Combination: Leucochitonea Pastor

Type Locality: “Lerma” [Mexico State, Mexico]; syntypes from “Lerma, Mexico, 1 male from Ypanema (S. Paulo, Brasilien)”

Types: Syntypes in NMW.

=    oceanus (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 205, 213-214, no. 16.

Original Combination: Syrichtus Oceanus

Type Locality: “Arizona”; suggested to be “vicinity of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 634.

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(4): 634, fig. 18 ♂ D&V.

=    dividua Röber, 1925

Entomol. Mitt. 14(1): 99.

Original Combination: Heliopetes dividua

Type Locality: “Wes-Kolumbien (Rio Magdalena)”

Types: Holotype in MTD.

127.      Heliopetes arsalte (Linnaeus, 1758)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 469, no. 67; referred to specimens in Museum Ludovicae Ulricae; figured by Clerck [1764], Icon. Ins. 2: pl. 23, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus candidus] Arsalte

Type Locality: “in Indiis”; suggested to be “South America, probably the Guianas” by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 301.

Types: Type(s) apparently lost.

=    ‡menalcas (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 535, no. 397.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus] U[rbicola] Menalcas

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Syntype in ZMUC.

Preoccupied by Papilio menalcas Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec. 78.

=    niveus (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 33, pl. 22, fig. C ♂ D; (8): 154 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Niveus

Type Locality: “Surinamische” “Surinam”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    ‡crameri Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 81.

Original Combination: Heliopetes Crameri

Type Locality: “Surin.” [Surinam]

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio niveus Cramer, 1775, erroneously thought preoccupied; a junior objective synonym of Papilio niveus.

=    figara (Butler, 1870)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)18(4): 510, no. 3.

Original Combination: Pyrgus Figara

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.


Subfamily Heteropterinae Aurivillius, 1925

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 13(366): 506; (368): 546 (as “Heteropterini”). Type-genus: Heteropterus Duméril, 1806, Zool. analytique: 271. Verity (1940), Farfalle diurne Ital. 1: 86, replaced Cyclopidinae Speyer, 1879, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 40(10-12): 483, 486, with this name. Code Article 40.2 provides that such action taken before 1961, and becoming widely accepted (as it has), is valid.


Genus Carterocephalus Lederer, 1853

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 2: 26. Type-species: Papilio paniscus Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 531, no. 377 (= Papilio palaemon Pallas, 1771, Reise verschied. Prov. Russisch. Reichs 1, Anhang: 471, no. 63; synonym), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 134, no. 217. The history of this name, and the confusion surrounding it, was summarized by Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 96-97.

=    Aubertia Oberthür, 1896

Étud. Entomol. 20: 40. Type-species: Aubertia dulcis Oberthür, 1896, Étud. Entomol. 20: 40, pl. 9, fig. 16 (= Carterocephalus christophi Grum-Grschmaîlo, 1891, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 25(3/4): 460, no. 44; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 79.

=    Pamphilida Lindsey, 1925

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 95. Type-species: Papilio palaemon Pallas, 1771, Reise verschied. Prov. Russisch. Reichs 1, Anhang: 471, no. 63, by original designation.


*128.    Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas, 1771)

Reise verschied. Prov. Russisch. Reichs 1, Anhang: 471, no. 63.

Original Combination: Papilio Palaemon (Plebeius urbicola)

Type Locality: Not stated; mentioned in the body of the text (p. 182) from “Bach Achtuschka” near “Nowodewitschie” [Novodevitschia, Kuybyshevskaya Oblast, Russia]

Types: Type(s), if any exist, may be in ZMHB.

Most of the Palaearctic synonymy is not listed.

=    brontes ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

Ankündung eines syst. Werkes Schmett. Wiener Gegend: 160, no. 6.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Brontes

Type Locality: “Wienergegend” implied from the title of the work. [Vienna, Austria]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    paniscus (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 531, no. 377.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejius]. U[rbicola] Paniscus

Type Locality: “Lipsiae” [Leipzig, Germany]

Types: One syntype in ZMUC.

a.   Carterocephalus palaemon mesapano (Scudder, 1868)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 383-384, no. 94; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): pl. 10, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Mesapano

Type Locality: “Norway, Me.” [Oxford County, Maine]

Types: Syntype (#15306) in MCZ.

b.   Carterocephalus palaemon mandan (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 20-21, no. 11; (4): pl. 5, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Mandan

Type Locality: “Lake Winnipeg”; neotype from “Pine Ridge, Manitoba, Canada.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 262, fig. ♂ D&V.

c.   Carterocephalus palaemon skada (W. H. Edwards, 1870)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(2): 189, 196, no. 13.

Original Combination: Cyclopides Skada

Type Locality: “Kodiak” [Alaska]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 263-264, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

W. H. Edwards (1870) redescribed Steroptes skada in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(2): 205, 214, no. 17. The “holotype” of the second described skada was made the neotype of the first to prevent confusion. W. Forbes (1960), Mem. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. 371 (part 4): 75, believed that this taxon is the same as albiguttata Christoph, 1893, Dtsche. Entomol. Z. “Iris” 6(1): 87-88, from “Vilui, Irkut, Guberli, Ural merid.”

=    mackenziei Wyatt, 1965

Z. wien. entomol. Ges. 50[76](5): 70-71, pl. 8, figs. 1 ♂ D, 1a ♂ V, 2 ♀ D, 2a ♀ V.

Original Combination: Carterocephalus palaemon mackenziei

Type Locality: “Norman Wells, N.W.T., Kanada” [Northwest Territories]

Types: Holotype in LNKD.

d.   Carterocephalus palaemon magnus Mattoon & Tilden, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (51): 641-642, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Carterocephalus palaemon magnus

Type Locality: “California: Sonoma County; Kruse Ranch Road at Plantation, ca. 3 air miles east Highway 1, at Pacific Ocean, or 1 road mile West of junction Seaview Road and Hauser Bridge Road”

Types: Holotype in LACM.


Genus Piruna Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 10, 11. Type-species: Pholisora pirus W. H. Edwards, 1878, Field & Forest 3(7/8): 119, by original designation.


129.      Piruna pirus (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 119.

Original Combination: Pholisora Pirus

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; suggested to be “Hardscrabble Canyon, Custer County, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 264, 265.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 265, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

This taxon was redescribed by W. H. Edwards (1881), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 7.

=    semicaeca (Mabille & Boullet, 1917)

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 1917(4): 100.

Original Combination: Pholisora Pirus var. semicaeca

Type Locality: “Utah, U. S.”

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

130.      Piruna haferniki H. Freeman, 1970

J. Lepid. Soc. 24(4): 247-248, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype), 3 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Piruna haferniki

Type Locality: “Green Gulch, Big Bend National Park, Brewster County, Texas, elev. 5700 ft.”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

131.      Piruna polingii (W. Barnes, 1900)

Can. Entomol. 32(2): 42, 44.

Original Combination: Pyrgus Polingii

Type Locality: “Huachuca Mountains, Arizona” [Cochise County]

Types: Syntype in USNM; two figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♀ V.

*132.    Piruna aea (Dyar, 1912)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 42(1885): 44.

Original Combination: Butleria aea

Type Locality: “Sierra de Guerrero, Mexico...Oaxaca, Mexico”

Types: Syntypes (#14276) in USNM.

=    cingo Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 14, pl. 54 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: [Piruna] cingo

Type Locality: “Chilpancingo, Guerrero, 4600 feet”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    sombra Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 14, pl. 54 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: [Piruna cingo] sombra

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

a.   Piruna aea mexicana H. Freeman, 1979

Bull. Allyn Mus. (52): 5-6, figs. 12 ♂ D, 13 ♂ V (holotype), 25 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Piruna mexicana

Type Locality: “9 miles east of Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

Scott (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 426, no. 434, and Bailowitz and Brock (1991), Butterflies SE Ariz.: 71, considered this taxon a synonym of Piruna cingo. A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 555, proposed this arrangement.

133.      Piruna penaea (Dyar, 1918)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 54(2239): 338.

Original Combination: Butleria penaea

Type Locality: “Sierra de Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#21210) in USNM.

Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 8, applied this name to the skipper previously reported (from Texas) as Piruna microsticta (Godman, 1900), in: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2(156): 464, no. 1; 3: pl. 92, figs. 1 ♂ (not ♀) D, 2 ♂ (not ♀) V, 3 ♂ D.

=    milpa H. Freeman, 1970

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 78(2): 96, figs. 11 ♂ D, 12 ♂ V (holotype), fig. 22 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Piruna milpa

Type Locality: “Milpillas, Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.


Subfamily Hesperiinae Latreille, 1809


Tribe incertae sedis ,

The phylogenetic position of the following genera currently remains uncertain, as does their tribal affiliation.


Genus Agathymus H. Freeman, 1959

Lepid. News 12(3/4): 82-83. Type-species: Megathymus neumoegeni W. H. Edwards, 1882, Papilio 2(2): 27-28, by original designation.


134.      Agathymus neumoegeni (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

a.   Agathymus neumoegeni neumoegeni (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(2): 27-28.

Original Combination: Megathymus Neumoegeni

Type Locality: “southern Arizona”; defined as “About ten miles from Prescott, Ariz.” by Ottolengui (1895), Entomol. News 6(7): 218, and “Prescott, Arizona” by Stallings and Turner (1954), Lepid. News 8(3/4): 79; corrected to “approx. 9 mi S. Prescott, Ariz.” by H. Freeman (1963), J. Res. Lepid. 2(2): 139; stated as “Prescott, Yavapai County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 63-64.

Types: Lectotype (#3368) in USNM, designated by Stallings and Turner (1954), Lepid. News 8(3/4): 79, pl. 2, top row ♂ D&V; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): fig. 26 ♂ D&V.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 483 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 1386.

b.   Agathymus neumoegeni judithae (D. Stallings & Turner, 1957)

Entomol. News 68(1): 5-6, pl. 4, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, 3rd row genitalia of both sexes.

Original Combination: Megathymus judithae

Type Locality: “Hueco Mts., Hueco, Texas, el. 5300 ft.”; defined as “Approximately 8 miles east of Hueco, in the Hueco Mountains, El Paso Co., Texas” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 36.

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

c.   Agathymus neumoegeni diabloensis H. Freeman, 1962

Am. Mus. Novit. (2097): 1-5, figs. 1, 2 ♂ D&V, 3, 4 ♀ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Agathymus diabloensis

Type Locality: “5 miles west of Victoria Canyon, Diablo Mountains, Hudspeth County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

d.   Agathymus neumoegeni carlsbadensis (D. Stallings & Turner, 1957)

Entomol. News 68(1): 8-10, pl. 3, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, 3rd row genitalia of both sexes.

Original Combination: Megathymus carlsbadensis

Type Locality: “Guadeloupe Mts., Carlsbad Cavern National Park, New Mexico, on the mesa at head of Yucca Canyon, el. 5470 ft.” [Eddy County]

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

e.   Agathymus neumoegeni florenceae (D. Stallings & Turner, 1957)

Entomol. News 68(1): 12-13, pl. 4, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, 3rd row genitalia of both sexes.

Original Combination: Megathymus florenceae

Type Locality: “Davis Mts., Ft. Davis, Texas, el. 6200 ft.”; defined as “Davis Mountains, Scenic Drive, Jeff Davis Co., Texas” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 35.

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

f.    Agathymus neumoegeni mcalpinei (H. Freeman, 1955)

Am. Mus. Novit. (1711): 6, figs. 15 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V (holotype), 17 ♀ D, 18 ♀ V, 30 ♂ genitalia, 31 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus mcalpinei

Type Locality: “5.1 miles north of Marathon, Texas” [Brewster County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

This was spelled “macalpinei” by dos Passos (1964), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (1): 1, no. 5; an unjustified emendation.

g.   Agathymus neumoegeni chisosensis (H. Freeman, 1952)

Am. Mus. Novit. (1593): 1-3, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype), 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 8 ♂ genitalia, 13 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus chisosensis

Type Locality: “Chisos Basin, Chisos Mountains, Texas”; defined as “Chisos Mountains, el. 5400 ft., Brewster Co., Texas” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 37.

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

The chromosome numbers for various members of this complex are discordant. H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 36-38, recorded a chromosome number of 10 for florenceae and mcalpinei, and 18 for chisosensis. Ferris (1989), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (3): 13, cited this as justification for considering chisosensis a distinct species. The species-level status of chisosensis needs further investigation.

135.      Agathymus polingi (Skinner, 1905)

Entomol. News 16(7): 232.

Original Combination: Megathymus polingi

Type Locality: “So. Arizona...Baboquivari Mountains, Pima County”; defined as “Baboquivari Mountains, Pima Co., Arizona” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 53.

Types: Syntype (#7059) in CMNH; “paratypes” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 31 ♂ D, 32 ♀ D.

136.      Agathymus evansi (H. Freeman, 1950)

Field & Lab. 18(1): 144-145.

Original Combination: Megathymus evansi

Type Locality: “Ramsey Canyon, Cochise County, Arizona” [Huachuca Mtns.]

Types: Holotype in AMNH; figured by Stallings and Turner (1954), Lepid. News 8(3/4): pl. 2, 3rd row ♂ D&V, and H. Freeman (1955), Am. Mus. Novit. (1711): figs. 11 ♂ D, 12 ♂ V.

137.      Agathymus aryxna (Dyar, 1905)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13(3): 141.

Original Combination: M[egathymus]. aryxna

Type Locality: Not specifically stated, cited Megathymus neumoegeni (sensu H. Druce (1897), Biol. centr.-amer. Lepid. Het. 3(133): 320, pl. 69, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ D, from “Mexico...Northern Sonora”); defined as “SE of Nogales, Sonora” by Barnes and McDunnough (1912), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 1(3): 23; further defined as “western slopes of the Patagonia Mtns., S. E. of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico” by H. Freeman (1963), J. Res. Lepid. 2(2): 139.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 483; restricted to fig. 4 ♀ [sic! ♂] D in H. Druce (1897), Biol. centr.-amer. Lepid. Het. 3(133): pl. 69; also figured by Stallings and Turner (1954), Lepid. News 8(3/4): pl. 3, 3rd row ♂ D. The same specimen was designated lectotype by Skinner and R. Williams (1924), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 50(3): 205. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 483 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 1358.

=    drucei (Skinner, 1911)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): 207; cited Megathymus neumoegeni (sensu H. Druce (1897), Biol. centr.-amer. Lepid. Het. 3(133): pl. 69, fig. 3 ♂ D).

Original Combination: [Megathymus]. drucei

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 483; figured by Stallings and Turner (1954), Lepid. News 8(3-4): pl. 3, 2nd row ♂ D&V (as holotype), 4th row ♂ genitalia.

138.      Agathymus baueri (D. Stallings & Turner, 1954)

a.   Agathymus baueri baueri (D. Stallings & Turner, 1954)

Lepid. News 8(3-4): 80-81, pl. 1, 3rd row ♂ D&V (holotype), 4th row ♀ D&V, pl. 4, 2nd row ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus baueri

Type Locality: “near Verde Hot Springs, Yavapai County, Arizona...elevation 4,000 ft.”

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

b.   Agathymus baueri freemani D. Stallings & Turner, 1960

Entomol. News 71(5): 109-110, 112, pl. 1, top ♂ D&V (holotype), middle ♀ D&V, bottom ♂ & ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Agathymus freemani

Type Locality: “near Bagdad, Ariz.” [Yavapai County]

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

139.      Agathymus gentryi Roever, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (41): 491-492, figs. 1a ♂ D, 1b ♂ V (holotype), 1c ♀ D, 1d ♀ V.

Original Combination: Agathymus gentryi

Type Locality: “Arizona. Pima County, vic. Agua Dulce Spring, 670-790 m, Agua Dulce Mountains”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

140.      Agathymus mariae (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

a.   Agathymus mariae mariae (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1924)

Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 5(3): 100-101.

Original Combination: Megathymus mariae

Type Locality: “El Paso Texas”; defined as “Franklin Mountains, El Paso, El Paso Co., Texas” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 45.

Types: Holotype in USNM.

b.   Agathymus mariae chinatiensis H. Freeman, 1964

J. Lepid. Soc. 18(3): 172-173, pl. 1, 3rd row ♂ D&V, pl. 2, 3rd row ♀ D&V (holotype), pl. 3, figs. 2 ♂ genitalia, 7 ♀ genitalia, 12 cremaster.

Original Combination: Agathymus chinatiensis

Type Locality: “2.7 miles south of Shafter, Texas” [Presidio County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

c.   Agathymus mariae lajitaensis H. Freeman, 1964

J. Lepid. Soc. 18(3): 174-175, pl. 1, lower row ♂ D&V, pl. 2, bottom row ♀ D&V (holotype), pl. 3, figs. 3 ♂ genitalia, 8 ♀ genitalia, 13 cremaster.

Original Combination: Agathymus lajitaensis

Type Locality: “10 miles west of Lajita, Texas” [Presidio County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

d.   Agathymus mariae rindgei H. Freeman, 1964

J. Lepid. Soc. 18(3): 180-182, pl. 1, top row ♂ D&V, pl. 2 top row ♀ D&V (holotype), pl. 3, figs. 5 ♂ genitalia, 10 ♀ genitalia, 15 cremaster.

Original Combination: Agathymus rindgei

Type Locality: “14 miles north of Bracketville, Texas” [Kinney County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

141.      Agathymus gilberti H. Freeman, 1964

J. Lepid. Soc. 18(3): 176-178, pl. 1, 2nd row ♂ D&V, pl. 2 2nd row ♀ D&V (holotype), pl. 3, figs. 4 ♂ genitalia, 9 ♀ genitalia, 14 cremaster.

Original Combination: Agathymus gilberti

Type Locality: “14 miles north of Bracketville, Texas” [Kinney County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

As mentioned under Agathymus neumoegeni chisosensis (H. Freeman, 1952), chromosome numbers for various members of this complex are discordant. H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 46, recorded a chromosome number of 22 for rindgei and 21 for gilberti. These two taxa have the same type locality and cannot be subspecies of the same species. They are either distinct species or synonyms. It is possible that there was an error in the determination of chromosome number. The species-level status of gilberti needs investigation.

*142.    Agathymus estelleae (D. Stallings & Turner, 1958)

Lepid. News 11(4-5): 119, 121, pl. 2, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, lower row ♂&♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus estelleae

Type Locality: “the plains 56 miles southwest of Reynosa, Mexico, near General Bravo, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, at an elevation of 400 ft.”

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

a.   Agathymus estelleae valverdiensis H. Freeman, 1966

J. Lepid. Soc. 20(3): 182-183, pl. 1, top row ♂ D&V, bottom row ♀ D&V, pl. 2 ♂&♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Agathymus valverdiensis

Type Locality: “28 miles north of Del Rio, Val Verde County, Texas”; H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 49, added “el. 1450 ft.”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Roever (1975), in: Howe, Butterflies N. Am.: 415, considered valverdiensis a “weak subspecies” of estelleae. Scott (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 423, considered valverdiensis and estelleae to be subspecies of A. remingtoni D. Stallings & Turner, 1958, Lepid. News 11(4-5): 117.

143.      Agathymus stephensi (Skinner, 1912)

Entomol. News 23(3): 126-127.

Original Combination: Megathymus neumoegeni stephensi

Type Locality: “La Puerta, eastern edge of San Diego County, California”; defined as “Mason Valley (La Puerta), San Diego Co., California” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 51.

Types: Syntype (#7060) in CMNH; figured by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1913), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 2(1): pl. 1, fig. 7 ♀ D.

144.      Agathymus alliae (D. Stallings & Turner, 1957)

a.   Agathymus alliae alliae (D. Stallings & Turner, 1957)

Entomol. News 68(1): 1-4, pl. 1, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, 3rd row, genitalia of both sexes.

Original Combination: Megathymus alliae

Type Locality: “15 miles west of Cameron, Arizona, el. 5000 ft.”; defined as “15 miles west of Cameron, Coconino Co., along canyon of Little Colorado River, el. 5000 ft., Arizona” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 53.

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

b.   Agathymus alliae paiute Roever, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (41): 492-493, figs. 3a ♂ D, 3b ♂ V (holotype), 3b ♀ D, 3d ♀ V.

Original Combination: Agathymus alliae paiute

Type Locality: “Nevada: Clark County, Peek-a-boo Cnyn. [sic!], N end Las Vegas Range, ca. 1770 m”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.


Genus Megathymus Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 83. Type-species: Eudamus (?) yuccae Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837], Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (23-26): pl. 70, figs. [1]-[5] ♂ [not ♀], larva and pupa, by original designation. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 483 placed this name on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 1222.


145.      Megathymus yuccae (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

a.   Megathymus yuccae yuccae (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (24): pl. 70, [1] ♂ D, [2] ♀ V, [3] ♀D, [4] larva, [5] pupa.

Original Combination: Eudamus (?) Yuccae

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text), but “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot; defined as “South Carolina to the southern tip of Florida” by H. Freeman (1943), Entomol. News 54(9): 211; redefined as “Scriven [sic!; Screven] County, Georgia” by H. Freeman (1952), Field & Lab. 20(1): 30; neotype from “Aiken County, South Carolina.”

Types: Types are the specimens figured by John Abbot, and are probably lost. Neotype in AMNH, designated by H. Freeman (1952), Field & Lab. 20(1): 30.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 483 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 1387.

=    alabamae H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(3): 76-77.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae alabamae

Type Locality: “Anniston, Alabama” [Calhoun County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    buchholzi H. Freeman, 1952

Field & Lab. 20(1): 31-33.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae buchholzi

Type Locality: “Jupiter, Florida” [Palm Beach County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

b.   Megathymus yuccae reinthali H. Freeman, 1963

J. Lepid. Soc. 17(2): 91, 93, pl. 1, 3rd row ♂ D&V, 4th row ♀ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae reinthali

Type Locality: “two miles W. Ben Wheeler, Texas” [Van Zandt County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    kendalli H. Freeman, 1965

J. Lepid. Soc. 19(2): 83-84, pl. 1, top row ♂ D&V, 2nd row ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae kendalli

Type Locality: “San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

c.   Megathymus yuccae wilsonorum D. Stallings & Turner, 1958

Lepid. News 11(4/5): 129-130, pl. 3, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, lower row ♂&♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus wilsonorum

Type Locality: “around Victoria, Tamps., Mexico” [Tamaulipas]

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

d.   Megathymus yuccae louiseae H. Freeman, 1963

J. Lepid. Soc. 17(2): 95-96, pl. 1, top row ♂ D&V, 2nd row ♀ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae louiseae

Type Locality: “16 miles north Del Rio, Texas” [Val Verde County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

e.   Megathymus yuccae coloradensis C. Riley, 1877

Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3(36): 567-568 (name given on 568).

Original Combination: [Megathymus yuccae] var. Coloradensis

Type Locality: “Colorado”; suggested to be “near Colorado Springs, Colorado” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23 (suppl.1): 13. [El Paso County]

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

=    stallingsi H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(9): 214-215.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae stallingsi

Type Locality: “Caldwell, Kansas” [Sumner County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    winkensis H. Freeman, 1965

J. Lepid. Soc. 19(2): 87-88, pl. 1, 3rd row ♂ D&V, lower row ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae winkensis

Type Locality: “Wink, Winkler County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    elidaensis D. Stallings, Turner & V. Stallings, 1966

J. Lepid. Soc. 20(3): 170-172, pl. 4, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), bottom row ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae elidaensis

Type Locality: “New Mexico, Roosevelt County, southwest of Elida”

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

=    ‡”dee” H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(9): 216-217.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae stallingsi ♀ form dee

Type Locality: “Caldwell, Kansas” [Sumner County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

f.    Megathymus yuccae reubeni D. Stallings, Turner & V. Stallings, 1963

J. Lepid. Soc. 17(2): 87, pl. 3, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), bottom row ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae reubeni

Type Locality: “at an elevation of 5300 feet in the Hueco Mts. of Texas” [El Paso County]

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

g.   Megathymus yuccae navajo Skinner, 1911

Entomol. News 22(7): 300.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae var. navajo

Type Locality: “Fort Wingate, New Mexico”; defined as “Fort Wingate, Zuni Mountains, McKinley Co., New Mexico” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 14; holotype labeled “Mountain back of post; Fort Wingate, N. M.”

Types: Syntype (#7052) in CMNH; figured by Skinner (1911), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 37(3): pl. 10.

=    arizonae Tinkham, 1954

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 53(2): 81-83, pl. 18, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, pl. 19, figs. 3 ♂ D, 7 ♂ V (holotype); 4 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae arizonae

Type Locality: “Mountain View, Pima County, Arizona”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

=    browni D. Stallings & Turner, 1960

Entomol. News 71(5): 112, 114-115, pl. 2, top ♂ D&V (holotype), middle ♀ D&V, bottom ♂&♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae browni

Type Locality: “near Salina, Utah” [Sevier County]

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

=    albasuffusa R. Wielgus & D. Wielgus, 1974

Bull. Allyn Mus. (17): 1-3, figs. 4 ♀ D, 5 ♀ V (holotype); 6 ♀ D, 7 ♀ V, 8 ♂ D, 9 ♂ V, 10 ♂ D, 11 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Megathymus coloradensis albasuffusa

Type Locality: “Wahweap Campground, Glen Canyon National recreation Area, 5 miles northwest of Glen Canyon Dam, 3700' elevation, Coconino County, Arizona”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

h.   Megathymus yuccae martini D. Stallings & Turner, 1956

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 55(3): 150-152; figured by Tinkham (1954), Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 53(2): pl. 18, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ D; pl. 19, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, 5 ♂ V, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae martini

Type Locality: “Little Rock, Los Angeles Co., California”

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

=    maudae D. Stallings, Turner & V. Stallings, 1966

J. Lepid. Soc. 20(3): 169-170, pl. 3, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), bottom row ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae maudae

Type Locality: “California, San Bernardino County, 21 miles north of Essex, on Cima Road in Providence Mountains”

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

i.    Megathymus yuccae harbisoni J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (64): 763-764, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Megathymus yuccae harbisoni

Type Locality: “California: San Diego County; 1 mile west of Scissors Crossing”

Types: Holotype in SDMC.

146.      Megathymus ursus Poling, 1902

a.   Megathymus ursus ursus Poling, 1902

Entomol. News 13(4): 97-98, pl. 4; this figure reproduced by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 72, fig. 1 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Megathymus ursus

Type Locality: “Pinal County, Arizona”; defined as “Santa Catalina Mountains, west of Redington, Pima Co., Arizona” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23 (suppl.1): 25.

Types: Holotype in USNM.

b.   Megathymus ursus deserti R. Wielgus, J. Wielgus & D. Wielgus, 1972

Bull. Allyn Mus. (9): 1-4, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V (holotype); 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Megathymus ursus deserti

Type Locality: “Arizona, Maricopa County, 1/2 - 1-1/2 miles north of Camp Creek on road to Seven Springs, 3500-3680 feet elevation”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

c.   Megathymus ursus violae D. Stallings & Turner, 1956

Lepid. News 10(1/2): 4-5, pl. 2, top row ♀ D&V (holotype), 2nd row ♂ D&V, lower row ♂&♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus violae

Type Locality: “Carlsbad Caverns National Park in the Guadeloupe Mts., New Mexico” [Eddy County]

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

147.      Megathymus cofaqui (Strecker, 1876)

a.   Megathymus cofaqui cofaqui (Strecker, 1876)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 28(7): 148-150; figured by Strecker [1878], Lepid. Rhop. Het. (15): pl. 15, fig. 2 ♀ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Ægiale Cofaqui

Type Locality: “Georgia”; defined as “somewhere in northern Florida near Georgia” by H. Freeman (1963), J. Res. Lepid. 2(2): 140; subsequently defined as “Burke County, Georgia” by Gatrelle (1999), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(4): 3.

Types: Holotype in FMNH; figured by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1912), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 1(3): 36, and Gatrelle (1999), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(4): fig. 5 ♀ D.

=    harrisi H. Freeman, 1955

Am. Mus. Novit. (1711): 2, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V (holotype); 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V, 27 ♂ genitalia, 28 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus harrisi

Type Locality: “Stone Mountain, Georgia” [De Kalb County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

This synonymy determined by Gatrelle (1999), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(4): 3.

b.   Megathymus cofaqui slotteni Gatrelle, 1999

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(4): 4-5, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D (holotype).

Original Combination: Megathymus cofaqui slotteni

Type Locality: “Vicinity of Williston, Levy County, Florida”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

148.      Megathymus streckeri (Skinner, 1895)

a.   Megathymus streckeri streckeri (Skinner, 1895)

Can. Entomol. 27(7): 179; figured by Skinner (1900), Entomol. News 11(4): pl. 2, fig. 24 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Aegiale Streckeri

Type Locality: “Texas...probably from Arizona...Colorado”; defined as “Petrified Forest area, Arizona” by H. Freeman (1963), J. Res. Lepid. 2(2): 141. [Apache County]

Types: Syntypes in FMNH and (#7053) CMNH.

b.   Megathymus streckeri texana W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1912

Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 1(3): 39-40, no. 2, pl. 2, fig. 9 ♀ (holotype).

Original Combination: Megathymus streckeri texana

Type Locality: “South Texas (Dallas, San Antonio)”; defined as “Kerrville, Texas” by H. Freeman (1963), J. Res. Lepid. 2(2): 141. [Kerr County]

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

=    albocincta W. Holland, 1930

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 19(3): 159-160.

Original Combination: Megathymus albocincta

Type Locality: Stated to be “southwestern Texas” by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): 402.

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 71, fig. 17 ♂ D (holotype), 18 ♂ D (paratype).

c.   Megathymus streckeri leussleri W. Holland, 1931

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 20(2): 262-263; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 72, figs. 10 ♂ D (holotype), 12 ♀ D (allotype).

Original Combination: Megathymus leussleri

Type Locality: “sandhills of Nebraska”; defined as “Valentine, Nebraska” by H. Freeman (1944), Entomol. News 55(4): 104; redefined as “Sand Hills near Valentine, Cherry Co., Nebraska” by H. Freeman (1969), J. Lepid. Soc. 23(suppl. 1): 24.

Types: Holotype in CMNH.


Genus Stallingsia H. Freeman, 1959

Lepid. News 12(3/4): 87-88. Type-species: Megathymus maculosus H. Freeman, 1955, Am. Mus. Novit. (1711): 10-11, figs. 21-24, 32-33, by original designation.


149.      Stallingsia maculosus (H. Freeman, 1955)

Am. Mus. Novit. (1711): 10-11, figs. 21 ♂ D, 22 ♂ V (holotype); 23 ♀ D, 24 ♀ V, 32 ♂ genitalia, 33 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megathymus maculosus

Type Locality: “Kingsville, Texas” [Kleberg County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Recorded in older literature as smithi H. Druce, 1896, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Het. 2(131): 320, a Mexican congener.


Genus Erionota Mabille, 1878

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 21: 34. Type-species: Papilio thrax Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 794, no. 260, by designation of E. Watson (1893), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1893(1): 72, 86.


150.      Erionota thrax (Linnaeus, 1767)

a.   Erionota thrax thrax (Linnaeus, 1767)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 794, no. 260.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus Urbicola]. Thrax

Type Locality: “Java”

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Corbet and Pendlebury (1956), Butterflies Malay Pen.: pl. 29, fig. 8.

Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 45, substituted the name Erionota torus Evans, 1941, for this species, as it occurs in Hawaii. As explained in the excluded species appendix, this was based on a misidentification of Erionota thrax by Kawazoé and Wakabayashi (1976), Col. Illus. Butterflies Japan: 310-311.


Genus Perichares Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 81. Type-species: Papilio coridon Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 533, no. 385 (= Papilio philetes Gmelin, [1790], Syst. Nat. (ed. 13) 1(5): 2364, no. 842; homonym), by original designation.


151.      Perichares adela (Hewitson, 1867)

Ill. exot. Butterflies 4(62): [105], pl. Hesperia I, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, 3 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Adela

Type Locality: “Rio de Janeiro” [Brasil]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

Burns et al. (2008), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 105(17): 6350-6355, determine that this is a species distinct from Perichares philetes (Gmelin, [1790]).

=    dolores (Reakirt, 1868)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 20(1/2): 87-88, no. 52.

Original Combination: Goniloba dolores

Type Locality: “Mexico, near Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, not at ANSP.

=    marmorata Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 81-82, no. 3.

Original Combination: P[erichares]. marmorata

Type Locality: “Venezuela”

Types: Syntype (#15315) in MCZ.


Tribe Thymelicini Tutt, 1905

Nat. Hist. Brit. Butterflies 1(1): 90, 91 (as "Thymelicinae" and "Thymelicidi"). Type-genus: Thymelicus Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (8): 113.


Genus Ancyloxypha C. Felder, [1863]

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12(1): 477. Type-species: Hesperia numitor Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 324, no. 228, by original designation. This name has frequently been misspelled, most commonly as “Ancyloxipha.”


152.      Ancyloxypha numitor (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 324, no. 228; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 74, fig. 2; figured by Donovan (1800), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [44], fig. 3 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: H[esperia]. R[uralis]. Numitor

Type Locality: “Indiis”; stated to be “certainly the eastern U.S.” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 30.

Types: Type(s) lost, name based on Jones' figure.

=    bion (Fabricius, 1798)

Entomol. Syst. Suppl.: 432.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Bion

Type Locality: “America meridionali”; stated as “certainly the eastern U.S.” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 30.

Types: Syntype in ZMUC.

=    puer (Hübner, 1823)

Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [48], figs. 275 ♂ D, 276 ♂ V [1821]; 17, no. 138 (1823, name given).

Original Combination: Thymelicus Puer

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    marginatus (T. Harris, 1862)

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 308, fig. 131 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Heteropterus marginatus

Type Locality: “Massachusetts” implied from the title of the first edition.

Types: Syntypes (#26353) in MCZ.

=    longleyi French, 1897

Can. Entomol. 29(4): 80.

Original Combination: Ancyloxypha Longleyi

Type Locality: “Ridgeland, near Chicago” [Iroquois County, Illinois]

Types: Holotype in USNM.

153.      Ancyloxypha arene (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 205, 214-215, no. 18.

Original Combination: Heteropterus Arene

Type Locality: “Arizona”; neotype from “near Tucson.” [Pima County, Arizona]

Types: Neotype (#33628) in USNM, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(1): 267, fig. 5 ♂ D&V. This specimen is the holotype of myrtis (see below).

=    ‡myrtis (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(2): 26.

Original Combination: Copaeodes Myrtis

Type Locality: “near Tucson” [Pima County, Arizona]

Types: Holotype (#33628) in USNM.

A junior objective synonym of Ancyloxypha arene (W. H. Edwards, 1871).

=    euphrasia (Plötz, 1884)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(4-6): 166, no. 63; cited unpublished pl. 773.

Original Combination: [Apaustus] Euphrasia

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Types in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 146, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    leporina (Plötz, 1884)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(4-6): 166, no. 64; cited unpublished pl. 774.

Original Combination: [Apaustus] Leporina

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 146, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    isidorus (Plötz, 1884)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(7-9): 287, no. 11; cited unpublished pl. 780.

Original Combination: [Thymelicus] Isidorus

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Types in ZMHB.

 


Genus Oarisma Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 75. Type-species: Hesperia powesheik Parker, 1870, Am. Entomol. Bot. 2(9): 271, by original designation.

=    Paradopaea Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 3(156): pl. 92, figs. 23-29. Type-species: Hesperia garita Reakirt, 1866, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 150-151, by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 96.


154.      Oarisma poweshiek (Parker, 1870) (emended)

Am. Entomol. Bot. 2(9): 271-272.

Original Combination: Hesperia Powesheik

Type Locality: “a grassy prairie slope, at Grinnell, Iowa” [Poweshiek County]

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

This name is emended since it is clearly stated in the text that it was named for the County and the native American. This has been done by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 31, and Layberry et al. (1998), Butterflies Can.: 48.

155.      Oarisma garita (Reakirt, 1866)

a.   Oarisma garita garita (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 150-151.

Original Combination: Hesperia Garitá

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains, Colorado Terr.”; suggested to be “Mts. W. of Denver Colo.” by Scott (2008), Papilio (n.s.) 19: 30.

Types: Syntype(s) in FMNH.

=    hylax (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 274, no. 16.

Original Combination: Thymeticus [sic!] Hylax

Type Locality: “Colorado”; defined as “South Park and at Twin Lakes, Colorado” by F. Brown (1934), J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 42(2): 162; further defined as “vicinity of Twin Lakes, Lake County, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(1): 269.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(1): 269-270, fig. 6 ♂ D&V.

156.      Oarisma edwardsii (W. Barnes, 1897)

Can. Entomol. 29(2): 42.

Original Combination: Thymelicus Edwardsii

Type Locality: “near Denver, Colorado” This species is not currently known from the Denver area or Platte River drainage; the type probably came from the Arkansas River drainage (A. Warren pers. comm. 2006). Suggested to be “Hardscrabble Can., Wet Mts., Custer Co. Colo. by Scott (2008), Papilio (n.s.) 19: 30.

Types: Holotype in USNM.

 


Genus Copaeodes Speyer, 1877

In: W. H. Edwards, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 49, 64. Type-species: Heteropterus procris W. H. Edwards (1871), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 215 (= Ancyloxipha [sic!] aurantiaca Hewitson, 1868, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 45; synonym), by designation of W. F. Kirby [1879], Zool. Rec. 14(1877)(Ins.): 139.


157.      Copaeodes aurantiaca (Hewitson, 1868)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 45, no. 1.

Original Combination: Ancyloxipha [sic!] aurantiaca

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Species-genus gender conformation is aurantiacus.

=    waco (W. H. Edwards, 1868)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(2): 122.

Original Combination: Hesperia Waco

Type Locality: “Texas”; neotype from “Dallas, Texas.” [Dallas County]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 271, fig. 7 ♂ D&V.

=    simplex (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 476, no. 31.

Original Combination: Ancyloxypha simplex

Type Locality: “Cordoba, Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Holotype in NMW.

=    procris (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 205, 215, no. 19.

Original Combination: Heteropterus Procris

Type Locality: “near Waco, Texas” [McLennan County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 274, fig. 9 ♂ D&V.

The type series included both C. aurantiaca and C. minima. F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), ibid., selected a specimen of the former as lectotype.

=    macra (Plötz, 1884)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45: 284, no. 2; cited unpublished pl. 1500 (nachtrag).

Original Combination: [Thymelicus] Macra

Type Locality: “Nord-Amerika”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC, ZMHB, or lost.

=    candida W. G. Wright, 1890

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (2)3(4): 34; figured by W. G. Wright (1905), Butterflies W. Coast: pl. 30, figs. 411 ♀ [not ♂] D, 411b ♂ [not ♀] D, 411c ♂ V.

Original Combination: Copaeodes candida

Type Locality: “cañons in the foothills of southwestern California”

Types: Lectotype (#3227) in CAS, designated by Tilden (1975), Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. (118): 38.

158.      Copaeodes minima (W. H. Edwards, 1870)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(2): 189, 196, no. 14.

Original Combination: Hesperia Minima

Type Locality: “Waco, Texas” [McLennan County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 8 ♂ D&V.

Species-genus gender conformation is minimus.

=    rayata W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1913

Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 2(3): 100, pl. 3, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Copaeodes rayata

Type Locality: “San Benito, Texas” [Cameron County]

Types: Syntype in USNM.

Durden (1982), J. Lepid. Soc. 36(1): 9, claimed this is a winter form, genitalically distinct from minima, but this was disproved by Austin et al. (2008), Florida Entomol. 91(4): 636-642.

‡”singularis” (Plötz, 1884)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(7-9): 284, under no. 1.

Original Combination: [Thymelicus] Waco [synonym] Singularis

Plötz introduced “Thymelicus singularis (Herrich-Schäffer manuscript)” as a synonym of waco without description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Adopaeoides Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(156): 470. Type-species: Apaustus prittwitzi Plötz, 1884, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(4-6): 165, no. 61, by designation of I.C.Z.N. Opinion 825; the same Opinion placed this name on the Official Index of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 1766.

      =    ‡Neadopaea Hayward, 1941

Revta. Mus. La Plata, Zool. (n.s.) 2(14): 285. Type-species: Apaustus prittwitzi Plötz, 1884, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(4-6): 165, no. 61, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Adopaeoides Godman, 1900.


159.      Adopaeoides prittwitzi (Plötz, 1884)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 45(4-6): 165, no. 61; cited unpublished pl. 771.

Original Combination: [Apaustus] Prittwitzi

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC, ZMHB, or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 146, determined that this is “Adopaeoides simplex, Godm. (Nec Feld.)” through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz. Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 309, concurred. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 825 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 2209.


Genus Thymelicus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 113. Type-species: Papilio acteon Rottemburg, 1775, Naturforscher 6: 30-31, no. 18, by designation of Butler (1870), Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(76): 94.

=    Adopoea Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 81. Type-species: Papilio linea [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775, Ankündung eines syst. Werkes Schmett. Wiener Gegend: 160, no. 5 (= Papilio sylvestris Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 79, no. 51; synonym), by monotypy.

      =    ‡Pelion W. F. Kirby, 1858

List Brit. Rhop.: [3]. Type-species: Papilio linea [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775, Ankündung eines syst. Werkes Schmett. Wiener Gegend: 160, no. 5 (= Papilio sylvestris Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 79; synonym), by monotypy. A junior objective synonym of Adopoea Billberg, 1820. McHenry (1962), J. Lepid. Soc. 16(2): 104, examined Kirby’s rare document; this arrangement relies on his appraisal.

      =    ‡Doricha Moore, 1883

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1883(3): 317. Type-species: Papilio sylvestris Poda, 1761, Ins. Mus. graec.: 79, by original designation. Preoccupied by Doricha Reichenbach, 1853, J. Ornithologie 1(Aufzählung Colibris): 12.


160.      Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer, 1808)

Most of the Palearctic synonymy of this species is not listed. Asou and Sekiguchi (2002), Trans. Lepid. Soc. Japan 53(2): 103-109, detailed the close relationship between Japanese, American and European populations of this species.

a.   Thymelicus lineola lineola (Ochsenheimer, 1808)

Schmett. Europ. 1(2): 230, no. 19.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Lineola

Type Locality: “Germania”

Types: Type(s) may be in HNHM or lost.

=    virgula (Hübner, [1813])

Samml. europ. Schmett. 1: pl. 130, figs. 660 ♂ D, 661 ♂ V, 662 ♀ D, 663 ♀ V [1813]; Nachtr.: 5 [1824].

Original Combination: [Papilio] Virgula

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in NMW, but probably lost.

=    kirbyi (Reed, 1877)

An. Univ. Chile 51(9): 722.

Original Combination: Pamphila Kirbyi

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in MHNS.

Hayward (1955), Entomol. 88(1110): 262, determined this synonymy.

=    ludovicae (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27: 118; (c. r.)(31): lxviii-lxix, in reference to p. 118.

Original Combination: Pamphila Ludovicae

Type Locality: “E Gallia in Montibus Arverniae...et Pyrenaeis” [France]

Types: Syntypes in MNHP and BMNH.

=    ‡”pallida” Tutt, 1896

Brit. Butterflies: 136.

Original Combination: [Thymelicus lineola] Ab. pallida

Type Locality: not stated; “Britain” implied from the title of the book.

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly BMNH.

 


Tribe Calpodini A. Clark, 1948

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 61: 81. Type-genus: Calpodes Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 107. Proposed by indication (see Code Article 13.2.1). Voss (1952), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 45(2): 255, also proposed this name; he did not cite Clark, but established Calpodes as the type-genus, thus validating Clark’s authorship.


Genus Calpodes Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 107. Type-species: Papilio ethlius Stoll, 1782, Uitl. Kapellen 4(33): 212, pl. 392, figs. A, B; (34): 249 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 82.


161.      Calpodes ethlius (Stoll, 1782)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(33): 212, pl. 392, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V; (34): 249 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicol[a]. Ethlius

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost (Raye de Breukelewaert collection, in RMNH?).

=    chemnis (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 331, no. 257; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 86, fig. 2; figured by Donovan (1802), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [49], fig. 1 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Chemnis

Type Locality: “Indiis”; suggested to be “Jamaica” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 50.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    olynthus (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (25): pl. 75, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eudamus ? Olynthus

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text); “l’Amérique septentrionale” implied from the title of the book.

Types: Types were the specimens upon which Émile Blanchard based his illustrations, probably from Boisduval’s collection (USNM and/or BMNH).

 


Genus Panoquina Hemming, 1934

Entomol. 67(849): 38. Type-species: Hesperia panoquin Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 178-179, no. 81, as replacement name. Proposed to replace Prenes Scudder, 1872, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).

      =    ‡Prenes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 81. Type-species: Hesperia panoquin Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 178-179, no. 81, by original designation. Preoccupied by Prenes Gistel, 1848, Nat. Thierr.: 10.


162.      Panoquina panoquin (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 178-179, no. 81.

Original Combination: Hesperia Panoquin

Type Locality: “Conn.” [Connecticut]

Types: Syntypes may be in MCZ.

=    ophis (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 205, 216, no 21.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ophis

Type Locality: “Apalachicola, Fla.”; neotype from “St. George’s Island [sic!], Franklin County, Florida.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 62, fig. 25 ♂ D&V.

‡”cochles” (Scudder, 1889)

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): 1867.

Original Combination: [Prenes panoquin] = Hesperia cochles

Proposed as a Latreille manuscript name without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”wimico” (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 55, under no. 361.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Panoquin [synonym] Wimico

This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

163.      Panoquina panoquinoides (Skinner, 1891)

a.   Panoquina panoquinoides panoquinoides (Skinner, 1891)

Entomol. News 2(9): 175; figured by Skinner (1900), Entomol. News 11(4): pl. 2, fig. 26 ♂ D.

Original Combination: P[amphila]. panoquinoides

Type Locality: “Key West, Fla. and Texas” [Monroe County, Florida]

Types: Syntype (#7103, labeled “holotype”, from “Key West, Fla.”) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 23 ♂ D.

164.      Panoquina errans (Skinner, 1892)

Entomol. News 3(7): 174-175.

Original Combination: Pamphila errans

Type Locality: “California...Texas”

Types: Syntype (#7102, labeled “holotype”, from “Cal.”) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 24 ♂ D.

MacNeill (1975), in: Howe, Butterflies N. Am.: 428-429, L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 51, and Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 15, considered P. errans to be a species-level taxon.

165.      Panoquina ocola (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

a.   Panoquina ocola ocola (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 20, no. 10; (4): pl. 11, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ocola

Type Locality: “Georgia; Florida; Texas”; neotype from “Fla.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 61, fig. 24 ♂ D&V.

=    stratyllis (Burmeister, 1878)

Descr. phys. Rép. Argentine 5(Lépid.)(1): 276, no. 3.

Original Combination: Pamphila Stratyllis

Type Locality: “Corrientes” [Argentina]

Types: Syntype in MACN.

=    heterospila (Mabille, 1878)

Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(198): 238, no. 54.

Original Combination: Pamphila heterospila

Type Locality: “Peruvia”

Types: Type(s) may be in MNHP (Mabille collection).

=    ortygia (Möschler, 1883)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 32: 328.

Original Combination: P[amphila]. Ortygia

Type Locality: “dem Innern”; “Surinam” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

166.      Panoquina lucas (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 339, no. 290.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Lucas

Type Locality: “Americae meridionalis Insulis”

Types: Lectotype in ZMUC, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 59.

=    sylvicola (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 55, no. 13.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] sylvicola

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 59.

=    woodruffi F. Watson, 1937

Am. Mus. Novit. (906): 6.

Original Combination: Panoquina sylvicola woodruffi

Type Locality: "Aibonito, Puerto Rico"

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

167.      Panoquina hecebolus (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 81, no. 3.

Original Combination: P[renes]. Hecebolus

Type Locality: “Tehuantepec” [Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Syntype (#15312) in MCZ.

=    parilis (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxi.

Original Combination: Pamphila parilis

Type Locality: “Chiriqui, Honduras” [Panama and Honduras]

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB.

168.      Panoquina evansi (H. Freeman, 1946)

Entomol. News 57(8): 186-187, fig. 2 ♂ genitalia; figured by H. Freeman (1950), Field & Lab. 18(1): fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Calpodes evansi

Type Locality: “Pharr, Texas” [Hidalgo County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 407, and Scott (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 468, considered this taxon a subspecies of Panoquina fusina Hewitson, 1868, Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 30, without justification.


Tribe Anthoptini A. Warren, 2009

In: Warren et al., Syst. Entomol. 34(3): 479, fig, 4, 482, 498. Type-genus: Anthoptus Bell, 1942, Am. Mus. Novit. (1205): 7.


Genus Synapte Mabille, 1904

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17b): 133. Type-species: Carystus salenus Mabille, 1883, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): lx-lxi, by monotypy.

      =    ‡Godmania Skinner & Ramsden, 1924

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 75: 321. Type-species: Goniloba malitiosa Herrich-Schäffer, 1865, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 54, no. 11, by monotypy. Preoccupied by Godmania Horvath, 1919, Ann. Mus. Hungar. 17: 211, 222.


169.      Synapte pecta Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 51.

Original Combination: [Synapte malitiosa] pecta

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

A. Warren et al. (1998), J. Lepid. Soc. 52(1): 53, and A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 555, among other recent authors, considered pecta to be a species-level taxon.

170.      Synapte salenus (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): lx-lxi.

Original Combination: Carystus Salenus

Type Locality: “Colombie”; this locality was doubted by Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 53.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

171.      Synapte shiva Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 53.

Original Combination: [Synapte syraces] shiva

Type Locality: “Dos Arroyas, Guerrero, 1000 feet” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

A. Warren et al. (1998), J. Lepid. Soc. 52(1): 53, and A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodiver. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 556, among other recent authors, considered S. syraces (Godman, 1901), in: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(161): 595-596, no. 3; 3(163): pl. 103, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♂ genitalia, and S. shiva to be distinct species-level taxa.


Genus Corticea Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 46, 63. Type-species: Hesperia corticea Plötz, 1882, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 56-57, no. 369, by original designation.


172.      Corticea corticea (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 56-57, no. 369; cited unpublished pl. 591.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Corticea

Type Locality: “Laguayra” [Venezuela]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

 


Tribe Moncini A. Warren, 2008

In: Warren et al., Cladistics 24(5): 4, 8, 17. Type-genus: Monca Evans, 1955, Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 87, 124.


Genus Amblyscirtes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 75. Type-species: Hesperia vialis W. H. Edwards, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14(1/2): 58, no. 8, by original designation. Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 386-393, and H. Freeman (1973), J. Lepid. Soc. 27(1): 40-57, arranged this genus into groups. Burns (1990), J. Lepid. Soc. 44(1): 11-27, rearranged some of these groups and commented on the phylogenetic position of the genus.

=    Stomyles Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 76. Type-species: Pyrgus textor Hübner, [1831], Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl. [89], figs. 515, 516; 28, no. 258 (= Hesperia aesculapius Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 347-348, no. 321; synonym), by original designation.

=    Mastor Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(160): 567. Type-species: Mastor anubis Godman, 1900, in: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(160): 568; 3: pl. 100, figs. 32 ♂ D, 33 ♂ V, 34 ♂ FW venation, 35 ♂ genitalia, by original designation.

=    Epiphyes Dyar, 1905

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13(3): 132. Type-species: Pamphila carolina Skinner, 1892, Entomol. News 3(9): 222-223, by original designation.


exoteria group Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 386.

173.      Amblyscirtes exoteria (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 196, no. 54.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] exoteria

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 143, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz (pl. 572).

=    nanno W. H. Edwards, 1882

Papilio 2(8): 142-143.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes Nanno

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper. [Graham County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): fig. 20 ♀ D&V.

=    marcus (Strand, 1909)

Int. Entomol. Z. 3(33): 176.

Original Combination: Chapra marcus

Type Locality: “Delagoa Bai” in error. [Africa]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

174.      Amblyscirtes cassus W. H. Edwards, 1883

Papilio 3(4): 72-73.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes Cassus

Type Locality: “Mt. Graham, Arizona” [Graham County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 52, fig. 18 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 31 ♂ D.

175.      Amblyscirtes aenus W. H. Edwards, 1878

a.   Amblyscirtes aenus erna H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(1): 17-18.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes erna

Type Locality: “Palo Duro Canyon, Texas” [Armstrong County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 388, considered erna a synonym of Amblyscirtes fluonia Godman, 1900. Scott [1977], J. Res. Lepid. 15(2): 92, demonstrated that this taxon is conspecific with A. aenus.

b.   Amblyscirtes aenus aenus W. H. Edwards, 1878

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 118.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes Aenus

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; defined as “Hardscrabble Road, Pueblo County, Colorado, in the foothills of the Wet Mountains” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 51.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 51, fig. 17 ♂ D&V.

c.   Amblyscirtes aenus megamacula Scott, 1998

Papilio (n.s.) 11: 6, fig. 13 ♂ D (holotype), 14 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes aenus megamacula

Type Locality: “WSW Peña Blanca Lake, Santa Cruz Co. Ariz”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

176.      Amblyscirtes linda H. Freeman, 1943

Entomol. News 54(1): 19.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes linda

Type Locality: “Hope Hill Farm, Faulkner Co., Arkansas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

177.      Amblyscirtes oslari (Skinner, 1899)

Entomol. News 10(5): 112.

Original Combination: Pamphila oslari

Type Locality: “Chimney Gulch, Colorado” [Jefferson County]

Types: Syntype (#7101) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 39 ♀ D.

aesculapius group Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 388.

*178.    Amblyscirtes elissa Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(158): 505, no. 4; 3: pl. 95, figs. 40 ♀ V, 41 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes elissa

Type Locality: “Mexico, Tierra Colorada, Rincon, Dos Arroyos, all in Guerrero”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

a.   Amblyscirtes elissa arizonae H. Freeman, 1993

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 62(4): 345-346, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V (holotype); 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes elissa arizonae

Type Locality: “United States. Arizona: Santa Cruz Co., 0.5 mi W Kino Springs”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

179.      Amblyscirtes hegon (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 176, no. 77.

Original Combination: Hesperia Hegon

Type Locality: “White Mountains” [New Hampshire]

Types: Holotype (#8973) in MCZ.

As first reviser, W. F. Kirby (1871), Syn. Cat. diurn. Lepid.: 613, no. 16, selected hegon over samoset on the basis of line priority; Scudder applied the names hegon to the female and samoset to the male.

=    samoset (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 176-177, no. 78; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(10): pl. 10, fig. 1 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Samoset

Type Locality: “Mass. and N. H.” [Massachusetts and New Hampshire]

Types: Syntypes (#8974) in MCZ.

=    nemoris (W. H. Edwards, 1864)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(4): 501, 507, no. 10; 4[1]: pl. 1, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Nemoris

Type Locality: “Portsmouth, Ohio”; neotype from “3 miles east of Zaleski, Vinton County, Ohio, some 50 miles NE of Portsmouth.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 50, fig. 16 ♂ D&V.

=    argina (Plötz, 1884)

Mitt. naturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. 15: 22, no. 60.

Original Combination: [Pyrgus (Syrichthus)] Argina

Type Locality: “Brisbane”, [Australia], in error.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

180.      Amblyscirtes texanae E. Bell, 1927

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 22(4): 203.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes texanae

Type Locality: “vicinity of Alpine, Brewster County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

181.      Amblyscirtes carolina (Skinner, 1892)

Entomol. News 3(9): 222-223.

Original Combination: Pamphila carolina

Type Locality: “about one-half mile south of Hamlet, Richmond County, North Carolina, on the border of a small cane brake”

Types: Syntype(s) (#7096) in ANSP; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 46, fig. 36 ♂ D.

182.      Amblyscirtes reversa F. Jones, 1926

Entomol. News 37(7): 197-198, pl. 9, figs. 3 ♂ D, 3a ♂ V, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes carolina reversa

Type Locality: “Suffolk, Virginia” [Nansemond County]

Types: Holotype (#7169) in CMNH.

183.      Amblyscirtes aesculapius (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 347-348, no. 321; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 29, fig. 4 D&V.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Aesculapius

Type Locality: “America boreali”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

This species was widely known as A. textor (Hübner, [1831]), until Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 390, replaced textor with aesculapius, a senior, but obscure, generally unused name.

=    textor (Hübner, [1831])

Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl. [89], figs. 515 ♀ D, 516 ♀ V [1824]; 28, no. 258 [1831, name given].

Original Combination: Pyrgus Textor

Type Locality: “United States”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    oneko (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 176, no. 76.

Original Combination: Hesperia Oneko

Type Locality: “Connecticut”

Types: Type(s) may be in MCZ.

=    wakulla (W. H. Edwards, 1869)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(3): 311.

Original Combination: Hesperia Wakulla

Type Locality: “Apalachicola, Florida” [Franklin County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 49, fig. 15 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 47, fig. 16 ♂ D.

vialis group Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 390.

184.      Amblyscirtes nereus (W. H. Edwards, 1876)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 207.

Original Combination: Hesperia Nereus

Type Locality: “South Apache”; defined as “between Camp Apache and the Gila River” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 47. [Navajo-Apache counties, Arizona]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): fig. 14 ♂ D&V.

This name was listed as “[Pamphila] nereus”, without a description or indication, by W. H. Edwards (1875), in: Mead, Rep. Coll. diurn. Lepid. 5(Zool.): 794; a nomen nudum.

185.      Amblyscirtes nysa W. H. Edwards, 1877

Can. Entomol. 9(10): 191-192.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes nysa

Type Locality: “Texas”; lectotype from “Clifton, Bosque County, Texas.”

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 46, fig. 13 ♀ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 25 ♀ D.

=    similis (Strecker, [1878])

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (14): 131.

Original Combination: Pamphila Similis

Type Locality: Not stated; “vicinity of New Braunfels and San Antonio, Southwestern Texas” implied from the introductory text. [Comal and Bexar counties]

Types: Syntypes in FMNH.

186.      Amblyscirtes eos (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 276-277, no. 20.

Original Combination: Hesperia Eos

Type Locality: “Dallas, Texas” [Dallas County]

Types: Lectotype (#8972) in MCZ, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 42-43, fig. 10 ♂ D&V.

=    comus (W. H. Edwards, 1876)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 206-207.

Original Combination: Hesperia Comus

Type Locality: “Texas”; neotype from “Archer County, Texas.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 44, fig. 11 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 27 ♂ D.

=    nilus W. H. Edwards, 1878

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 118-119.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes Nilus

Type Locality: “Texas”; defined as “Archer Co., Texas” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 44.

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 45, fig. 12 ♂ D&V.

=    quinquemacula (Skinner, 1911)

Entomol. News 22(9): 413.

Original Combination: Pamphila quinquemacula

Type Locality: “Las Cruces, New Mexico” [Dona Ana County]

Types: Holotype (#7107) in CMNH.

187.      Amblyscirtes vialis (W. H. Edwards, 1862)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14(1/2): 54, 58, no. 8.

Original Combination: Hesperia vialis

Type Locality: “Rock Island, Illinois; Lake Winnipeg”; neotype from “Perryton Twp., Mercer Co., Illinois.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 41, fig. 9 ♂ D&V.

=    asella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 203, no. 66.

Original Combination: [Cobalus] asella

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably in ZMHB.

188.      Amblyscirtes alternata (Grote & Robinson, 1867)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(1): 3-4.

Original Combination: Hesperia alternata

Type Locality: “Atlantic District. (Georgia!)”

Types: Holotype may be in NYSM or AMNH.

=    meridionalis Dyar, 1905

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13(3): 135.

Original Combination: A[mblyscirtes]. meridionalis

Type Locality: “Georgia and Florida”

Types: Syntypes may be in AMNH and/or USNM.

tolteca group Burns, 1990

J. Lepid. Soc. 44(1): 15, 18.

189.      Amblyscirtes celia Skinner, 1895

Entomol. News 6(4): 113-114.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes celia

Type Locality: “Blanco, Comal and Nueces Counties, Texas”

Types: Syntype (#7095, labeled as “holotype”, from “New Braunfels, Tex.”) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 30 ♂ D.

190.      Amblyscirtes belli H. Freeman, 1941

Entomol. News 52(2): 50-51.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes belli

Type Locality: “Lancaster and two miles west of Vickery, Dallas County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

*191.    Amblyscirtes tolteca Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 76, no. 3.

Original Combination: A[mblyscirtes]. Tolteca

Type Locality: “Tehuantepec” [Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Syntype (#15322) in MCZ.

a.   Amblyscirtes tolteca prenda Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 389.

Original Combination: [Amblyscirtes tolteca] prenda

Type Locality: “Tucson, Arizona” [Pima County]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

H. Freeman (1993), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 62(4): 343, detailed the subspecies-level status of this taxon.

phylace group Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 392.

192.      Amblyscirtes phylace (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 117-118.

Original Combination: Pamphila Phylace

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; defined as “foothills of the Wet Mountains in Pueblo County, Colorado, probably along Hardscrabble Road” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 40.

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): fig. 8 ♂ D&V, and W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 32 ♂ D.

193.      Amblyscirtes fimbriata (Plötz, 1882)

a.   Amblyscirtes fimbriata fimbriata (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(7-9): 322, no. 49; cited unpublished pl. 301.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Fimbriata

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#5649) in ZMHB.

=    bellus (W. H. Edwards, 1884)

Papilio 4(3): 57.

Original Combination: Pamphila Bellus

Type Locality: “southern Arizona”; suggested to be “vicinity of Tucson, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 39. [Pima County]

Types: Holotype (#33625) in USNM; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): fig. 7 ♂ D&V.

Amblyscirtes fimbriata is currently only known in Arizona from Cochise County, as noted by Bailowitz and Brock (1991), Butterflies SE Ariz.: 103.


Genus Vidius Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 87, 121. Type-species: Narga vidius Mabille, 1891, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(16): lxx, by original designation.


194.      Vidius perigenes (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(160): 569, no. 3; 3: pl. 100, figs. 37 ♂ D, 38 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Mastor perigenes

Type Locality: “Mexico, Rincon in Guerrero”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

 


Genus Monca Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 87, 124. Type-species: Cobalus telata Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 201, no. 43, by original designation.


195.      Monca crispinus (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(7-9): 318, no. 25; cited unpublished pl. 277.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Crispinus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype (# 5306) in ZMHB.

Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 57, determined this synonymy.

=    tyrtaeus (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 51, no. 348; cited unpublished pl. 581.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Tyrtaeus

Type Locality: “Laguayra” [Venezuela]

Types: Lectotype in EMAU, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 57.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 143, treated this taxon as a synonym of Megistias telata Herrich-Schäffer, 1869, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 201, based on an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz; Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 124, concurred. However, E. Bell (1941), Entomol. News 52(7): 183-185, demonstrated that M. telata and M. tyrtaeus are distinct species-level taxa, and Austin et al. (1996), Tropical Lepid. 7(1): 25, corroborated this.


Genus Nastra Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 87, 125. Type-species: Hesperia lherminier Latreille, [1824], in: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (725), 777-778, no. 135, by original designation.


196.      Nastra lherminier (Latreille, [1824])

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (725), 777-778, no. 135.

Original Combination: Hesperia l’herminier

Type Locality: “de la Caroline”

Types: Type(s) probably lost; N. Riley (1926), Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(2): 240, noted that the type was not in the MNHP.

The specific name as given is in accordance with Code Articles 27 and 32. The emendation of the name to “lherminieri” is unjustified, regardless of the authorship.

=    fusca (Grote & Robinson, 1867)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(1): 2-3.

Original Combination: Hesperia fusca

Type Locality: “Atlantic District. (Georgia!...Florida!)”

Types: Syntype in AMNH.

197.      Nastra neamathla (Skinner & R. Williams, 1923)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 49(2): 145-146, no. 33, fig. 33 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Lerodea neamathla

Type Locality: “Central Florida”

Types: Holotype (#7109) in ANSP; a paratype figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 17 ♂ V.

198.      Nastra julia (H. Freeman, 1945)

Entomol. News 56(8): 203, fig. 1 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Lerodea julia

Type Locality: “Pharr, Texas” [Hidalgo County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    hoffmanni (E. Bell, 1947)

Am. Mus. Novit. (1354): 8, fig. 10 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Lerodea hoffmanni

Type Locality: “Colima, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

 


Genus Cymaenes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 82. Type-species: Cobalus tripunctus Herrich-Schäffer, 1865, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 53, no. 1, by original designation.

=    Megistias Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(160): 571. Type-species: Hesperia tripunctata Latreille, [1824], Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): 752, no. 62[a], by original designation.


199.      Cymaenes tripunctus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

a.   Cymaenes tripunctus tripunctus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 53, no. 1.

Original Combination: Cobalus tripunctus

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7114) in ANSP.

=    jamaca (Schaus, 1902)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 24(1262): 452.

Original Combination: Megistias Jamaca

Type Locality: “Jamaica, British West Indies”

Types: Holotype (#6050) in USNM.

=    ‡”sinepunctis” (Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1946)

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 30(16): 293, no. 113.

Original Combination: Lerodea tripuncta sinepunctis ab. nov.

Type Locality: “Cave River” [Clarendon Parish, St. Ann., Jamaica]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH; figured by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Entomol. 33(2): figs. 7-11 ♂ genitalia, figs. 21, 22 ♂ D&V.

200.      Cymaenes trebius (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxiv.

Original Combination: Pamphila Trebius

Type Locality: “Bogota” [Colombia]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

A. Warren et al. (1998), J. Lepid. Soc. 52(1): 53, A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx. 2: 557, and other recent authors, considered C. trebius to be a species-level taxon.

=    isus (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(160): 574, no. 5; 3(162): pl. 101, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V, 11 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Megistias isus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Acapulco, Dos Arroyos, Rio Papagaio, Venta de Zopilote, Tierra Colorada, Cuernavaca, Atoyac, Fortin, Teapa...Misantla, Jalapa...Orizaba...Paso de San Juan...Guatemala...Nicaragua, Chontales...Costa Rica, Caché, San Francisco...Venezuela; Guiana”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

 


Genus Lerodea Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 80. Type-species: Hesperia eufala W. H. Edwards, 1869, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(3): 311-312, by original designation.


201.      Lerodea eufala (W. H. Edwards, 1869)

a.   Lerodea eufala eufala (W. H. Edwards, 1869)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(3): 311-312.

Original Combination: Hesperia Eufala

Type Locality: “Apalachicola, Florida”; neotype from “Ind[ian]. River.” [Brevard and Volusia counties]

Types: Neotype (possibly lectotype) in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 58, fig. 22 ♂ D&V.

=    dispersa (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 197, no. 56.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] dispersa

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Syntype in ANSP.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 142, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing (pl. 541) made by Plötz.

=    floridae (Mabille, 1876)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (5)6(2): 269, no. 16; (bull.): ix, no. 6, referring to p. 269.

Original Combination: Pamphila Floridae

Type Locality: “E. Florida” “Floride, Texas”

Types: Type(s) probably in MNHP.

=    micylla (Burmeister, 1878)

Descr. phys. Rép. Argentine 5(Lépid.)(1): 272-273, no. 7.

Original Combination: Carystus Micylla

Type Locality: “Buénos-Ayres” [Buenos Aires, Argentina]

Types: Syntype in MACN.

‡”obscura” Lindsey, E. Bell & R. Williams, 1931

Denison Univ. Bull. 31(2), J. Sci. Lab. 26(1): 134; cited Mabille (1904), in: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17b): 131.

Original Combination: Lerodea eufala floridae var. obscura

This name was inadvertently proposed by Lindsey et al., who erroneously believed that it had been described by Mabille; a nomen nudum.

202.      Lerodea arabus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(2): 26.

Original Combination: Pamphila Arabus

Type Locality: “southern Arizona”; suggested to be “vicinity of Tucson, Pima County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 56; neotype from “Sabino Canyon, Santa Catalina Mts., Pima Co., Arizona, 2900'.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 57, fig. 21 ♂ D&V.

=    dysaules Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 500, no. 2; 3(158): pl. 95, figs. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♂ V (lectotype).

Original Combination: Lerodea dysaules

Type Locality: “Mexico, Venta de Zopilote in Guerrero”

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by A. Warren and Mielke (2005), Revta. bras. Zool. 22(1): 288.

A. Warren and Mielke (2005), Revta. bras. Zool. 22(1): 285-288, determined this synonymy, though others have suggested it (e.g., Scott (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 465).


Genus Mnasilus Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2(160): 569. Type-species: Mnasilus penicillatus Godman, 1900, Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2(160): 570; 3(160): pl. 100, figs. 39-42 (= Pamphila allubita Butler, 1877, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1877(2): 151, no. 257; synonym), by monotypy.


203.      Mnasilus allubita (Butler, 1877)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1877(2): 151, no. 257.

Original Combination: Pamphila allubita

Type Locality: “Obydos...Rio Sapó” [Óbidos, Pará, Brazil...Rio Sapó, Amazonas, Brazil]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by Reid and A. Warren (2009), News Lepid. Soc. 51(4): 115, 117, 2 photos.

=    penicillatus Godman, [1900]

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lep. Rhop. 2(160): 570, 3(160): pl. 100, figs. 39 ♂ D, 40 ♂ V, 41 ♂ FW, 42 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Mnasilus penicillatus

Type Locality: “Mexico, San Blas in Jalisco...Frontera, Teapa...Guatemala, San Gerónimo...Panama, Chiriqui...South America, Lower Amazons to Brazil.”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    umbrosus (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): lxii-lxiii.

Original Combination: Cobalus umbrosus

Type Locality: not stated.

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    umbrosus (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): lxiii.

Original Combination: Cobalus evanidus

Type Locality: “America meridionali”

Types: Syntype(s) probably in BMNH.

=    zalma (Plötz, 1886)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 47(1-3): 89, no 19c.

Original Combination: [Cobalus] zalma

Type Locality: “Panama”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC, ZMHB, or lost.

=    amyrna (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxxiii.

Original Combination: Pamphila Amyrna

Type Locality: “Porto Cabello” [Venezuela]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB

=    norma (Dyar, 1917)

Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 5(4/6): 65-66.

Original Combination: Vehelius norma

Type Locality: “Plantation Kitty, Georgetown, British Guiana”

Types: Holotype (#21188) in USNM.

 


Genus Lerema Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 82. Type-species: Papilio accius J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 45, pl. 23, by original designation.

=    Sarega Mabille, 1904

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17b): 133. Type-species: Sarega staurus Mabille, 1904, in: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17b): 133, by monotypy.


204.      Lerema accius (J. E. Smith, 1797)

In: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 45-46, pl. 23, figs. ♂ D, ♂ V, ♀ D, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Accius

Type Locality: “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot.

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing. The specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost.

=    monoco (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 178, no. 80.

Original Combination: Hesperia Monoco

Type Locality: “southern portions; Conn.Mass.” [Connecticut and Massachusetts]

Types: Syntypes (#15304) in MCZ.

=    punctella (Grote & Robinson, 1867)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(1): 1.

Original Combination: Hesperia punctella

Type Locality: “Atlantic District. (Georgia!)”

Types: Holotype in MCZ.

=    nortonii (W. H. Edwards, 1867)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(3): 286, 287-288, no. 4.

Original Combination: Hesperia Nortonii

Type Locality: “New Orleans” [Orleans Parish, Louisiana]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 266, fig. 4 ♂ D&V.

=    parumpunctata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 196, no. 52.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] parumpunctata

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB.

=    pattenii Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 82, no. 3.

Original Combination: L[erema]. Pattenii

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Holotype (#15318) in MCZ.

=    phocylides (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 52, no. 350; cited unpublished pl. 578.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Phocylides

Type Locality: “Laguayra” [Venezuela]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 143, suggested this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

‡”curtius” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1768.

Original Combination: [Lerema accius] = Hesperia curtius Abb.

This name was mentioned in the synonymy of Lerema accius without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”chamis” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1768.

Original Combination: [Lerema accius] = Hesperia chamis Boisd. manuscript

Proposed for a Boisduval manuscript name without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

205.      Lerema liris Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 164.

Original Combination: [Lerema ancillaris] liris

Type Locality: “Mexico, Atoyac, Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

This was considered a species-level taxon by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 29, 210, note 82, A. Warren et al. (1998), J. Lepid. Soc. 52(1): 54, and other recent authors.


Genus Vettius Godman, 1901

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(161): 589. Type-species: Papilio phyllus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(15): 122, pl. 176, figs. B, C; (16): 150 (index), by original designation.


206.      Vettius fantasos (Cramer, 1780)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(25): 20, pl. 300, figs. E ♂ D, F ♂ V; (34): 249 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urb[icola]. Fantasos

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    abebalus (Stoll, 1781)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(31): 145, pl. 365, figs. G ♂ D, H ♂ V; (34): 247 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urb[icola]. Abebalus

Type Locality: “Kust van Guiné en aan de Kaap de Goede Hoop” “Côte de Guiné & au Cap de Bonne Espérance”, in error.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    eucherus (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(10-12): 452, no. 210; cited unpublished pl. 445, and Papilio fantasos (sensu Sepp [1847], Surinaam. Vlinders [2](21): pl. 82).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Eucherus

Type Locality: “Surinam”

Types: Type(s) in ZSMC.

This name was probably proposed as a replacement for Papilio fantasos (Cramer, 1780), thus a junior objective synonym. Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 140, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.


Genus Rhinthon Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(158): 530. Type-species: Proteides chiriquensis Mabille, 1889, Naturaliste (2)3(53): 127, fig. 1 (= Hesperia osca Plötz, 1882, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 48, no. 334; synonym), by original designation.


207.      Rhinthon osca (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 48, no. 334; cited unpublished pl. 537 (557 in BMNH collection).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Osca

Type Locality: “Caracas” [Venezuela]

Types: Holotype (#5219) in ZMHB.

This was considered a species-level taxon by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 30, 210, note 84, A. Warren et al. (1998), J. Lepid. Soc. 52(1): 54, A. Warren (2000), in: Llorente et al., Biodiver. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrópod. Méx.2: 558, and other recent authors.

=    cabella (Plötz, 1886)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 47(1-3): 96-97, no. 315e; cited unpublished pl. 1419.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Cabella

Type Locality: “Porto Cabello” [Venezuela]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 152, determined this synonymy (as chiriquensis) through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    chiriquensis (Mabille, 1889)

Naturaliste (2)3(53): 127, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Proteides Chiriquensis

Type Locality: “Chiriqui” [Panama]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

=    biserta (Schaus, 1902)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 24(1262): 460.

Original Combination: Thracides Biserta

Type Locality: “Trinidad”

Types: Holotype (#6073) in USNM.

 


Tribe Hesperiini Latreille, 1809


Genus Hylephila Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 81. Type-species: Papilio phyleus Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 25-26, pl. 13, figs. 4, 5; 2: index, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 193, no. 544.

      =    ‡Euthymus Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77. Type-species: Papilio phyleus Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 25-26, pl. 13, figs. 4, 5; 2: index, by original designation. Preoccupied by Euthymus Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 127, and also a junior objective synonym of Hylephila.

=    Andinus Hayward, 1940

Revta. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 10(3): 284-285. Type-species: Andinus venustus Hayward, 1940, Revta. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 10(3): 285-286, fig. 9, by original designation.

      =    ‡Cordillana Hayward, 1941

Revta. Mus. La Plata, Zool. (n.s.) 2(14): 288. Type-species: Andinus venustus Hayward, 1940, Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 10: 285, as replacement name; proposed to replace Andinus Hayward, 1940, erroneously thought preoccupied.


phyleus group MacNeill & Herrera, 1999

J. Lepid. Soc. 52(3): 285 (key), 286-287.

208.      Hylephila phyleus (Drury, 1773)

a.   Hylephila phyleus phyleus (Drury, 1773)

Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 25-26, pl. 13, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V (1770); 2: index (1773, name given).

Original Combination: Papilio Phyleus

Type Locality: “Antigua, St. Christopher’s, Nevies”; suggested to be “Antigua” by Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 311.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Panzer (1785), Diurn. Abbild.: 59, pl. 13, figs. 4, 5, misidentified this species as Papilio phareus Fabricius, 1793, a name that has sometimes been listed in the synonymy of H. phyleus. Likewise, Hübner (1823), Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: 11, listed “Hesperia carin” in the synonymy of Phemiades augias Linnaeus, 1763 sensu Hübner, which included H. phyleus; this is a nomen nudum and a misidentification of phyleus.

=    ‡”druryi” (Megerle, [1803])

Cat. Ins. Viennae Austriae 28 Novembris 1803, auctionis: [29].

Original Combination: Papilio Druryi

Proposed to replace Papilio phyleus Drury, 1773, erroneously thought pre-occupied. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 1710 placed this work on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature.

=    bucephalus (Stephens, 1828)

Ill. Brit. Entomol., Haustellata 1: 102-103, pl. 10, figs. 1, 2.

Original Combination: [Pamphila] Bucephalus

Type Locality: “neighborhood of Barnstable in Devonshire [England]”; but suggested to be “from the North American continent” later in the original description.

Types: Location of syntypes not known.

=    hala (Butler, 1870)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 504, no. 2.

Original Combination: Pamphila Hala

Type Locality: “Venezuela”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    muertovalle Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 10.

Original Combination: Hylephila phyleus muertovalle

Type Locality: “Furnace Creek date grove, Death Valley, Inyo Co., Calif.” [California]

Types: Holotype in LACM.

The utility of this name as a trinomial seems questionable.

=    eureka Austin & J. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (42): 502, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V (holotype); 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hylephila phyleus eureka

Type Locality: “California: Humboldt County; Eureka”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

As discussed by Pyle (2002), Butterflies Cascadia:2 70, the utility of this name as a trinomial seems questionable.

=    ‡”pallida” Hayward, 1944

Revta. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 12(3): 180.

Original Combination: Hylephila phyleus ab. pallida

Type Locality: “Tucuman” [Argentina]

Types: Holotype in IMLA (Hayward collection).

 


Genus Pseudocopaeodes Skinner & R. Williams, 1923

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 49(2): 137. Type-species: Copaeodes eunus W. H. Edwards, 1881, Papilio 1(4): 47, no. 5, by original designation.


209.      Pseudocopaeodes eunus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

a.   Pseudocopaeodes eunus eunus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Papilio 1(4): 43, 47, no. 5.

Original Combination: Copaeodes eunus

Type Locality: “Mt. Hood”; corrected to “the bottoms of Kern River, near Bakersfield, Cal.” by Morrison (1883), Papilio 3(2): 43. [Kern County, California]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 73, fig. 6 ♂ V, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 12 ♂ D& V.

=    wrightii (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Can. Entomol. 14(8): 152.

Original Combination: Copaeodes Wrightii

Type Locality: “Mohave Desert, So. California...over a pass 6,000 feet high...on the high dry plain...for 20 miles to Mohave River. About 60 rods from the river”; defined as “near Victorville, San Bernardino Co., Calif.” by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 11.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 278, fig. 13 ♂ D&V; a paralectotype figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 47, fig. 10 ♂ D.

This was treated as a subspecies-level taxon by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 211, note 103, but was considered a synonym of P. e. eunus by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 12, (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 435, and Austin & J. Emmel (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (42): 503.

b.   Pseudocopaeodes eunus alinea Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 12.

Original Combination: Copaeodes eunus alinea

Type Locality: “Afton, San Bernardino Co. Calif.” [San Bernardino County, California]

Types: Holotype in LACM.

c.   Pseudocopaeodes eunus flavus Austin & J. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (42): 503, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V (holotype); 9 ♀ D, 10 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Pseudocopaeodes eunus flavus

Type Locality: “Nevada: Churchill County; Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, Loop Road, 1189 m, T20N R32E S4-5 on USGS Foxtail Lake, Nev. 7.5' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

d.   Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus Austin & J. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (42): 503-504, figs. 11 ♂ D, 12 ♂ V (holotype); 13 ♀ D, 14 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Pseudocopaeodes eunus obscurus

Type Locality: “Nevada: Carson City; Eagle Valley, Lompa Lane at Airport Road (the latter combines with Hot Springs Road and Graves Lane), 1417 m, T15N R20E S9 on USGS New Empire, Nev. 7.5' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

 


Genus Hesperia Fabricius, 1793

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 258, no. 187. Type-species: Papilio comma Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162, by designation of Dalman (1816), K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(2): 200. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 1240 placed this name on the Official Index of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 2178. Due to the erroneous type designation by Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 187-189, most of what is now known as Pyrgus was previously called Hesperia. The name “Steropes” was introduced by Rafinesque (1815), Analyse Nat.: 128, for an unspecified part of what he called “Hesperia Cuvier.” No other information was given. This name is unidentifiable, does not conform to Code Article 12, and is unavailable; it is also preoccupied by Steropes Steven, 1806, Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 1: 166.

      =    ‡Pamphila [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 287, no. 41. Type-species: Papilio comma Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162, by designation of Westwood (1840), Intro. Class. Ins. 2: 88. A junior objective synonym of Hesperia Fabricius, 1793.

      =    ‡Diorthosus Rafinesque, 1815

Analyse Nat.: 128, no. '7' [37]. Type-species: Papilio comma Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162, as replacement name for “Hesperia Cuvier”, erroneously thought to be preoccupied. A junior objective synonym of Hesperia Fabricius, 1793.

      =    ‡Phidias Rafinesque, 1815

Analyse Nat.: 128, no. 41. Type-species: Papilio comma Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162, as replacement name for Pamphila [Fabricius], 1807, erroneously thought to be preoccupied. A junior objective synonym of Hesperia Fabricius, 1793.

      =    ‡Symmachia Sodoffsky, 1837

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 10(6): 82, no. 16. Type-species: Papilio comma Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162, as replacement name for Hesperia Fabricius, 1793, erroneously thought to be preoccupied. A junior objective synonym of Hesperia Fabricius, 1793; this name is also preoccupied by Symmachia Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (2): 26.

=    Ocytes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 76. Type-species: Hesperia metea Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 177-178, no. 79, by original designation.

=    Anthomaster Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 78. Type-species: Hesperia leonardus T. Harris, 1862, Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 314, fig. 138, by original designation.

      =    ‡Urbicola Tutt, 1905

Nat. Hist. Brit. Butterflies 1(1): 84. Type-species: Papilio comma Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Hesperia Fabricius, 1793. Tutt erroneously attributed this name to Barbut, thereby making it a senior synonym of Hesperia; however, Barbut did not use the name in a generic sense (see Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 454), but followed Linnaeus' usage as an interposed adjective.


comma group MacNeill, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 65-67.

210.      Hesperia uncas W. H. Edwards, 1863

a.   Hesperia uncas uncas W. H. Edwards, 1863

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 19-20, no. 9; (2): pl. 5, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Uncas

Type Locality: “Philadelphia”; corrected to “vicinity of Denver, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 298-299.

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 299, fig. 26 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 47, fig. 27 ♂ D.

=    ridingsii Reakirt, 1866

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 151.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ridingsii

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains, Colorado Terr.”

Types: Holotype in FMNH.

b.   Hesperia uncas tomichi M. Fisher, 2008

Papilio (n.s.) 18: 12-13, pl 4, top row left ♂ D, top row center ♂ V (holotype), second row left ♀ D, second row center ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas tomichi

Type Locality: “Colorado: Gunnison Co., Big Mesa, 1 mi. S Hwy 50 off CR31 and SR 149, 7800 Ft.”

Types: Holotype in CSUC.

c.   Hesperia uncas lasus (W. H. Edwards, 1884)

Papilio 4(3): 54-55.

Original Combination: Pamphila Lasus

Type Locality: “southern Arizona”; tentatively defined as “foothills east of Tucson, Pima County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 299-300; corrected to “southeast from there [Tucson] in either Cochise or Santa Cruz County” by Austin and McGuire (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (66): 777.

Types: Holotype (#33623) in USNM; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 27 ♂ D&V.

d.   Hesperia uncas grandiosa Austin & McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (66): 778, figs. 1 third row left ♂ D, 2 third row left ♂ V (holotype); 1 third row 3 ♂’s right to left D, 2 3 ♂’s right to left, 1 fourth row 4 ♀’s D, 2 fourth row 4 ♀’s V, 9 ♂ genitalia, 17 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas grandiosa

Type Locality: “Nevada: White Pine County; White River Valley, 1 mile north of Nye County line, 1676 m, T10N R61E S11 on USGS Moorman Spring NE, Nev. 7.5' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

e.   Hesperia uncas fulvapalla Austin & McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (66): 777, figs. 3 top row left ♂ D, 4 top row left ♂ V (holotype); 3 top row 3 ♂’s right to left D, 4 top row 3 ♂’s right to left V , 3 second row 4 ♀’s D, 4 ♀’s V, 8 ♂ genitalia, 16 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas fulvapalla

Type Locality: “Nevada: Nye County; Railroad Valley, U.S. Route 6, Lockes Ponds, 1.3 miles south (=southeast) of Lockes, 1463 m, T8N R55E S113 [sic!] on USGS Portuguese Mt., Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

f.    Hesperia uncas reeseorum Austin & McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (66): 776, figs. 1 top row left ♂ D, 2 top row left ♂ V (holotype); 1 top row 3 ♂’s right to left D, 2 top row 3 ♂’s right to left V, 1 second row 4 ♀’s D, 2 second row 4 ♀’s V, 7 ♂ genitalia, 15 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas reeseorum

Type Locality: “Nevada: Lander County; Reese River Valley, Nevada State Route 722 (previously State Route 2), 4 miles east (=northeast) of Reese River, 1743 m, T19N R43E S32 on USGS Austin, Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

g.   Hesperia uncas terraclivosa Austin & McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (66): 779, figs. 5 top row left ♂ D, 6 top row left ♂ V (holotype); 5 top row 3 ♂’s right to left D, 6 top row 3 ♂’s right to left V, 5 second row 4 ♀’s D, 6 second row 4 ♀’s V, 11 ♂ genitalia, 18 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas terraclivosa

Type Locality: “Nevada: Lander County; Toquima Range, Monitor Valley-Petes Summit Road, 12.0 road miles southeast of Nevada State Route 376, 1950 m, T16N R4E S5 on USGS Spencer Hot Springs, Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

h.   Hesperia uncas giulianii McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (37): 461-462, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V; 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 6a, b ♂ valvae.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas giuliani

Type Locality: “California, Mono County: Adobe Hills, 5 mi. NW of Adobe Lake, 7100 ft. elevation”

Types: Holotype in CAS.

i.    Hesperia uncas macswaini MacNeill, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 85-86, pl. 1, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V, 6 ♀ D (including holotype?), figs. 12 ♂ stigma, 19 ♂ valve, 22 ♂ genitalia, pl. 7 photograph of egg.

Original Combination: Hesperia uncas macswaini

Type Locality: “Blancos Corral, White Mountains, Mono County, California. Elevation 10,400 feet”

Types: Holotype in CAS.

211.      Hesperia juba (Scudder, 1874)

Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2(3)(4): 349, pl. 10, figs. 19 ♂ D&V, 20 ♀ D&V; pl. 11 figs. 5, 6 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Pamphila Juba

Type Locality: “California...neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah”; lectotype from “California.”

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by Skinner and R. Williams (1924), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 50(3): 188; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, fig. 2082 ♂ D&V (as Hesperia comma).

The name juba is often credited to Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rept. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77, no. 1, where he cited Pamphila comma (sensu Boisduval (1852), Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 313). Neither Scudder at that time nor Boisduval actually described the taxon, so Boisduval’s reference to comma cannot qualify as an indication (Code Article 12.2). Pamphila juba Scudder, 1872, is a nomen nudum.

=    ‡”ogdenensis” (W. Holland, 1931)

Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): 372, pl. 52, fig. 9 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Erynnis juba] ab. ogdenensis

Type Locality: “Ogden, Utah” [Weber County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

*212.    Hesperia comma (Linnaeus, 1758)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 484, no. 162; cited Linnaeus (1746), Fauna Svecica: 241, no. 793, and Merian (1730), Europ. Ins.: pl. 48.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejus urbicola]. Comma

Type Locality: “in Europa”; suggested to be “Sweden” by Verity (1940), Farfalle diurn. Ital. 1: 112, based on citation in Fauna Svecica.

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 314.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 1240 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 2838. The Palaearctic synonymy is not listed. Layberry et al. (1998), Butterflies Can.: 52-54, treated North American populations of “comma” as three species-level taxa. This had been done before (e.g., MacNeill (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 89-90), in a slightly different fashion. The treatment presented by Layberry et al. is adopted here, although as noted by Opler and A. Warren (2002), Sci. Names List Butterflies N. A.: 12, the relationship between assiniboia and colorado requires more study; these two taxa may be conspecific.

a.   Hesperia comma hulbirti Lindsey, 1939

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 32(1): 171.

Original Combination: Hesperia hulbirti

Type Locality: “Hurricane Hill in the Olympic Mts., Washington” [Clallam County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; paratypes figured by Lindsey (1942), Denison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 37(1/2): pl. 4, figs. 4 ♂ V, 11 ♀ V.

b.   Hesperia comma manitoba (Scudder, 1874)

Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2(3)(4): 342, 343, 344 key, 345 key, 346 key, 351, no. 7, pl. 10, figs. 8 ♂ D&V, 9 ♀ D&V, 10 ♀ D&V, 11 ♂ D&V (lectotype); pl. 11, figs. 7, 8 ♂ genitalia; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(10): pl. 17, fig. 4 ♂ D&V from British Columbia.

Original Combination: Pamphila Manitoba

Type Locality: “Colorado...about Pike's Peak...on the shores of Lake Winnipeg...at Labache, and at Rivière du Loup”; lectotype from “Lahache, B. C.” [Lac La Hache, British Columbia]

Types: Lectotype (#15301) in MCZ, designated by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 127.

c.   Hesperia comma borealis Lindsey, 1942

Denison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 37(1/2): 19, pl. 1, fig. 6 ♂ genitalia, pl. 4, fig. 9 ♂ V (holotype), 16 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia borealis

Type Locality: “Nain, Labrador” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Holotype in CUIC.

d.   Hesperia comma laurentina (Lyman, 1892)

Can. Entomol. 24(3): 57, 59.

Original Combination: [Pamphila Manitoba] var. Laurentina

Type Locality: “Lower St. Lawrence...Cacouna...Rivière du Loup, Metis...Gaspé”; lectotype from “Gaspe, P. Q.” [Quebec]

Types: Lectotype in LEMQ, designated by Sheppard and Vickery (1975), Can. Entomol. 107(10): 1130, fig. 1 ♂ D.

213.      Hesperia assiniboia (Lyman, 1892)

Can. Entomol. 24(3): 57, 59.

Original Combination: [Pamphila Manitoba] var. Assiniboia

Type Locality: “Regina” [Saskatchewan]

Types: Lectotype in LEMQ, designated by Sheppard and Vickery (1975), Can. Entomol. 107(10): 1130, fig. 2 ♂ D.

214.      Hesperia colorado (Scudder, 1874)

a.   Hesperia colorado colorado (Scudder, 1874)

Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2(3)(4): 342, 343, 344 key, 345 key, 346 key, 349, no. 4, pl. 10, figs. 16 ♀ D&V, 17 ♀ D&V, 18 ♂ D&V (lectotype); pl. 11, figs. 1, 2 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Pamphila Colorado

Type Locality: “Colorado, about the Georgetown and South Park Roads...Arizona”; lectotype from “Colorado”; subsequently suggested to be “Tennessee Pass, 3150 m (=10300 feet), Lake-Eagle Cos. Colorado” by Scott (1998), Papilio (n.s.) 11: 6; however, Guanella Pass (= the road between Georgetown and South Park) is more likely to be the correct type locality (A. Warren pers. comm. 2006). [Park-Clear Creek counties]

Types: Lectotype (#15299) in MCZ, designated by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 126-127.

b.   Hesperia colorado ochracea Lindsey, 1941

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 34(4): 770-772.

Original Combination: Hesperia colorado form ochracea

Type Locality: “Platte Canyon, Colo.” [Jefferson-Douglas counties]

Types: Holotype in AMNH; figured by Lindsey (1942), Denison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 37(1/2): pl. 5, fig. 15 ♂ V.

This name is not a primary homonym of “Hesperia ochraceasensu Staudinger (1871), in: Staudinger and Wocke, Cat. Lepid. Europ. (2nd ed.): 35, Plötz (1883), Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 197, etc.; these usages refer to Pamphila ochracea Bremer, 1861, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersbourg (ser. 3)3(7): col. 473, secondarily placed in Hesperia. That taxon is now in Ochlodes, so the retrieval of this name from secondary homonymy was mandatory since no replacement name was ever proposed (Code Articles 57.3.1, 59.3).

c.   Hesperia colorado oroplata Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 8.

Original Combination: Hesperia comma oroplata

Type Locality: “Spring Creek, Fremont Co., Colo.” [Colorado]

Types: Holotype in LACM.

d.   Hesperia colorado susanae L. Miller, 1962

Entomol. News 73(4): 85-88, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia susanae

Type Locality: “White Mountains, Arizona...Horseshoe Cienega, White Mts., Apache Co., Ariz.; 8000 ft, in dry meadow”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

e.   Hesperia colorado mojavensis Austin & McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (39): 481-482, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia comma mojavensis

Type Locality: “Nevada: Clark County; Spring Mountains, Kyle Canyon Ski Area (or Run), 2225-2400 m”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

f.    Hesperia colorado idaho (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Can. Entomol. 15(8): 148, 151, no. 5.

Original Combination: [Pamphila Colorado] var. Idaho

Type Locality: “Oregon, Washington Terr. and California”; defined as “Lake Tahoe, Placer County, California” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 293-294; subsequently suggested to be “the lowlands at Doyle in Lassen Co. Calif.” by Scott (1998), Papilio (n.s.) 11: 8.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 127; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 3 ♂ D and F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 295, fig. 23 ♂ D&V.

g.   Hesperia colorado leussleri Lindsey, 1940

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 33(2): 373-374.

Original Combination: Hesperia colorado form leussleri

Type Locality: “Warner’s Hot Springs, San Diego Co., Cal.” [California]

Types: Holotype probably in CMNH; figured by Lindsey (1942), Denison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 37(1/2): pl. 5, figs. 1 ♂ V.

h.   Hesperia colorado tildeni H. Freeman, 1956

Lepid. News 9(6): 196-198, pl., top row ♂ D&V (holotype), bottom row ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia tildeni

Type Locality: “Cherry Flat Reservoir, Santa Clara County, California”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

i.    Hesperia colorado harpalus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 3-4.

Original Combination: Pamphila Harpalus

Type Locality: “Nevada”; defined as “vicinity of Carson City, Ormsby County, Nevada” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 288-290; suggested to be “Sierra Nevada Mts., west of Carson City” by Scott (1998), Papilio (n.s.) 11: 7.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 289, fig. 20 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 19 ♂ D.

As first reviser, Lindsey (1942), Denison Univ. Bull., J. Sci. Lab. 37(1/2): 24, gave priority to harpalus over cabelus (below).

=    cabelus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 4.

Original Combination: Pamphila Cabelus

Type Locality: “Nevada”; defined as “vicinity of Carson City, Ormsby County, Nevada” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 290; suggested to be “Sierra Nevada Mts., west of Carson City” by Scott (1998), Papilio (n.s.) 11: 8; corrected to “California, probably west of the Sierra Nevada” by Austin (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (50): 630.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 291, fig. 21 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 17 ♂ D (lectotype), 18 ♂ V (paralectotype).

=    yosemite Leussler, 1933

Entomol. News 44: 169-170.

Original Combination: Hesperia yosemite

Type Locality: “near Yosemite, Calif.” [Mariposa County, California]

Types: Holotype in OSU.

j.    Hesperia colorado oregonia (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Can. Entomol. 15(8): 150.

Original Combination: [Pamphila] Oregonia

Type Locality: “north California...Nevada”; defined as “Trinity County, California” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 291-292; suggested to be “Sierra Nevada Mts., west of Carson City” by Scott (1998), Papilio (n.s.) 11: 8, but this was not acceptable to Shapiro and Forister (2005), J. Lepid. Soc. 59(3): 164 or A. Warren (2005), Butterflies Ore.: 39-40, who employed F. Brown and L. Miller’s definition.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 293, fig. 22 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 5 ♂ D (lectotype), 6 ♀ D (paralectotype).

k.   Hesperia colorado mattoonorum McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (37): 464-465, figs. 16 ♂ D, 17 ♂ V; 18 ♀ D, 19 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia comma mattoonorum

Type Locality: “Low Divide Road (County Rd. 308) at High Divide, 6 air miles E of Hwy. 101 at Smith River, 2,300 ft. elevation, Del Norte County, California”

Types: Holotype in CAS.

l.    Hesperia colorado dodgei (E. Bell, 1927)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 35(2): 175.

Original Combination: Pamphila juba race dodgei

Type Locality: “Santa Cruz, California” [Sant Cruz County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

215.      Hesperia woodgatei (R. Williams, 1914)

Entomol. News 25(6): 266, no. 71.

Original Combination: Pamphila woodgatei

Type Locality: “Jamez [sic!; Jemez] Mountains, New Mexico” implied from the title of the paper. [Sandoval County]

Types: Syntypes (#7171) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 11 ♂ V.

leonardus group MacNeill, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 134-135.

216.      Hesperia ottoe W. H. Edwards, 1866

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(2): 200, 207, no. 7.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ottoe

Type Locality: “Kansas”

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 18 ♂ D&V.

217.      Hesperia leonardus T. Harris, 1862

a.   Hesperia leonardus leonardus T. Harris, 1862

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 314-315, fig. 138 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Leonardus

Type Locality: “Massachusetts” implied from the title of the first edition of the book; stated to be “Massachusetts” by Morris (1862), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. [4]: 110, no. 16. Reverend L. W. Leonard lived in Boston.

Types: Syntypes (#26350) in MCZ.

=    lidia Plötz, 1882

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 64, no. 394; cited unpublished pl. 607.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Lidia

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, suggested that this is a “var. of Limochores manataqua Scudd.”, through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz; however, Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 324, considered this a synonym of Hesperia leonardus on the same basis. This name may best be considered a nomen dubium.

=    liberia Plötz, 1883

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 220, no. 473; cited unpublished pl. 661.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Liberia

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 320, considered this a senior synonym of Hesperia woodgatei (R. Williams, 1914); however there is little support for that notion.

=    stallingsi H. Freeman, 1944

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 38(5): 153-154.

Original Combination: Hesperia leonardus stallingsi new form

Type Locality: “Blendon, Franklin Co., Ohio”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

b.   Hesperia leonardus pawnee Dodge, 1874

Can. Entomol. 6(3): 44-45.

Original Combination: Hesperia pawnee

Type Locality: “Glencoe, Nebraska, upon high rolling prairie” [Dodge County]

Types: A syntype (#16583) in MCZ; a syntype figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 30 ♂ D.

=    ogallala (Leussler, 1921)

Entomol. News 32(7): 206-207.

Original Combination: Pamphila ogallala

Type Locality: “Omaha, Nebraska” [Douglas County]

Types: Holotype in OSU; “paratypes” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 73, figs. 20 ♂ D, 21 ♂ V.

c.   Hesperia leonardus montana (Skinner, 1911)

Entomol. News 22(9): 413.

Original Combination: Pamphila pawnee montana

Type Locality: “Colorado”; defined in error as “Chaffee Co., 7500" by Gillham and Ehrlich (1954), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 80(3/4): 110; subsequently defined as “Buffalo Creek, Jefferson County, Colorado” by Scott and Stanford (1983), J. Res. Lepid. 20(1): 27-28.

Types: Lectotype (#7086) in CMNH, designated by Scott and Stanford (1983), J. Res. Lepid. 20(1): 27; a paralectotype figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 29 ♂ D.

218.      Hesperia pahaska Leussler, 1938

a.   Hesperia pahaska pahaska Leussler, 1938

Entomol. News 49(1): 5-6.

Original Combination: Hesperia pahaska

Type Locality: “canyon region of Sioux County near the town of Harrison, Nebraska”

Types: Holotype in OSU.

b.   Hesperia pahaska williamsi Lindsey, 1940

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 33(2): 375-376.

Original Combination: Hesperia pahaska form williamsi

Type Locality: “Baboquivari Mts., Pima Co., Ariz.”

Types: Holotype in CMNH (description says ANSP).

c.   Hesperia pahaska martini MacNeill, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 148-150, pl. 1, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V, 9 ♀ D (including holotype?), figs. 5 larval setal pattern, 6 larval head capsule, 7 larval head capsule, 26 ♀ genitalia, pl. 6 egg.

Original Combination: Hesperia pahaska martini

Type Locality: - “4.5 miles southeast of Ivanpah, New York Mtns., San Bernardino Co., Calif.”

Types: Holotype in CAS.

219.      Hesperia columbia (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77, no. 2; figured (as Pamphila sylvanoides) by Scudder (1874), Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2(3)(4): pl. 10, fig. 22 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: P[amphila]. Columbia

Type Locality: “California (Henry Edwards)”

Types: Holotype (#15298) in MCZ.

=    california (W. G. Wright, 1905)

Butterflies W. Coast: 65, no. 423; 241, no. 423, pl. 31, figs. 423 ♂ D (lectotype), 423b ♀ D, 423c ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Pamphila] California; Pamphila California n. s.

Type Locality: “Southern California”

Types: Lectotype (#4321) in CAS, designated by MacNeill (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 142.

=    erynnioides (Dyar, 1907)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 15(1): 50-51.

Original Combination: Thymelicus erynnioides

Type Locality: “Monterey Co., California”

Types: Holotype (#10252) in USNM.

metea group MacNeill, 1964

Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 151-152.

220.      Hesperia metea Scudder, 1863

a.   Hesperia metea metea Scudder, 1863

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 177-178, no. 79; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): pl. 10, fig. 5 ♂ D&V, 11 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Metea

Type Locality: “Conn.” [Connecticut]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

b.   Hesperia metea intermedia Gatrelle, 2003

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 4(3): 4-5, figs. 7 ♂ D&V (holotype), 8 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia metea intermedia

Type Locality: “South Carolina: Pickens County, visc. [sic!] Lake Issaqueena”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

c.   Hesperia metea licinus (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 275, no. 18.

Original Combination: Pamphila Licinus

Type Locality: “near Waco, Texas” [McLennan County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 28 ♂ D, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 24 ♂ D&V.

As first reviser, H. Freeman (1948), Entomol. News 59(8): 205, gave licinus priority over horus (below).

=    horus (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 277, no. 22.

Original Combination: Pamphila Horus

Type Locality: “Dallas, Texas” [Dallas County]

Types: Holotype (#8975) in MCZ; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, fig. 14 ♀ V, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 25 ♀ D&V.

=    belfragei H. Freeman, 1944

Field & Lab. 12(1): 20.

Original Combination: Hesperia metea belfragei new form

Type Locality: “Cedar Hill, Dallas County, Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

221.      Hesperia viridis (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Can. Entomol. 15(8): 147.

Original Combination: [Pamphila Juba] var. Viridis

Type Locality: “Los [sic!] Vegas, N. M.”; holotype labeled “Las Vegas, N. M. 7000 ft” [San Miguel County, New Mexico]

Types: Holotype in SEMC, figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 19 ♂ D&V.

222.      Hesperia attalus (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

a.   Hesperia attalus attalus (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 276, no. 19.

Original Combination: Pamphila Attalus

Type Locality: “near Waco, Texas” [McLennan County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 282, fig. 15 ♀ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 24 ♀ V.

=    seminole (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77, no. 2.

Original Combination: O[cytes]. Seminole

Type Locality: “Florida to Texas”

Types: Syntypes (#8971) in MCZ.

Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(10): pl. 17, fig. 9 ♀ D, figured a specimen from Texas, which he claimed was drawn from the “type.”

=    ‡”quaiapen” (Scudder, 1889)

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1655.

Original Combination: Erynnis attalus quiapen dimorphic form [♀]

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in MCZ.

b.   Hesperia attalus nigrescens Gatrelle, 1999

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(10): 12, figs. 23 ♂ D, 28 ♂ V (holotype); 24 ♀ D, 29 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia attalus nigrescens

Type Locality: “South Carolina: Horry County”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

c.   Hesperia attalus slossonae (Skinner, 1890)

Entomol. Am. 6(7): 138.

Original Combination: Pamphila slossonae

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Syntypes (#7765) in CMNH.

ungrouped species Burns, 1987

J. Lepid. Soc. 41(4): 176-177. Burns suggested that H. sassacus, H. miriamae and H. nevada may be closely related, and that H. meskei may be most closely related to the metea group of species.

223.      Hesperia meskei (W. H. Edwards, 1877)

a.   Hesperia meskei meskei (W. H. Edwards, 1877)

Can. Entomol. 9(3): 58-59.

Original Combination: Pamphila Meskei

Type Locality: “Bastrop Co., Texas”

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 33 ♀ D, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): fig. 16 ♀ D&V.

b.   Hesperia meskei straton (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Papilio 1(5): 78.

Original Combination: Pamphila straton

Type Locality: “Indian River” [Brevard County, Florida]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 285, fig. 17 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, figs. 32 ♂ D (paralectotype), 34 ♂ V (lectotype).

c.   Hesperia meskei pinocayo Gatrelle & Minno, 2003

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 4(3): 6, figs. 1 ♂ D&V (holotype), 2 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia meskei pinocayo

Type Locality: “Florida: Monroe County, Big Pine Key”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

224.      Hesperia dacotae (Skinner, 1911)

Entomol. News 22(9): 412.

Original Combination: Pamphila sassacus dacotae

Type Locality: “Volga, South Dakota” [Brookings County]

Types: Syntype (#7087, labeled as “holotype”, from Volga) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 22 ♂ D.

225.      Hesperia lindseyi (W. Holland, 1930)

a.   Hesperia lindseyi lindseyi (W. Holland, 1930)

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 19(3): 158-159.

Original Combination: Erynnis lindseyi

Type Locality: “Nellie, California...Ukiah, Calif.”; holotype from “Napa Co.” as reported by MacNeill (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: 161. [Napa County, California]

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 73, figs. 10 ♂ D (holotype), 11 ♀ D (paratype).

b.   Hesperia lindseyi macneilli J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (38): 475-476, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V (holotype); 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia lindseyi macneilli

Type Locality: “California: Mendocino County; Branscomb Rd. at Laytonville, 1645'”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

c.   Hesperia lindseyi eldorado J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (38): 476-477, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V (holotype); 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia lindseyi eldorado

Type Locality: “California: El Dorado County; west slope Sierra Nevada; Meadow Brook barrens, Traverse Creek; T.12N., R.10E., Sec. 24"

Types: Holotype in LACM.

d.   Hesperia lindseyi septentrionalis J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (38): 477-478, 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ V (holotype); 15 ♀ D, 16 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia lindseyi septentrionalis

Type Locality: “California: Siskiyou Co., Shasta Valley Wildlife Area on Little Shasta River, 4 rd. mi. E. of Montague, 2500 ft. elev.; S.33, T.45N., R.5W”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

e.   Hesperia lindseyi mccorklei P. Severns & D. Severns, 2005

J. Lepid. Soc. 59(3): 166-167, figs. 1a ♀ D&V (holotype), 1b ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia lindseyi mccorklei

Type Locality: “Oregon, Douglas County, Hillside north of Jackson Creek Road, 3.8 miles east of the junction with South Umpqua Road (UTMs: N 4755771 m, E 10 514710 m, 1470 ft elevation)”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

226.      Hesperia sassacus T. Harris, 1862

a.   Hesperia sassacus nantahala Gatrelle & Grkovich, 2003

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 4(3): 3, figs. 14 ♂ D&V (holotype), 15 ♀ D&V, 16 ♂ V, 18 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia sassacus nantahala

Type Locality: “North Carolina: Clay County, Hwy. 64 at Buck Creek, 3400 ft.”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

b.   Hesperia sassacus sassacus T. Harris, 1862

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 315.

Original Combination: Hesperia Sassacus

Type Locality: “Cambridge” [Middlesex County, Massachusetts]

Types: Holotype (#26349) in MCZ.

‡”incerta” (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 173, under no. 70.

Original Combination: H[esperia]. incerta

Scudder compared Hesperia sassacus with “H. incerta”; this name has never been used otherwise and is a nomen nudum.

c.   Hesperia sassacus manitoboides (Fletcher, 1889)

Ann. Rep. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 19: 85-86.

Original Combination: Pamphila Manitoboides

Type Locality: “Nepigon”; emended to “Nepigon, Ont., and Sudbury, Ont.” by Fletcher (1903), Proc. & Trans. R. Soc. Can. (2)9(Sect. IV): 215. [Nipigon, Thunder Bay County, Ontario]

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

The description is of the larva, and might be considered conditional. Fletcher (1903), Proc. & Trans. R. Soc. Can. (2)9(Sect. IV): 214-215, and (1904), Can. Entomol. 36(5): 128-129, redescribed this taxon. Layberry et al. (1998), Butterflies Can.: 57, did not recognize this as a subspecies-level taxon.

227.      Hesperia miriamae MacNeill, 1959

a.   Hesperia miriamae miriamae MacNeill, 1959

Wasmann J. Biol. 17(1): 90-94, figs. 1A ♂ genitalia, uncus, tegumen and vinculum, 1B ♂ genitalia, valve, 1C ♂ genitalia, tegumen and uncus D.

Original Combination: Hesperia miriamae

Type Locality: “Near Mono Pass, northwest Inyo County, California; elevation 12,000 feet”

Types: Holotype in CAS; paratypes figured by MacNeill (1964), Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol. 35: pl. 1, figs. 10 ♂ D, 11 ♂ V, 12 ♀ D.

b.   Hesperia miriamae longaevicola McGuire, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (37): 463, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V; 9 ♀ D, 10 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia miriamae longaevicola

Type Locality: “California, Mono Co.: Mt. Barcroft, 13,400 ft. elevation, White Mountains”

Types: Holotype in CAS.

228.      Hesperia nevada (Scudder, 1874)

a.   Hesperia nevada nevada (Scudder, 1874)

Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2(3)(4): 342, 343, 344 key, 345 key, 347-348, no. 2, pl. 10, figs. 1 ♂ D&V (lectotype), 2 ♀ D&V, 3 ♀ D&V, 4 ♂ D&V; pl. 11, figs. 3, 4 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Pamphila Nevada

Type Locality: “Colorado...on the mountains about the South Park and in the Park itself” “Nevada, California and Oregon”; lectotype from “Colorado”; defined as “S. Park, Colo.” by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 126. [Park County]

Types: Lectotype (#15300) in MCZ, designated by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1916), ibid.

b.   Hesperia nevada sierra Austin, J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (40): 487-488, figs. 1 upper left ♂ D, 2 upper left ♂ V (holotype); 1 upper right ♀ D, 2 upper right ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia nevada sierra

Type Locality: “Nevada: Washoe County; Carson Range, Tahoe Meadows, Nevada State Route 431, 2.4 miles west of Mt. Rose (road) Summit, 2695 m, R18E T17N S25 on USGS Mt. Rose, Nev. 7.5' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

 


Genus Polites Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 78. Type-species: Hesperia peckius W. Kirby, 1837, in: Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. [4]: 300, pl. 4, figs. 2, 3, by original designation. The generic synonymy follows Burns (1994), J. Lepid. Soc. 48(1): 24-45.

=    Hedone Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 79. Type-species: Hesperia brettus Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837], Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (25): pl. 75, figs. 3-5 (= Thymelicus vibex Geyer, 1832, in: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl. [118], figs. 685 ♂ D, 686 ♂ V; 22, no. 343; synonym), by original designation.

=    Limochores Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 80. Type-species: Hesperia manataaqua Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 175 (= Hesperia origenes Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 328, no. 245; synonym), by original designation.

=    Pyrrhosidia Scudder, 1874

Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 2(3)(4): 346 (nota). Type-species: Hesperia mystic W. H. Edwards, 1863, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 16, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2, by original designation.

      =    ‡Chaerophon Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(156): 462, 474. Type-species: Pamphila citrus Mabille, 1889, Naturaliste (2)3(55): 144-145, fig. 1 (= Hesperia subreticulata Plötz, 1883, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 213, no. 454; synonym), by original designation. Preoccupied by Chaerophon Dobson, 1878, Cat. Chiropt. Brit. Mus.: 431.

=    Poanopsis Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 486. Type-species: Pamphila puxillius Mabille, 1891, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxx, by original designation.

=    Yvretta Hemming, 1935

Stylops 4(1): 3. Type-species: Pamphila citrus Mabille, 1889, Naturaliste (2)3(55)[11(55): 144-145, fig. 1 (= Hesperia subreticulata Plötz, 1883, Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 213, no. 454; synonym), as a replacement name. Proposed to replace Chaerophon Godman, 1900, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).


rhesus group Burns, 1994

J. Lepid. Soc. 48(1): 32-33.

229.      Polites rhesus (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 116.

Original Combination: Pamphila Rhesus

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; defined as “west of Pueblo, Colorado, along road to Hardscrabble Canyon” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 274-275. [Pueblo County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 275, fig. 10 (labels), 276, fig. 11 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, figs. 45 ♂ D (lectotype), 46 ♀ (paralectotype).

=    axius (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 213, no. 452; cited unpublished pl. 1448 (nachtrag).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Axius

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: Type(s) in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 153, suggested this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

230.      Polites carus (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Can. Entomol. 15(2): 34.

Original Combination: Pamphila Carus

Type Locality: “West Texas”; defined as “Archer County, Texas” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 276.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 275, fig. 11 ♀ D&V, 276 (labels); figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 51, fig. 44 ♀ D.

themistocles group MacNeill, 1993

J. Lepid. Soc. 47(3): 178.

231.      Polites peckius (W. Kirby, 1837)

a.   Polites peckius peckius (W. Kirby, 1837)

In: J. Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am. [4]: 300, no. 1, pl. 4, figs. 2 ♂ D, 3 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Peckius

Type Locality: “taken with the preceding” [Polyommatus Lucia] “Lat. 54o”; suggested to be “NE U.S. or SE Canada” by Scott (2006), Papilio (n.s.) 12: 69.

Types: Type(s) possibly in BMNH.

Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 332, treated peckius as a synonym of coras (see below); however, Stanford (1981), in: Ferris and F. Brown, Butterflies Rocky Mtn. States: 118, and most authors since, used peckius as the name for this taxon (but see Mielke (2004), in: Lamas, Atl. Neotrop. Lepid. Chcklst. Part 4A: 77, and (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. 5: 1206-1209). In accordance with current usage, Stanford’s arrangement is followed.

=    ‡coras (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(3): 51-52, pl. 31, fig. F ♀ D; (8): 152 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pleb[ejus]. Urbicola Coras

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”, possibly in error.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

This name was resurrected from obscurity by Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 332, who applied it as a senior synonym of peckius. Cramer’s figure is not recognizable as this taxon, and the given locality is not within its range as currently known. The locality could be erroneous, since many Cramer names are given this consideration; however, it is not possible to prove that the figure represents this taxon, so the name coras is best considered a nomen dubium.

=    wamsutta (T. Harris, 1862)

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 318, fig. 141 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Wamsutta

Type Locality: “Massachussets” implied from the title of the first edition of the book; stated to be “Massachusetts” by Morris (1862), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. [4]: 111-112, no. 20.

Types: Syntype (#26351) in MCZ.

‡”enys” (Butler, 1870)

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(76): 93.

Original Combination: [Pamphila] Enys

Butler mentioned “Pamphila enys” without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

b.   Polites peckius surllano Scott, 2006

Papilio (n.s.) 12: 69, pl. 4, 4th row right ♂ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Polites peckius surllano

Type Locality: “Green Mountain, Jefferson Co. Colorado”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

232.      Polites sabuleti (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Polites sabuleti sabuleti (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 316-317, no. 80; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, figs. 2091 ♂ D&V, 2092 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Sabuleti

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “general region between San Francisco and Eldorado County, California” by Austin (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 2; further defined as “San Francisco, San Francisco County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 23.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 23, figs. 150 ♂ D, 151 ♂ V.

b.   Polites sabuleti channelensis J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (24): 317-318, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti channelensis

Type Locality: “California: Santa Barbara County; Santa Rosa Island; China Camp, 50' elevation”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

c.   Polites sabuleti aestivalis J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Mattoon, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (15): 201-202, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti aestivalis

Type Locality: “California: Trinity County; Highway 3 near Dan Rice Creek, southeast of Scott Mtn. Summit”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

d.   Polites sabuleti tecumseh (F. Grinnell, 1903)

Entomol. News 14(1): 11.

Original Combination: Pamphila sabuleti var. tecumseh

Type Locality: “Little Crabtree Meadow near Mt. Whitney” [California]

Types: Syntypes may be in CAS.

=    chispa (W. G. Wright, 1905)

Butterflies W. Coast: 66, no. 441; 247, no. 441, pl. 31, figs. 441 ♂ D (lectotype), 441b ♀ D, 441c ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Pamphila] Chispa; Pamphila Chispa n. s.

Type Locality: “Sierra Nevadas of California” “Sierra Nevadas of Central California”

Types: Lectotype (#4323) in CAS, designated by Tilden (1975), Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. No. 118: 40.

Austin (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 6, discussed this name and concluded that its taxonomic status is uncertain.

e.   Polites sabuleti albamontana Austin, 1987

Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 6-7, figs. 2a second row ♂ ♀ D, 2b second row ♂ ♀ V (holotype is♂).

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti albamontana

Type Locality: “Nevada: Esmeralda County; White Mountains, Trail Canyon, 9000', T1S, R33E, S9, 10, 17"

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

f.    Polites sabuleti genoa (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 207, no. 435; cited unpublished pl. 1446 (nachtrag).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Genoa

Type Locality: “Nevada”; suggested to be “near Genoa...Carson River Valley, Douglas Co.” by Austin (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 3.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC, ZMHB, or lost.

g.   Polites sabuleti alkaliensis Austin, 1987

Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 4-5, figs. 2a third row ♂ ♀ D, 2b third row ♂ ♀ V (holotype is ♂).

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti alkaliensis

Type Locality: “Nevada: Washoe County; Granite Mountains, (Fortynine Mountain), Nevada State Route 8A, 1.3 mi west of Nevada State Route 34, 5950', T24N, R19E S8, located on USGS Vya, Nevada, 7.5' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

h.   Polites sabuleti sinemaculata Austin, 1987

Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 7-9, figs. 2a first row ♂ ♀ D, 2b first row ♂ ♀ V (holotype is ♂).

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti sinemaculata

Type Locality: “Nevada: Humboldt County; Baltazor Hot Spring, Nevada State Route 140, 5.0 miles west of Denio Junction, 4213', T46N, R28E, S13 on USGS Denio, Nevada-Oregon, 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

i.    Polites sabuleti basinensis Austin, 1988

Bull. Allyn Mus. (120): 1.

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti basinensis

Proposed to replace Polites sabuleti pallida Austin, 1987, preoccupied, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡pallida Austin, 1987

Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 9-10, figs. 2a bottom row ♂ ♀ D, 2b bottom row ♂ ♀ V (holotype is ♂).

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti pallida

Type Locality: “Nevada: Lander County; Reese River Valley, Nevada State Route 722 (formerly Nevada State Route 2), 4.0 miles (north) east of Reese River, 5720', T19N, R43E, S32 on USGS Austin, Nevada, 15' quadrangle. This is an expansive alkaline flat”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

Secondarily preoccupied by Pamphila pallida Skinner, 1911, Entomol. News 22(9): 412.

j.    Polites sabuleti nigrescens Austin, 1987

Bull. Allyn Mus. (109): 10-12, figs. 2a fourth row ♂ ♀ D, 2b fourth row ♂ ♀ V (holotype is ♂), 4a ♂ ♀ V, 4b ♂ ♀ D.

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti nigrescens

Type Locality: “Nevada: White Pine County; Steptoe Valley, Warm Springs, 5900', T21N, R63E, S25 on the USGS Monte Neva Hot Springs, Nevada, 7.5' quadrangle. This is a flat valley bottom”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

k.   Polites sabuleti chusca (W. H. Edwards, 1873)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 4(4): 346.

Original Combination: Hesperia Chusca

Type Locality: “Arizona”; suggested to be “probably northern Mohave County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 55.

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 18 ♂ D, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 54, fig. 8 ♂ D&V.

=    comstocki Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(1): 7-8, no. 12, pl. 1, figs. 4 ♂ D, 4a ♂ V, 5 ♀, 5a ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti var. comstocki

Type Locality: “El Centro, Imperial County, California”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

l.    Polites sabuleti ministigma Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 9.

Original Combination: Polites sabuleti ministigma

Type Locality: “8 mi. W. Crestone, Saguache Co., Colo.” [Colorado]

Types: Holotype in LACM.

233.      Polites draco (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 274-275, no. 17.

Original Combination: Pamphila Draco

Type Locality: “Colorado”; defined as “Twin Lakes, Lake Co., Colorado” by F. Brown (1934), J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 42(2): 162.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 49, fig. 4 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book: pl. 53, figs. 15 ♂ D (lectotype), 16 ♀ D (paralectotype).

MacNeill (1993), J. Lepid. Soc. 47(3): 180-181, detailed the species-level status of this taxon.

234.      Polites mardon (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

a.   Polites mardon mardon (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Papilio 1(4): 43, 47-48, no. 6.

Original Combination: Pamphila mardon

Type Locality: “Mount Hood”; corrected to “the small prairies numerous near Puget Sound, Washington Territory. It was abundant near Tenino” by Morrison (1883), Papilio 3(2): 43; further defined as “Tenino Prairie, Thurston County, Washington” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 53.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 54, fig. 7 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 47, fig. 26 ♂ D (lectotype), and W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 12 ♀ D (paralectotype).

b.   Polites mardon klamathensis Mattoon, J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (65): 768-770, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polites mardon klamathensis

Type Locality: “Oregon: Jackson County; Soda Mountain Road between first and second power transmission line crossing, 3.0 to 3.8 road miles south of Highway 66 at Greensprings summit, 4,500' to 4,800' elevation, T40S-R3E S9 Southern Cascade Range, ca. 12 airline miles southeast of Ashland”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

235.      Polites themistocles (Latreille, [1824])

a.   Polites themistocles themistocles (Latreille, [1824])

Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (723), 769, no. 115.

Original Combination: Hesperia Themistocles

Type Locality: “l’Amerique méridionale”

Types: Type(s) possibly in MNHP or BMNH.

N. Riley (1926), Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(2): 239, claimed that themistocles was proposed to replace Papilio taumas Fabricius, 1787; if so, then the type data for thaumas would replace those for themistocles.

=    ‡taumas (Fabricius, 1787)

Mantissa Ins. 2: 84, no. 746.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. P[lebejii]. U[rbicolae]. Taumas

Type Locality: “America boreali”

Types: Syntype in ZMUC.

Preoccupied by Papilio thaumas Hufnagel, 1766, Berl. Mag. 2: 62 (Code Article 58.11).

=    ‡phocion (Fabricius, 1798)

Entomol. Syst. Suppl.: 431.

Original Combination: Hesperia U[rbicolae]. Phocion

Type Locality: “America meridionali”

Types: Syntype in ZMUC.

Preoccupied by Hesperia phocion Fabricius, 1793, Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 335, no. 274.

=    cernes (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (26): pl. 76, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Cernes

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text); “l’Amérique septentrionale” implied from the title of the book.

Types: Types are the specimens illustrated by Émile Blanchard, probably from Boisduval’s collection. Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 328, stated that the “type” is in the BMNH, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

=    ahaton (T. Harris, 1862)

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 317, fig. 140 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ahaton

Type Locality: “Milton” [Norfolk County, Massachusetts]

Types: Syntypes in MCZ.

b.   Polites themistocles turneri H. Freeman, 1944

Entomol. News 55(2): 47-48.

Original Combination: Polites themistocles turneri

Type Locality: “Jesmond, British Columbia”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

baracoa group MacNeill, 1993

J. Lepid. Soc. 47(3): 177-178.

236.      Polites baracoa (Lucas, 1857)

a.   Polites baracoa baracoa (Lucas, 1857)

In: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 650.

Original Combination: Hesperia Baracoa

Type Locality: “dans l’île de Cuba”

Types: Syntype in MNHP.

=    amadis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1863)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 17(9): 142.

Original Combination: Pamphila Amadis

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7149) in ANSP.

=    myus (French, 1885)

Can. Entomol. 17(1): 33-34.

Original Combination: Pamphila myus

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Location of type(s) not known (USNM?).

origenes group MacNeill, 1993

J. Lepid. Soc. 47(3): 178.

237.      Polites origenes (Fabricius, 1793)

a.   Polites origenes origenes (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 328, no. 245; cited Jones’ Icones 6: pl. 74, fig. 2; figured by Donovan (1800), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [48], fig. 2 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: H[esperia]. U[rbicola]. Origenes

Type Locality: “Indiis”

Types: Type(s) lost, name based on Jones' figure.

This name was resurrected from obscurity by Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 328, based on the unpublished figures in “Jones’ Icones” in OMU, and has generally been used since. Calhoun (2009), News Lepid. Soc. 51(4): 119-123, 9 figs, neatly summarizes all of the issues and confirms this treatment.

=    manataaqua (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 175-176, no. 74; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): pl. 10, fig. 5 ♂ D&V, 11 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Manataaqua

Type Locality: “Massachusetts...Georgia”

Types: Syntypes (#15303) in MCZ.

b.   Polites origenes rhena (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 115-116.

Original Combination: Pamphila Rhena

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; defined as “vicinity of Pueblo, Pueblo Co., Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 47.

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 47, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

=    alcina (Skinner, 1893)

Entomol. News 4(6): 212-213; figured by Skinner (1900), Entomol. News 11(4): pl. 2, fig. 25 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Pamphila alcina

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: Syntypes (#7090) in CMNH and FMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 5 ♂ D.

238.      Polites mystic (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

a.   Polites mystic mystic (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 15-16, no. 3, pl. 1, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Mystic

Type Locality: “Connecticut; Michigan; Canada West”; neotype from “Hunter, Greene Co., New York.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 51, fig. 5 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 46, fig. 22 ♂ D.

This name was also proposed by Scudder (1863), Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 172, and was credited to Scudder by many subsequent authors.

=    ‡”mystic” (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 172-173, no. 69.

Original Combination: Hesperia Mystic

Type Locality: “White Mountains to Maryland”

Types: Syntypes in MCZ.

Preoccupied by Hesperia mystic Edwards, 1863. The question of authorship was settled by F. Brown (1980), J. Lepid. Soc. 34(1): 74-75.

=    ‡”weetamoo” (Scudder, 1889)

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1707.

Original Combination: Thymelicus mystic weetamoo melanic variety

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” was from Lintner and may be in NYSM.

=    ‡”nubs” (Scudder, 1889)

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1707.

Original Combination: Thymelicus mystic nubs

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” may be in MCZ.

While the text clearly describes this taxon as infrasubspecific, it was proposed as a trinomial and might be considered available.

b.   Polites mystic dacotah (W. H. Edwards, 1871)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 277, no. 21.

Original Combination: Hesperia Dacotah

Type Locality: “Colorado”; defined as “Georgetown, Clear Creek County, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 52.

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 23 ♂ D, and F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): fig. 8 ♂ D&V.

Layberry et al. (1998), Butterflies Can.: 61, did not recognize this as a subspecies-level taxon.

=    pallida (Skinner, 1911)

Entomol. News 22(9): 412.

Original Combination: Pamphila mystic pallida

Type Locality: “Volga, South Dakota” [Brookings County]

Types: Syntypes (#7091) in CMNH.

239.      Polites sonora (Scudder, 1872)

a.   Polites sonora siris (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Papilio 1(4): 43, 47, no. 7.

Original Combination: Pamphila siris

Type Locality: “Mount Hood”; corrected to “the small prairies numerous near Puget Sound, Washington Territory. It was abundant near Tenino” by Morrison (1883), Papilio 3(2): 43; further defined as “Tenino Prairie, Thurston Co., Washington” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 46.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 46, fig. 2 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 9 ♂ D.

b.   Polites sonora sonora (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 78, no. 3.

Original Combination: O[chlodes]. Sonora

Type Locality: “Sierra Nevada (Henry Edwards), California”

Types: Syntype (#15826) in MCZ.

c.   Polites sonora flavaventris Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 525, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V (holotype); 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polites sonora flavaventris

Type Locality: “Nevada: Humboldt County; Pine Forest Range, Blue Lake Road, 6.7 road miles west of Nevada state route 140, Alta Creek Basin, 1829 m, T45N R30E S7 on USGS Denio, Nev.-Ore. 15' guadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

d.   Polites sonora longinqua Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 525-526, figs. 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ D (holotype); 15 ♀ D, 16 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Polites sonora longinqua

Type Locality: “Nevada: Esmeralda County; White Mountains, Trail Canyon, 2620 m, T1S R33E S10 on USGS Davis Mountain, Nev.-Calif. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

e.   Polites sonora utahensis (Skinner, 1911)

Entomol. News 22(9): 413.

Original Combination: Pamphila sylvanoides utahensis

Type Locality: “Park City, Utah” [Summit County]

Types: Syntypes (#7099, labeled as “holotype”) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 13 ♂ V.

vibex group MacNeill, 1993

J. Lepid. Soc. 47(3): 178.

240.      Polites vibex (Geyer, 1832)

a.   Polites vibex vibex (Geyer, 1832)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl. [118], figs. 685 ♂ D, 686 ♂ V [1826]; (text): 22, no. 343 (1832, name given).

Original Combination: Thymelicus Vibex

Type Locality: “West Indies”

Types: Type probably lost.

Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 113, mentioned T. vibex without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    brettus (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (25): pl. 75, figs. 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ D, 5 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Brettus

Type Locality: Not stated; “l’Amérique septentrionale” implied from the title of the book.

Types: Types are the specimens illustrated by Émile Blanchard, probably from Boisduval’s collection, possibly in MNHP or BMNH.

=    wingina (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 173-174, no. 71.

Original Combination: Hesperia Wingina

Type Locality: “southern portions of N. England”

Types: Syntypes in MCZ.

=    morganta (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 203, no. 426; cited unpublished pl. 1444 (nachtrag).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Morganta

Type Locality: “Süd-Amerika”, in error; corrected to “North America” by Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 153.

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), ibid., determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    unna (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 204, no. 429; cited unpublished pl. 637.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Unna

Type Locality: “Philadelphia” [Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, determined this synonymy (under brettus) through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

‡”margarita” (Draudt, 1923)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(332): 931.

Original Combination: [Thymelicus] margarita

Draudt cited this as a Plötz name in the synonymy of brettus, without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

b.   Polites vibex brettoides (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Papilio 3(4): 71-72.

Original Combination: Pamphila Brettoides

Type Locality: “West Texas...Graham Mountains, Arizona”; lectotype from “Texas”; defined as “vicinity of Archer County, Texas” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 44.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 45, fig. 1 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 26 ♂ D.

c.   Polites vibex praeceps (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 79, no. 2.

Original Combination: H[edone]. praeceps

Type Locality: “Tehuantepec” [Oaxaca, Mexico]

Types: Syntype (#15313) in MCZ.

=    sulfurina (Mabille, 1878)

Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(197): 233-234, no. 39.

Original Combination: P[amphila]. sulfurina

Type Locality: “Mexicanam”; also mentioned specimens from “Cayenna” and “Venezuela”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    lumida (Möschler, 1879)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 28: 217-218, no. 23.

Original Combination: Pamphila Lumida

Type Locality: “Colombien”

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB.

=    phormio (Mabille, 1878)

Petites Nouv. Entomol. 2(197): 233, no. 38.

Original Combination: Pamphila Phormio

Type Locality: “Para, Brasiliae”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    golenia (Möschler, 1879)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 28: 218, no. 21.

Original Combination: Pamphila Golenia

Type Locality: “Colombien”

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB.

=    zenckei (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 196, no. 402; cited unpublished pl. 1437 (nachtrag).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Zenckei

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 152, determined this synonymy (as vibex) through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    clara (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 203, no. 425; cited unpublished pl. 635.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Clara

Type Locality: “Californien”, presumably in error.

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, determined this synonymy (as brettus) through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    stigma (Skinner, 1896)

Can. Entomol. 28(7): 188.

Original Combination: Pamphila stigma

Type Locality: “southern border of New Mexico and S.-W. Texas”

Types: Syntypes (#7098) in CMNH and FMNH; figured by Skinner (1900), Entomol. News 11(4): pl. 2, figs. 15 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V, and W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 28 ♂ D.

=    hypozona (Dyar, 1918)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 54(2239): 339-340.

Original Combination: Lerema hypozona

Type Locality: “Sierra de Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#21216) in USNM.

‡”combinata” (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 206, under no. 433.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Golenia = Combinata

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, determined this synonymy (as vibex) through an examination of an unpublished drawing (pl. 636, from “Colombia”) made by Plötz. This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Wallengrenia Berg, 1897

An. Mus. Nac. (Buenos Aires) (2)5: 254-255. Type-species: Hesperia premnas Wallengren, 1860, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 4(2): 38, no. 20, by original designation. The arrangement here follows Burns (1985), Smithsonian Contrib. Zool. (423): 1-39.

=    Catia Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(156): 462, 481. Type-species: Hesperia drury Latreille, [1824], Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (723), 767, no. 110 (= Papilio otho J. E. Smith, 1797, in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 31-32, pl. 16; subspecies), by original designation.


241.      Wallengrenia otho (J. E. Smith, 1797)

a.   Wallengrenia otho otho (J. E. Smith, 1797)

In: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 31-32, pl. 16, figs. ♂ D, ♂ V, ♀ D, larva, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Otho

Type Locality: “Georgia” implied from the notes for the original drawing by John Abbot.

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing. The specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost.

=    pustula (Geyer, 1832)

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl. [108], figs. 625 ♂ D, 626 ♂ V [1826]; (text): 11, no. 313 (1832, name given).

Original Combination: Thymelicus Pustula

Type Locality: “Georgien”; probably based on a specimen from John Abbot.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Hübner [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 113, listed T. pustula without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”lacordairii” (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer. Lepid. Rhop. 2(156): 483.

Original Combination: Catia pustula (= Pamphila lacordairii Boisd)

Godman introduced the name lacordairii in the synonymy of pustula without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

b.   Wallengrenia otho clavus (Erichson, [1849])

In: Schomburgk, Reisen Brit-Guiana 3: 603-604.

Original Combination: Hesperia clavus

Type Locality: “British Guiana” implied from the title of the work.

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 68.

Burns (1994), J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 294, determined this synonymy and suggested that this may be a species-level taxon.

=    curassavica (Snellen, 1887)

Tijdschr. Entomol. 30: 28-30, pl. 2, figs. 3, 3a ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Curassavica

Type Locality: “Curaçao” implied from the title of the paper. [Netherlands Antilles]

Types: Syntype(s) in RMNH.

=    helva (Möschler, 1877)

Verh. zool.-bot Ges. Wien 26: 336, pl. 4, fig. 20.

Original Combination: Pamphila helva

Type Locality: “aus dem Innern Suriname”

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 68.

=    winslowi (Weeks, 1906)

Psyche 13(2/3): 69-70; figured by Weeks (1911), Ill. diurn. Lepid. 2: pl. 10, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Polites winslowi

Type Locality: “Suapure, Venezuela”

Types: Holotype (#16724) in MCZ.

=    jobrea (Dyar, 1918)

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 54(2239): 338-339.

Original Combination: Catia jobrea

Type Locality: “Sierra de Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#21212) in USNM.

242.      Wallengrenia egeremet (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 174-175, no. 73.

Original Combination: Hesperia Egeremet

Type Locality: “Mass....Georgia...Western States...N. England”

Types: Syntype (#15827) in MCZ.

=    ursa (Worthington, 1880)

Can. Entomol. 12(3): 49, no. 1.

Original Combination: Pamphila ursa

Type Locality: “Lake Co., Ind., near Ills. Line”

Types: Location of type(s) not known (USNM?).

=    cinna (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 58, no. 377; cited unpublished pl. 598.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Cinna

Type Locality: “Union” [United States]

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

 


Genus Pompeius Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 301, 335. Type-species: Hesperia pompeius Latreille, [1824], Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (722), 765, no. 105, by original designation.


243.      Pompeius verna (W. H. Edwards, 1862)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14(1/2): 54, 57, no. 6.

Original Combination: Pamphila verna

Type Locality: “Illinois”; neotype from “Perryton Township, Mercer County, Illinois”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 57, fig. 9 ♂ D&V.

=    pottawattomie (Worthington, 1880)

Can. Entomol. 12(3): 50, no. 2.

Original Combination: Pamphila pottawattomie

Type Locality: “neighborhood of the Chicago massacre, Cook Co., Ill....Lake Co., Ind.”

Types: Syntype in USNM.

=    vetulina (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 58, no. 377; cited unpublished pl. 597.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Vetulina

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 143, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    sigida (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxvii.

Original Combination: Pamphila Sigida

Type Locality: “Australie”, in error.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    sequoyah (H. Freeman, 1942)

Entomol. News 53(4): 104.

Original Combination: Polites verna sequoyah

Type Locality: “Hope Hill Farm, Faulkner County, Arkansas and Little Rock, Arkansas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

 


Genus Atalopedes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 78. Type-species: Hesperia huron W. H. Edwards, 1863, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 16-17, no. 4, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2 (= Hesperia campestris Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 316; subspecies), by original designation. Burns (1989), J. Lepid. Soc. 43(1): 11-32, suggested that Atalopedes and Hesperia are closely related.

=    Pansydia Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 81. Type-species: Hesperia mesogramma Latreille, [1824], in: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (722), 765, no. 106, by original designation.


244.      Atalopedes campestris (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Atalopedes campestris campestris (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 316, no. 79; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, fig. 2090 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia campestris

Type Locality: “dans les lieux arides”; defined as “Sacramento, Sacramento County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 22.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 22, figs. 147 ♂ D, 148 ♂ V.

=    tenebricosus Austin & J. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (42): 504, figs. 15 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V (holotype); 17 ♀ D, 18 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Atalopedes campestris tenebricosus

Type Locality: “California: Humboldt County; Eureka”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

A. Warren (2005), Butterflies Ore.: 45, determined this synonymy.

b.   Atalopedes campestris huron (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 16-17, no. 4, pl. 1, figs. 1 ♂ D&V, 2 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Huron

Type Locality: “Illinois, Georgia, Texas, Washington, D.C.”; neotype from “Evanston, Illinois” [Cook County]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 59, fig. 10 ♂ D&V.

Layberry et al. (1998), Butterflies Can.: 65, did not recognize this as a subspecies-level taxon.

=    kedema (Butler, 1870)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1870(4): 504, no. 3.

Original Combination: Pamphila Kedema

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    augustus (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 213, no. 453; cited unpublished pl. 676.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Augustus

Type Locality: “Brasilien”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

=    amphissa (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 221, no. 476; cited unpublished pl. 667.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Amphissa

Type Locality: “Venezuela”

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 145, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.


Genus Atrytone Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77. Type-species: Hesperia iowa Scudder, 1868, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 401 (= Hesperia arogos Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837], Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (26): pl. 76, figs. 3-5; subspecies), by original designation.


245.      Atrytone arogos (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

a.   Atrytone arogos arogos (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (26): pl. 76, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, 5 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Arogos

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text); “l’Amérique septentrionale” implied from the title of the book.

Types: Types were the specimens upon which Émile Blanchard based his illustrations, probably from Boisduval’s collection. Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 340, noted that the “type” is in the BMNH, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

=    mutius (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 199, no. 413; cited unpublished pl. 625.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Mutius

Type Locality: “Georgia”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

b.   Atrytone arogos iowa (Scudder, 1868)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 401.

Original Combination: Hesperia Iowa

Type Locality: “Iowa”; defined as “Denison and New Jefferson, Iowa” by Scudder [1870], Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci. 1(2): 330. [Denison, Crawford County; Jefferson, Greene County]

Types: Syntype (#15307) in MCZ.

 


Genus Problema Skinner & R. Williams, 1924

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 50(1): 62. Type-species: Pamphila byssus W. H. Edwards, 1880, Can. Entomol. 12(11): 224, by original designation.


246.      Problema byssus (W. H. Edwards, 1880)

a.   Problema byssus byssus (W. H. Edwards, 1880)

Can. Entomol. 12(11): 224-225.

Original Combination: Pamphila Byssus

Type Locality: “Indian River, Florida” [Brevard County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 63, fig. 14 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 41, fig. 20 ♀ D (paralectotype), pl. 53, fig. 38 ♂ D (lectotype).

b.   Problema byssus kumskaka (Scudder, 1887)

Can. Entomol. 19(3): 45-48.

Original Combination: Atrytone Kumskaka

Type Locality: “Iowa...Western States”; stated to be “Denison, Iowa” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 42. [Crawford County]

Types: Syntype (#10756) in MCZ; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 39 ♂ D, supposedly sent to W. H. Edwards by Scudder.

247.      Problema bulenta (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (26): pl. 67, figs. [1] ♂ D, [2] ♂ V, [3] ♀ D, [4] larva, [5] pupa.

Original Combination: Hesperia Bulenta

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text); “Georgia” implied from other drawings of the species by John Abbot.

Types: Types were the specimens that John Abbot painted and are probably lost.

F. Jones (1926), Entomol. News 37(7): 193-197, pl. 9, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, 3 ♂ V, 4 ♀ V, fig. of ♂ genitalia, detailed the rediscovery of this species, and provided the first written description of the taxon.


Genus Poanes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 76. Type-species: Hesperia massasoit Scudder, 1863, Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 171, no. 65, by original designation. Burns (1992), J. Lepid. Soc. 46(1): 1-23, discussed the probability that this genus is polyphyletic, and created species groups. The first group includes hobomok, zabulon and taxiles, while the second group includes massasoit, viator, aaroni and yehl (massasoit may belong in its own group). Burns also transferred melane to Poanes from Paratrytone, and noted that at least some Poanes species may belong in Ochlodes.

=    Phycanassa Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77. Type-species: Hesperia viator W. H. Edwards, 1865, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(1): 202-203, pl. 1, fig. 5, by original designation.

      =    ‡Paratrytone Dyar, 1905

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13(3): 136. Type-species: Pamphila howardi Skinner, 1896, Can. Entomol. 28(7): 187 (= Pamphila aaroni Skinner, 1890, Entomol. News 1(1): 6; subspecies), by original designation. Preoccupied by Paratrytone Godman, 1900, in: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 487.


248.      Poanes hobomok (T. Harris, 1862)

a.   Poanes hobomok hobomok (T. Harris, 1862)

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 313-314, fig. 137 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Hobomok

Type Locality: “Massachusetts” implied from the title of the first edition of the book; stated to be “Massachusetts” by Morris (1862), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. [4]: 110, no. 15.

Types: Syntypes (#26348) in MCZ.

=    pocahontas (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 171-172, no. 67; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): pl. 10, fig. 9 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Pocahontas

Type Locality: “Mass. and Conn.” [Massachusetts and Connecticut]

Types: Syntypes (#15825) in MCZ and CMNH.

=    quadaquina (Scudder, 1868)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 381, no. 76.

Original Combination: Hesperia Quadaquina

Type Locality: “West Roxbury, Mass....Quincy, Mass....Guilford, Conn....New Haven, Conn.”

Types: Syntype (#15824) in MCZ; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 44 ♀ D.

=    ridingsii F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1940

Can. Entomol. 72(4): 83.

Original Combination: Poanes hobomok form ridingsii

Type Locality: “Riding Mtns., Manitoba”

Types: Holotype in CNC.

This name is considered available from its original description, since Klots (1951), Field Guide Butterflies N. Am.: 250, treated it as a subspecies-level taxon (Code Article 45.6.4.1).

=    ‡”alfaratta” W. Holland, 1930

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 19(3): 159; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 45 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Poanes hobomok var. ♀ alfaratta

Type Locality: “Kansas”

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH.

=    ‡”friedlei” F. Watson, 1920

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 28(3-4): 232.

Original Combination: Poanes hobomok f. ♀ pocahontas ab. friedlei

Type Locality: “Van Cortland Park, New York City, N. Y.” [Bronx County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”pallida” F. Watson, 1921

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 29(3-4): 172-173.

Original Combination: Poanes hobomok ab. pallida

Type Locality: “near Dunwoodie, Westchester County, New York”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

b.   Poanes hobomok monofacies Gatrelle, 2002

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 3(8): 6-7, figs. 17 ♂ D, 19 ♂ V (holotype); 18 ♀ D, 20 ♀ V, 21 ♂ D, 23 ♂ V, 22 ♀ D, 24 ♀ V, 25 ♂ D, 27 ♂ V, 26 ♀ D, 28 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Poanes hobomok monofacies

Type Locality: “North Carolina: Macon County, near summit of Chestnut Mountain, 3,500', FS Rd. 4563”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

c.   Poanes hobomok wetona Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 9.

Original Combination: Poanes hobomok wetona

Type Locality: “Sand Gulch S. Greenwood, 7200', Custer Co., Colo.” [Colorado]

Types: Holotype in LACM; figured by Gatrelle (2002), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 3(8): figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

249.      Poanes zabulon (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (26): pl. 76, figs. 6 ♂ D, 7 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Zabulon

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text); “l’Amérique septentrionale” implied from the title of the book.

Types: Types were the specimens upon which Émile Blanchard based his illustrations, probably from Boisduval’s collection. Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 348, noted that the “type” is in the BMNH, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

=    erratica (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 210, no. 446; cited unpublished pl. 656.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Erratica

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Type(s) in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 145, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

‡”ogeechensis” (Scudder, 1889)

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1617.

Original Combination: [Atrytone zabulon] = Papilio ogeechensis Abb.

This name was mentioned in the synonymy of Atrytone zabulon without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

250.      Poanes taxiles (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 5-6.

Original Combination: Pamphila Taxiles

Type Locality: “Arizona...South Colorado...Nevada...Oak Creek Canon, South Colorado”; defined as “Oak Creek Canyon, Custer County [sic!], Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 73-74. [Fremont County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 74, fig. 22 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 47, fig. 31 ♂ D.

=    psaumis (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 489, no. 1; 3: pl. 94, figs. 2 ♀ D, 3 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Phycanassa psaumis

Type Locality: “Mexico, Bolaños in Jalisco”

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

251.      Poanes massasoit (Scudder, 1863)

a.   Poanes massasoit massasoit (Scudder, 1863)

Proc. Essex Inst. 3: 171, no. 65.

Original Combination: Hesperia Massasoit

Type Locality: “Carver, Mass.” [Plymouth County]

Types: Syntype (#15305) in MCZ.

=    suffusa (Laurent, [1891])

Entomol. News 3(1): 15-16.

Original Combination: Pamphila massasoit var. suffusa

Type Locality: “around Philadelphia...in low meadow- or swamp-lands” [Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]

Types: Syntype (#7172) in CMNH.

=    hughi A. Clark, 1931

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 21(1): 7-9, fig. 1 ♂ D&V (holotype), ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Poanes massasoit hughi

Type Locality: “Beltsville, Maryland; bog between the railway station and the experiment farm of the Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture” [Prince Georges County]

Types: Holotype in USNM; figured by A. Clark and L. Clark (1951), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 116(7): frtspc. fig. 11 ♂ V, pl. 26, fig. c ♂ D.

b.   Poanes massasoit chermocki W. Andersen & Simmons, 1976

J. Lepid. Soc. 30(1): 19-20, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Poanes massasoit chermocki

Type Locality: “New Bridge, Dorchester County, Maryland”

Types: Holotype in USNM.

252.      Poanes viator (W. H. Edwards, 1865)

a.   Poanes viator viator (W. H. Edwards, 1865)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(1): 201, 202-203, no. 5, pl. 1, fig. 5 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia viator

Type Locality: “Northern Illinois...New Orleans”; neotype from “Goose Lake Prairie, Grundy Co., Ill.”

Types: Neotype in INHS, designated by Shapiro (1971), J. Res. Lepid. 9(2): 110, figs. 1a ♂ D, 1b ♂ V; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): fig. 21 ♂ D&V.

b.   Poanes viator zizaniae Shapiro, 1971

J. Res. Lepid. 9(2): 110, 113, figs. 2 a ♂ D, b ♂ D, c ♂ D, d ♀ D, e ♂ D (holotype), f ♀ D, g ♂ V, h ♂ V, i ♂ V, j ♀ V.

Original Combination: Poanes viator zizaniae

Type Locality: “Tinicum Wildlife Preserve, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania”

Types: Holotype in CUIC.

253.      Poanes aaroni (Skinner, 1890)

a.   Poanes aaroni aaroni (Skinner, 1890)

Entomol. News 1(1): 6-7; figured by [Skinner] (1892), Entomol. News 3(3): 49, pl. 2, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V, and (1897), Entomol. News 8(6): pl. 7, 4th row ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Pamphila aaroni

Type Locality: “Cape May, N. J.” implied from the title of the paper. [Cape May County, New Jersey]

Types: Lectotype (#7093) in CMNH, designated by Gatrelle (2000), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 2(2): 6.

b.   Poanes aaroni minimus Gatrelle, 1999

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(10): 9, figs. 13 ♂ D, 18 ♂ V (holotype); 14 ♀ D, 19 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Poanes aaroni minimus

Type Locality: “South Carolina: Orangeburg County, Bull Swamp”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

c.   Poanes aaroni howardi (Skinner, 1896)

Can. Entomol. 28(7): 187.

Original Combination: Pamphila Howardi

Type Locality: “Florida...Georgiana, on the Indian River” [Brevard County]

Types: Lectotype (#7092) in CMNH, designated by Gatrelle (2000), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 2(2): 6; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 46, figs. 38 ♂ D (lectotype), pl. 54, fig. 1 ♀ D (paralectotype).

d.   Poanes aaroni bordeloni Gatrelle, 2000

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 2(2): 8-9, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V (holotype); 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V, 12 ♀ D&V, 13 ♂ DFW, 16 ♀ DFW.

Original Combination: Poanes aaroni bordeloni

Type Locality: “Texas: Jefferson County, Sabine Pass”

Types: Holotype at TAMU.

254.      Poanes yehl (Skinner, 1893)

Entomol. News 4(6): 212; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 46, fig. 40 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Pamphila yehl

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Holotype in FMNH.

‡”baiva” (Butler, 1870)

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 7(76): 93.

Original Combination: [Pamphila] Baiva

Butler cited this as a Boisduval name without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

255.      Poanes melane (W. H. Edwards, 1869)

a.   Poanes melane melane (W. H. Edwards, 1869)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 2(3): 312.

Original Combination: Hesperia Melane

Type Locality: “California”; defined as “San Francisco Bay area, California” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 75.

Types: Lectotype in FMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 75, fig. 23 ♂ D&V.

b.   Poanes melane vitellina (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min Ver. Regensb. 23(12): 199, no. 25.

Original Combination: [Cobalus] vitellina

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in NMW.

Burns (1992), J. Lepid. Soc. 46(1): 14, suggested that this may be a species-level taxon.

‡”marmarosa” (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 495.

Original Combination: Pamphila marmarosa

Godman cited this as a Staudinger name without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Stinga Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 300, 317. Type-species: Pamphila morrisoni W. H. Edwards, 1878, Field & Forest 3(7/8): 116, by original designation. A. Warren & Austin (2009), Zootaxa 2197: 1–19, discuss the variation, distribution, and systematics of this genus.


256.      Stinga morrisoni (W. H. Edwards, 1878)

Field & Forest 3(7/8): 116-117.

Original Combination: Pamphila Morrisoni

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”; defined as “Hardscrabble Canyon, Custer County, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 279, 280.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1977), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 103(2): 280, fig. 14 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 46, fig. 26 ♂ D (lectotype), 27 ♀ D (paralectotype).

 


Genus Ochlodes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 78. Type-species: Hesperia nemorum Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 314 (= Hesperia agricola Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 314; subspecies), by original designation. Chiba and Tsukiyama (1996), Butterflies 14: 3-16, revised this genus. The relative precedence of the various taxa named by Boisduval has not been unequivocally stated anywhere. This arrangement generally follows L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 42, Ferris (1989), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (3): 72, and Mielke (2005), Cat. Amer. Hesp. 5: 1112-1116.


257.      Ochlodes sylvanoides (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Ochlodes sylvanoides sylvanoides (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 313-314, no. 71; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, figs. 2083 ♂ D&V, 2084 ♂ D&V, 2085 ♀ D&V [this species?].

Original Combination: Hesperia sylvanoides

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Tuolumne gold fields, Tuolumne Co. Calif.” by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 10; corrected to “Queen Lily Campground, near Belden, North Fork Feather River Canyon, Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 20, based on the lectotype and Lorquin’s itinerary.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 21, figs. 135 ♂ D, 136 ♂ V.

=    pratincola (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 315, no. 77; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, figs. 2088 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia pratincola

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “Broderick, Yolo Co., Calif.” by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 11; corrected to “Queen Lily Campground, near Belden, North Fork Feather River Canyon, Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 21.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 22, figs. 144 ♀ D, 145 ♀ V.

Tilden and Smith (1986), Field Guide W. Butterflies: 227, suggested that pratincola is a species-level taxon, occurring in south-central California, flying in June (earlier than sylvanoides). The restriction of the type locality as given above removes the name pratincola from that consideration. If such a taxon is “rediscovered” in the future, it would require a new name.

=    francisca (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 220, no. 472; cited unpublished pl. 666.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Francisca

Type Locality: “Californien, Mexico”

Types: Syntypes in ZHMB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 145, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

b.   Ochlodes sylvanoides santacruza Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 11.

Original Combination: Ochlodes sylvanoides santacruza

Type Locality: “Santa Cruz Is. Calif...Central Valley” [Santa Barbara County, California]

Types: Holotype in EMEC.

Species-genus gender conformation is santacruzus.

c.   Ochlodes sylvanoides catalina J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (23): 313-314, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Ochlodes sylvanoides catalina

Type Locality: “California: Los Angeles County; Santa Catalina Island; Toyon Bay”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

d.   Ochlodes sylvanoides orecoasta Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 11.

Original Combination: Ochlodes sylvanoides orecoasta

Type Locality: “Cullaby Lake, Clatsop Co., Ore.” [Oregon]

Types: Holotype in LACM.

Species-genus gender conformation is orecoastus.

e.   Ochlodes sylvanoides bonnevilla Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 10.

Original Combination: Ochlodes sylvanoides bonnevilla

Type Locality: “Thomas Can., Ruby Mtns., Elko Co., Nev.” [Nevada]

Types: Holotype in LACM.

Species-genus gender conformation is bonnevillus.

f.    Ochlodes sylvanoides omnigena Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 526, figs. 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ D (holotype); 19 ♀ D, 20 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Ochlodes sylvanoides omnigena

Type Locality: “Nevada: Lander County; Toiyabe Mountains, Kingston Canyon, 2285 m, T16N R43E, S27, 28 on USGS Millett Ranch, Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

g.   Ochlodes sylvanoides napa (W. H. Edwards, 1865)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(1): 201, 202, pl. 1, figs. 3 ♂ D&V, 4 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Napa

Type Locality: “Empire City, Colorado Territory”; defined as “Empire in Clear Creek County, Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 71.

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 71, fig. 20 ♂ D&V.

The neotype is the same specimen designated as lectotype by Tilden (1961), Entomol. News 72(2): 39; this specimen was not in Edwards' original type-series, and could not be a candidate for lectotype. No syntypes were found, so Brown and Miller decided that the specimen should be the neotype. Weidemeyer (1864), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(4): 541, listed “[Hesperia] napa” without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    amanda (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 197, no. 404; cited unpublished pl. 617.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Amanda

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, suggested that this is “a var. of the N.- American Erynnis ottoe, Edw., ♂” through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz. This name should probably be considered a nomen dubium.

258.      Ochlodes agricola (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Ochlodes agricola agricola (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 314-315, no. 76; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, fig. 2087 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia agricola

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper; defined as “slope between Yellow Bluff and Cavallo Point, 2 miles SSE of Sausalito, Marin County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 21.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2) 21, figs. 141 ♂ D, 142 ♂ V.

=    yreka (W. H. Edwards, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(2): 200, 207-208, no. 9.

Original Combination: Hesperia Yreka

Type Locality: “San Francisco” [San Francisco County, California]

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 66, fig. 17 ♂ D&V. This is the same specimen designated as lectotype by Tilden (1961), Entomol. News 72(2): 40.

Weidemeyer (1864), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(4): 541, listed “yrika” without a description or indication; it is both a misspelling and a nomen nudum.

b.   Ochlodes agricola nemorum (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 314, no. 75; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, fig. 2086 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia nemorum

Type Locality: “le bord des bois”; defined as “Broderick, Yolo Co., Calif.” by Scott (1981), Papilio (n.s.) 1: 11; corrected to “Queen Lily Campground, near Belden, North Fork Feather River Canyon, Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 21.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 21, figs. 138 ♂ D, 139 ♂ V.

=    milo (W. H. Edwards, 1883)

Can. Entomol. 15(2): 34-35.

Original Combination: Pamphila Milo

Type Locality: “Mt. Hood, Oregon”; considered more likely from “the prairies of western Washington” and suggested to be “Tenino in Thurston County, Washington” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 69; this is also impossible. See discussion below.

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): fig. 18 ♂ D&V, and W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 52, fig. 44 ♂ D. This is the same specimen designated lectotype by Tilden (1961), Entomol. News 72(2): 40.

The originally stated type locality and the subsequent “restriction” are both incorrect. Ochlodes agricola has never been documented in Washington, and the only records from Oregon are in the southwestern part of the state (A. Warren (2005), Butterflies Ore.: 55). Many localities provided to Edwards by Morrison were erroneous; some of these were later corrected by Morrison.

c.   Ochlodes agricola verus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 4-5.

Original Combination: Pamphila Verus

Type Locality: “Havilah, California” [Kern County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by Tilden (1961), Entomol. News 72(2): 40; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): fig. 19 ♂ D&V.

259.      Ochlodes yuma (W. H. Edwards, 1873)

a.   Ochlodes yuma sacramentorum Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 528, figs. 25 ♂ D, 26 ♂ V (holotype); 27 ♀ D, 28 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Ochlodes yuma sacramentorum

Type Locality: “California: Sacramento County; Sacramento River Valley, Sherman Island, 3 m”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

b.   Ochlodes yuma yuma (W. H. Edwards, 1873)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 4(4): 346.

Original Combination: Hesperia Yuma

Type Locality: “Arizona”; defined as “vicinity of Owens Lake, Inyo County, California” by F. Brown (1958), Lepid. News 11(4/5): 154; neotype from “Darwin Falls, Inyo Co., California.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by Tilden (1961), Entomol. News 72(2): 42-43; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): fig. 15 ♂ D&V.

c.   Ochlodes yuma lutea Austin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (43): 527, figs. 21 ♂ D, 22 ♂ V (holotype); 23 ♀ D, 24 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Ochlodes yuma lutea

Type Locality: “Nevada: Lander County; Toiyabe Mountains, Bowman Creek, 1859 m, T15N R43E S13 near Nye County Line on USGS Millett Ranch, Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

d.   Ochlodes yuma scudderi (Skinner, 1899)

Entomol. News 10(5): 111-112; figured by Skinner (1900), Entomol. News 11(4): pl. 2, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Pamphila scudderi

Type Locality: “White River, Colorado” [Rio Blanco County]

Types: Syntype (#7097, labeled as “holotype”) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 2 ♂ D.

e.   Ochlodes yuma anasazi S. Cary & Stanford, 1995

Bull. Allyn Mus. (140): 2-3, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Ochlodes yuma anasazi

Type Locality: “New Mexico: Taos Co., Rio Grande Gorge near Questa”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

 


Genus Paratrytone Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 487. Type-species: Paratrytone rhexenor Godman, 1900, in: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 488, no. 1; 3: pl. 93, figs. 41, 42, 43, by original designation. Burns (1992), J. Lepid. Soc. 46(1): 1-23, discussed the circumscription of this genus; he removed melane (to Poanes) and added snowi (from Ochlodes).


260.      Paratrytone snowi (W. H. Edwards, 1877)

Can. Entomol. 9(2): 29-30.

Original Combination: Hesperia Snowi

Type Locality: “Colorado, at Ute Pass” [Teller County]

Types: Lectotype in SEMC, designated by Tilden (1961), Entomol. News 72(2): 41; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 67, fig. 16 ♂ D&V.

 


Genus Anatrytone Dyar, 1905

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 13(3): 140. Type-species: Hesperia delaware W. H. Edwards, 1863, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 19, no. 8, pl. 5, fig. 2 (= Hesperia logan W. H. Edwards, 1863, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 18-19, no. 7, pl. 1, fig. 5; synonym), by original designation. This genus was resurrected by Scott (1992, Papilio [N.S.]#6): 148-150, and this was confirmed by Burns (1994), J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 273-337.

=    Mellana Hayward, 1948

Acta zool. Lilloana 5: 98. Type-species: Atrytone mella Godman, 1900, in: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 492-493, no. 5; 3: pl. 94, figs. 14 ♂ D, 15 ♂ V, 16 ♂ genitalia, by original designation. Actually, Hayward misidentified Pamphila perfida Möschler, 1879, Verh. zool.-bot Ges. Wien 28: 221, no. 28, as mella, as determined by Burns (1994), J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 293-294. This is a case of a misidentified type species. The type-species is Atrytone mella Godman, 1900, as designated by Pelham (2008), J. Res. Lepid. 40: 91 (under Code Article 70.3), misidentified in the original designation by Hayward (1948).


logan group Burns, 1994

J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 280-285.

261.      Anatrytone logan (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

a.   Anatrytone logan logan (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 18-19, no. 7, pl. 1, fig. 5 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Logan

Type Locality: “Lansing, Michigan...Philadelphia”; neotype from “Kanawha River, Kanawha County, West Virginia”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 61, fig. 11 ♀ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 46, fig. 25 ♀ D.

=    delaware (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 19, no. 8, pl. 5, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Delaware

Type Locality: “Philadelphia”; neotype from “Kanawha River, Kanawha County, West Virginia”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 61, fig. 12 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 46, fig. 24 ♂ D.

Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 77, no. 2, made the first reviser choice of logan over delaware.

b.   Anatrytone logan lagus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 5.

Original Combination: Pamphila Lagus

Type Locality: “western Texas...southern Colorado...Nevada...Oak Creek Canon”; defined as “Oak Creek Canon, Custer County [sic!], Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 61. [Fremont County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 62, fig. 13 ♂ D&V.

262.      Anatrytone mazai (H. Freeman, 1969)

J. Lepid. Soc. 23 (suppl. 2): 39, pl. 13, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); pl. 15, fig. 8 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Atrytone mazai

Type Locality: “Mexcala, Guerrero, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

 


Genus Quasimellana Burns, 1994

J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 299-302. Type-species: Atrytone mexicana E. Bell, 1942, An. Esc. Nac. Cienc. Biol. Méx. 2(4): 461-462, no. 11, fig. 5, by original designation.


eulogius group Burns, 1994

J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 302-303.

263.      Quasimellana eulogius (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 64, no. 393; cited unpublished pl. 608.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Eulogius

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) in ZMHB.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    mellona (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 493, no. 6; 3: pl. 94, figs. 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ V, 19 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Atrytone mellona

Type Locality: “Mexico, Presidio de Mazatlan...Soledad, Tierra Colorada, Dos Arroyos, Rio Papagaio, and Acaguizotla [sic!; Acahuizotla], all in Guerrero...Atoyac...Orizaba...Valladolid in Yucatan...Guatemala, Pacific coast, Polochic and Chisoy Valleys...San Gerónimo...Panama, Chiriqui...Guiana”; defined as “Mexico” by Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 356.

Types: Syntypes (one labeled as “holotype”) in BMNH.

=    heberia (Dyar, 1914)

Insecutor Inscit. menstr. 2(1): 5.

Original Combination: Atrytone heberia

Type Locality: “Non Pareil Plantation, British Guiana” [Georgetown, Guyana]

Types: Lectotype (#18116) in USNM, designated by Burns (1994), J. Lepid. Soc. 48(4): 304.

=    oaxaca (H. Freeman, 1979)

Bull. Allyn Mus. (52): 10-11, figs. 20 ♂ D, 21 ♂ V (holotype), 29 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Mellana oaxaca

Type Locality: “Candelaria Loxicha, Oaxaca, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

 


Genus Notamblyscirtes Scott, 2006

Papilio (n.s.) 12: 70. Type-species: Amblyscirtes simius W. H. Edwards, 1881, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 6-7, by original designation. Burns (1990), J. Lepid. Soc. 44(1): 18-21, removed simius from Amblyscirtes. Scott (1992), Papilio (n.s.) 6: 160-161, listed simius as “Not-‘Amblyscirtes’”, but it was clear from the context and diagnosis that he did not propose a new name; that shortcoming was rectified as above.


264.      Notamblyscirtes simius (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 6-7.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes Simius

Type Locality: “Oak Creek Canyon, Colorado...Pueblo, Colorado”; defined as “Oak Creek Canyon, Custer County [sic!], Colorado” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 54. [Fremont County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 54, fig. 19 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 47, fig. 8 ♂ D.

‡”nigra” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 10.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes simius form nigra

Type Locality: “southern Colorado...Arizona”

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

‡”rufa” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 10.

Original Combination: Amblyscirtes simius form rufa

Type Locality: “southern Colorado...Arizona”

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.


Genus Euphyes Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 80. Type-species: Hesperia metacomet T. Harris, 1862, Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 317 (= Hesperia vestris Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10: 317; subspecies), by original designation. Shuey (1989), J. Res. Lepid. 27(3/4): 160-172, discussed relationships between the various species and groups in this genus.


dion group Shuey, 1989

J. Res. Lepid. 27(3/4): 160.

265.      Euphyes pilatka (W. H. Edwards, 1867)

a.   Euphyes pilatka pilatka (W. H. Edwards, 1867)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(3): 286, 287, no. 3.

Original Combination: Hesperia Pilatka

Type Locality: “St. Augustine, Florida” [St. Johns County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): fig. 29 ♂ D&V.

The city of Palatka, Florida was spelled “Pilatka” until 1853. Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 80, spelled this name “palatka”, both in the text and in the reference to Edwards’ original description, representing an unjustified emendation.

=    floridensis (Plötz, 1883)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(4-6): 196, no. 401; cited unpublished pl. 616.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Floridensis

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 144, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

b.   Euphyes pilatka klotsi L. Miller, Harvey & J. Miller, 1985

Florida Entomol. 68(2): 325-327, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 11 ♂ genitalia, 12-15 ♂ valvae, 19 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Euphyes pilatka klotsi

Type Locality: “Florida: Monroe Co., Sugarloaf Key, T66S, R27E, Sec. 23”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

266.      Euphyes conspicua (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

a.   Euphyes conspicua orono (Scudder, 1872)

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 79, no. 4.

Original Combination: H[edone]. Orono

Type Locality: “northern states (probably)”; “Maine” implied from the name of Chief Orono of the Penobscot Nation.

Types: Holotype (#16581) in MCZ.

Elevated to the subspecies-level by L. Miller et al. (1985), Florida Entomol. 68(2): 333-334.

b.   Euphyes conspicua conspicua (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 17, no. 5; (2): pl. 5, fig. 5 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia Conspicua

Type Locality: “Lansing, Michigan”; neotype from “Dansville State Game Area, Ingham County, Michigan”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 79, fig. 26 ♀ D&V.

Species-genus gender conformation is conspicuus.

=    pontiac (W. H. Edwards, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14, 17-18, no. 6: (4): pl. 11, fig. 5 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Pontiac

Type Locality: “Lansing, Michigan”; neotype from “Dansville State Game Area, Ingham County, Michigan”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 81, fig. 27 ♂ D&V.

c.   Euphyes conspicua buchholzi (P. Ehrlich & Gillham, 1951)

Entomol. News 62(6): 188-189.

Original Combination: Atrytone conspicua buchholzi

Type Locality: “Valley, Nebraska” [Douglas County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

267.      Euphyes berryi (E. Bell, 1941)

Entomol. News 52(6): 167.

Original Combination: Atrytone berryi

Type Locality: “Monticello, Florida” [Jefferson County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

268.      Euphyes dion (W. H. Edwards, 1879)

Can. Entomol. 11(12): 238-239.

Original Combination: P[amphila]. Dion

Type Locality: “Nebraska...southern shore of Lake Michigan...Indiana...Hamilton, Ont.”; defined as “Whiting, Lake County, Indiana” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 81.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 82, fig. 28 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 36 ♂ D (lectotype), 37 ♀ V (paralectotype).

=    alabamae (Lindsey, 1923)

Entomol. News 34(7): 210.

Original Combination: Atrytone (Euphyes) alabamae

Type Locality: “Mobile County, Alabama”

Types: Holotype in USNM.

Shuey (1989), J. Res. Lepid. 27(3/4): 163-165, determined this synonymy.

=    macguirei H. Freeman, 1975

J. Lepid. Soc. 29(4): 227-229, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 5 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Euphyes macguirei

Type Locality: “Benbrook Res., Tarrant Co., Texas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Shuey (1989), J. Res. Lepid. 27(3/4): 161-163, determined this synonymy.

269.      Euphyes bayensis Shuey, 1989

J. Res. Lepid. 27(3/4): 165-166, figs. 8, 1st column top ♂ D (holotype), 2nd ♂ D, 3rd ♂ D, 4th ♀ D, bottom ♀ D, second column top ♂ D, 2nd ♂ D, 3rd ♂ D, 4th ♀ D, bottom ♀ D, 9 1st column top ♂ V (holotype), 2nd ♂ V, 3rd ♂ V, 4th ♀ V, bottom ♀ V, second column top ♂ V, 2nd ♂ V, 3rd ♂ V, 4th ♀ V, bottom ♀ V, figs. 10-21 ♂ genitalia, figs. 34-45 ♀ genitalia.

Original Combination: Euphyes bayensis

Type Locality: “Bay St. Louis, Hancock County, Mississippi”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

270.      Euphyes dukesi (Lindsey, 1923)

a.   Euphyes dukesi dukesi (Lindsey, 1923)

Entomol. News 34(7): 209-210.

Original Combination: Atrytone (Euphyes) dukesi

Type Locality: “Mobile County, Alabama”

Types: Holotype in USNM; a paratype figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.):pl. 54, fig. 26 ♂ D.

b.   Euphyes dukesi calhouni Shuey, 1996

J. Lepid. Soc. 50(1): 46-47, figs. 1, 2, 3 ♂ genitalia, 7, 8, 9, 10 ♀ genitalia, 15 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V, 17 ♀ D, 18 ♀ V (?holotype).

Original Combination: Euphyes dukesi calhouni

Type Locality: “Florida, Pasco County, ‘Cabbage Swamp.’“

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

vestris group Shuey, 1993

J. Lepid. Soc. 47(4): 271, 272.

271.      Euphyes bimacula (Grote & Robinson, 1867)

a.   Euphyes bimacula bimacula (Grote & Robinson, 1867)

Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York 8: 433-434.

Original Combination: Hesperia bimacula

Type Locality: “Atlantic District. (Philadelphia!)”

Types: Holotype may be in NYSM.

=    acanootus (Scudder, 1868)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 381-382, no. 84.

Original Combination: Hesperia Acanootus

Type Locality: “Lexington, Mass.” [Middlesex County, Massachusetts]

Types: Holotype may be in MCZ.

b.   Euphyes bimacula arbogasti Gatrelle, 1999

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(10): 6, figs. 21 ♂ D, 26 ♂ V (holotype); 22 ♀ D, 27 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Euphyes bimacula arbogasti

Type Locality: “South Carolina: Berkeley County, nr. jct. of I-26 and hwy. 17-A”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

c.   Euphyes bimacula illinois (Dodge, 1872)

Can. Entomol. 4(11): 217-218.

Original Combination: Hesperia illinois

Type Locality: “Burcan [sic!] County, Illinois...upon grassy slopes on the high rolling prairie that forms the divide between the Illinois and Rock rivers” [Bureau County, Illinois]. Neotype from “Denine Crossing, Grundy County, Illinois.”

Types: Syntype (#1872) in ANSP. Gatrelle (1999), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 1(10): 5, figs. 11 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V, designated a “neotype” in MGCL, but this is invalid if the ANSP specimen is a syntype.

=    ‡”contradicta” (Leussler, 1933)

Entomol. News 44(3): 71.

Original Combination: Atrytone bimacula ♀ aberration contradicta

Type Locality: “Valley, Nebraska” [Douglas County]

Types: Holotype in OSU.

272.      Euphyes arpa (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1837])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (23): pl. 68, figs. [1] ♂ D, [2] ♂ V, [3] ♀ D, [4] larva, [5] pupa.

Original Combination: Hesperia Arpa

Type Locality: Not stated (there is no text); “Georgia” implied from John Abbot’s notes for this drawing.

Types: Types are the specimens that John Abbot painted and are probably lost. Evans (1955), Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 362, noted that the “type” is in BMNH, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

273.      Euphyes vestris (Boisduval, 1852)

a.   Euphyes vestris harbisoni J. Brown & McGuire, 1983

Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 20(3): 58-62, fig. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Euphyes vestris harbisoni

Type Locality: “13.3 km east of Dulzura, north slope of Tecate Peak, elevation 500m, San Diego County, California”

Types: Holotype (#L-49) in SDMC.

b.   Euphyes vestris vestris (Boisduval, 1852)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 317-318, no. 83; figured by Oberthür (1913), Étud. Lépid. Comp. 9(1): pl. 240, fig. 2093 ♀ D&V (holotype).

Original Combination: Hesperia? vestris

Type Locality: “les lieux arides”; defined as “Spanish Ranch Road at Meadow Valley Creek, vicinity of fire station in Meadow Valley, 3600', Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 23.

Types: Holotype in BMNH, figured by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 23, figs. 153 ♀ D, 154 ♀ V.

=    osceola (Lintner, 1878)

Entomol. Contr. 4: 57-58.

Original Combination: Pamphila Osceola

Type Locality: “Mendocino, California”; syntype labeled “Ca.” [Mendocino County]

Types: Syntype (#5698) in NYSM; “paratypes” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 53, fig. 40 ♂ D, 41 ♀ D; a possible syntype in CMNH (W. H. Edwards collection).

A. Warren (2005), Butterflies Ore.: 57, discussed this name and its position of the synonymy of E. v. vestris.

=    californica (Mabille, 1883)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 27(c.r.)(31): lxviii.

Original Combination: Pamphila Californica

Type Locality: “Californie”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

c.   Euphyes vestris kiowah (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 150.

Original Combination: Hesperia Kiowah

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains”; holotype from “Colorado”

Types: Holotype in FMNH.

=    ‡”immaculatus” (R. Williams, 1914)

Entomol. News 25(6): 267.

Original Combination: [Pamphila vestris] immaculatus n. var.

Type Locality: “Jamez [sic!; Jemez] Mountains, New Mexico” implied from the title of the paper. [Sandoval County]

Types: “Lectotype” (#7168) in CMNH, designated by Mielke (1989), Revta. bras. Entomol. 33(2): 350, figs. 5, 6 ♀ genitalia, 27 ♀ D, 28 ♀ V.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

d.   Euphyes vestris metacomet (T. Harris, 1862)

Ins. injur. Veget. (3rd ed.): 317.

Original Combination: Hesperia Metacomet

Type Locality: “Massachusetts” implied from the title of the first edition of the book; stated to be “Massachusetts” by Morris (1862), Smithsonian Misc. Coll. [4]: 110, no. 18.

Types: Syntypes (#26352) in MCZ.

=    rurea (W. H. Edwards, 1862)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14(1/2): 54, 58, no. 7.

Original Combination: Pamphila rurea

Type Locality: “Rock Island, Illinois”; neotype from “Perryton Township, Mercer County, Illinois”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 77, fig. 24 ♂ D&V.

=    osyka (W. H. Edwards, 1867)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1(3): 286, 288, no. 5.

Original Combination: Hesperia Osyka

Type Locality: “vicinity of New Orleans” [Orleans Parish, Louisiana]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1980), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 106(1): 78, fig. 25 ♂ D&V.

Durden (1982), J. Lepid. Soc. 36(1): 9, treated this as a subspecies-level taxon.

‡”baeis” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): 1865.

Original Combination: [Euphyes osyka] = Hesperia baeis Boisd. manuscript

Proposed for a Boisduval manuscript name in the synonymy of osyka without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Asbolis Mabille, 1904

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. (17b): 134. Type-species: Goniloba sandarac Herrich-Schäffer, 1865, Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 54, no. 10 (= Eudamus capucinus Lucas, 1857, in: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 625-626; synonym), by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 25: 79.


274.      Asbolis capucinus (Lucas, 1857)

In: Sagra, Hist. Cuba 7(2): 625-626.

Original Combination: Eudamus Capucinus

Type Locality: “habite l’île de Cuba”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

=    sandarac (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 54, no. 10.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] sandarac

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7157) in ANSP.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 137, determined that this taxon is synonymous with palaea, through an examination of an unpublished drawing made by Plötz (pl. 271).

=    palaea (Hewitson, 1868)

Descr. one hundred new spec. Hesp. (2): 31, no. 21; figured by Hewitson (1869), Ill. exot. Butterflies 4(70): pl. Hesperia IV, fig. 31 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia palaea

Type Locality: Not stated; given as “Cuba” by Hewitson (1869), Ill. exot. Butterflies 4(70): [111] and on holotype label.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

 


Genus Atrytonopsis Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(157): 497. Type-species: Hesperia deva W. H. Edwards, 1877, Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 292, by original designation.


275.      Atrytonopsis hianna (Scudder, 1868)

a.   Atrytonopsis hianna hianna (Scudder, 1868)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 11: 382-383, no. 92; figured by Scudder (1889), Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 3(12): pl. 10, figs. 31 ♂ D&V, 32 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Hesperia Hianna

Type Locality: “Quincy and Dorchester, Mass.” [Quincy is in Norfolk County]

Types: Syntypes (#15334) in MCZ.

=    grotei (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 54, no. 360; cited unpublished pl. 360 (pl. 573 in BMNH).

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Grotei

Type Locality: “Union” [United States]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 143, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

b.   Atrytonopsis hianna turneri H. Freeman, 1948

Entomol. News 59(8): 205-206.

Original Combination: Atrytonopsis turneri

Type Locality: “Barber Co., Kansas”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

276.      Atrytonopsis loammi (Whitney, 1876)

Can. Entomol. 8(4): 76-77; figured by Skinner (1900), Entomol. News 11(4): pl. 2, fig. 27 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Lerema loammi

Type Locality: “Jacksonville, Fla.” [Duval County]

Types: Location of syntype(s) not known (ANSP or DCM?).

Scott (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 457, treated this as a subspecies of A. hianna.

=    regulus (W. H. Edwards, 1881)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 9(1): 5.

Original Combination: Pamphila Regulus

Type Locality: “upper St. John's River, Orange Co., Florida” Calhoun (1997), Holarct. Lepid. 4(2): 43, suggested that this may be in modern Lake, Osceola or Seminole counties.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 34-35, fig. 4 ♂ D&V.

=    apostologica (Strand, 1921)

Archiv. Naturgesch. (A)86(7): 160-161.

Original Combination: Parnara apostologica

Type Locality: “Stemper, Fl.” [Hillsborough County, Florida]

Types: Holotype in DEI.

277.      Atrytonopsis deva (W. H. Edwards, 1877)

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 292.

Original Combination: Hesperia Deva

Type Locality: “Prescott”; neotype suggested to be from “vicinity of Tucson” [Pima County, Arizona]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 38, fig. 6 ♀ D&V.

278.      Atrytonopsis lunus (W. H. Edwards, 1884)

Papilio 4(3): 56.

Original Combination: Pamphila Lunus

Type Locality: “Arizona”; suggested to be “vicinity of Tucson, Pima County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 35.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 35, fig. 6 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 15 ♂ D (lectotype), 16 ♀ V (paralectotype).

279.      Atrytonopsis vierecki (Skinner, 1902)

Entomol. News 13(7): 213.

Original Combination: Pamphila vierecki

Type Locality: “Dry Canon, Alamagordo, New Mexico” [Otero County]

Types: Syntypes (#7105) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 3 ♂ D.

280.      Atrytonopsis pittacus (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(8): 138-139.

Original Combination: Pamphila Pittacus

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper. [Graham County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 33, fig. 3 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 11 ♂ D.

281.      Atrytonopsis python (W. H. Edwards, 1882)

Papilio 2(8): 139.

Original Combination: Pamphila Python

Type Locality: “Fort Grant and in Graham Mountains, Arizona” implied from the title of the paper. [Graham County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 4 ♂ D (holotype), 5 ♀ V (paratype).

=    margarita (Skinner, 1913)

Can. Entomol. 45(12): 426.

Original Combination: Pamphila margarita

Type Locality: “Jemez Springs, New Mexico” [Sandoval County]

Types: Syntypes (#7106) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 54, fig. 12 ♂ D.

282.      Atrytonopsis cestus (W. H. Edwards, 1884)

Papilio 4(3): 57.

Original Combination: Pamphila Cestus

Type Locality: “southern Arizona”; suggested to be “vicinity of Tucson, Pima County, Arizona” by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 31.

Types: Holotype (#33624) in USNM; figured by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

283.      Atrytonopsis edwardsi W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1916

Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 135, pl. 8, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Atrytonopsis edwardsi

Type Locality: “Redington, Ariz....Babaquivera [sic!] Mts., Ariz.”; lectotype from “Redington”; Burns (1983), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 84(3): 337, suggested that the type locality is “higher ground to the west, to wit, the ‘Santa Catalina Mountains.’” [Pima County]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by Burns (1983), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 84(3): 337, fig. 13 ♂ D&V, figs. 25-27 ♂ genitalia.

=    ‡”polingi” Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(7): 195, no. 3, pl. 5, fig. 3 ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Atrytonopsis edwardsi ab. ♂ polingi

Type Locality: “Baboquivari Mountains, Pima County, Arizona”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

 


Genus Nyctelius Hayward, 1948

Acta zool. Lilloana 5: 99. Type-species: Hesperia nyctelius Latreille, [1824], in: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): 746, no. 47[a], by original designation.


284.      Nyctelius nyctelius (Latreille, [1824])

a.   Nyctelius nyctelius nyctelius (Latreille, [1824])

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): 746, no. 47[a].

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Nyctelius

Type Locality: “Brésil & à Surinam”

Types: Syntype in BMNH (not in MNHP), as noted by N. Riley (1926), Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 74(2): 234.

=    ares (C. Felder, [1863])

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 12(1): 477, no. 65.

Original Combination: Hesperia Ares

Type Locality: “Rio de Janeiro” [Brazil]

Types: Holotype probably in NMW.

=    coscinia (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 19(3/4): 54, no. 9.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] coscinia

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7141) in ANSP.

‡”aegialea” (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 52, under no. 346.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Coscinia [synonym] Aegialea

This name listed in synonymy without description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Conga Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 266, 294. Type-species: Pamphila chydaea Butler, 1877, Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1877(2): 152, no. 259, by original designation.


285.      Conga chydaea (Butler, 1877)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1877(2): 152, no. 259.

Original Combination: Pamphila chydaea

Type Locality: “Serpa, in the bush” [Amazonas, Brazil]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    valo (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxv.

Original Combination: Pamphila Valo

Type Locality: “Bogota” [Colombia]

Types: Holotype probably in MNHP.

=    vala (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxvi.

Original Combination: Pamphila Vala

Type Locality: “Chiriqui” [Panama]

Types: Holotype probably in ZMHB.

=    actor (Mabille, 1891)

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 35(c.r.)(18): clxxxii.

Original Combination: Pamphila Actor

Type Locality: “Chiriqui” [Panama]

Types: Types in ZMHB.

 


Genus Decinea Evans, 1955

Cat. Am. Hesp. Brit. Mus. (4): 266, 286. Type-species: Hesperia decinea Hewitson, 1876, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)18(108): 452, by original designation.


286.      Decinea percosius (Godman, 1900)

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(159): 536, no. 4; 3(158): pl. 95, figs. 22 ♂ D, 23 ♂ V, 24 ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: Cobalus percosius

Type Locality: “Mexico, Atoyac...Guatemala, Zapote...Panama, Chiriqui [Mus Staudinger]”; a specimen from Atoyac was figured. [Atoyac, Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

 


Genus Oligoria Scudder, 1872

4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 82. Type-species: Hesperia maculata W. H. Edwards, 1865, Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(1): 201, 202, pl. 1, fig. 6, by original designation.


287.      Oligoria maculata (W. H. Edwards, 1865)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(1): 201, 202, pl. 1, fig. 6 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Hesperia maculata

Type Locality: “New Orleans”; neotype from “Edgard, St. John the Baptist Parish, Louisiana.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown and L. Miller (1987), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 113(1): 59, fig. 23 ♀ D&V.

=    deleta (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 202, no. 54.

Original Combination: [Cobalus] deleta

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in NMW.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 141, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing (pl. 507) made by Plötz.

=    grossula (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 202, no. 56.

Original Combination: [Cobalus] grossula

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) may be in NMW.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 141, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing (pl. 507) made by Plötz.

=    norus (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 44(1-3): 36, no. 268; cited unpublished pl. 518.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Norus

Type Locality: “New-Orleans” [Louisiana]

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 142, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

‡”orthomenes” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(11): 1761.

Original Combination: [Oligoria maculata] = Hesperia orthomenes

Scudder mentioned “Hesperia orthomenes Boisduval manuscript” in the synonymy of this species without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.


Genus Thespieus Godman, 1900

In: Godman & Salvin, Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(158): 519. Type-species: Hesperia dalman Latreille, [1824], Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): (717), 747, no. 48, by original designation.


288.      Thespieus macareus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 23(12): 192, no. 53.

Original Combination: [Goniloba] macareus

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 66.

=    emacareus (Plötz, 1882)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 43(10-12): 438, no. 148; cited unpublished pl. 393.

Original Combination: [Hesperia] Emacareus

Type Locality: “Venezuela”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZSMC or lost.

Godman (1907), Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)20(116): 139, determined this synonymy through an examination of the unpublished drawing made by Plötz.

=    cacajo Dyar, 1913

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 44(1951): 280.

Original Combination: Thespieus cacajo

Type Locality: “Naranjo, Guerrero, Mexico, 3,000 feet”

Types: Lectotype (#14489) in USNM, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (2002), Revta. bras. Zool. 19(supl. 1): 66, but the original description noted that the holotype (#21216) is in the USNM.

 


Superfamily PAPILIONOIDEA Latreille, [1802]

Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. 3: 387 (as “Papilionides”). Type-genus: Papilio Linnaeus, 1758. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed Papilio on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 703. I.C.Z.N. Direction 99 placed Papilionidae [Leach], [1815] (as “Papilionida”), in: Brewster's Edinburgh Ency. 9: 127, on the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology as name no. 233, and placed Papilionida [Leach] on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names in Zoology as name no. 271; I.C.Z.N. Direction 116 deleted this entry, corrected as above, and placed Papilionides on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names in Zoology as name no. 500.


Family PAPILIONIDAE Latreille, [1802]


Subfamily Parnassiinae Duponchel, [1835]

In: Godart, Hist. Nat. Lépid. Fr. Suppl. 1(22): 380. Type-genus: Parnassius Latreille, 1804, Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 24(tab.): 185, 199.


Tribe Parnassiini Duponchel, [1835]


Genus Parnassius Latreille, 1804

Nouv. Dict. Hist. Nat. 24(tab.): 185, no. 472, 199. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by monotypy. Koçak (1981), Priamus 1(2): 51 (nota), claimed that Parnassius was first used as a proper genus by Schneider (1785), Nomen. Entomol.: 34 (as “2 Parnassius F.”). Schneider did not use the name in a generic sense, but as an interposed adjective; Wagener (1988), Nota Lepid. 11(3): 237-238, discussed this issue. Nomina collectiva are descriptive epithets applying to individual variants below the subspecies-level. They frequently lack a description or indication and are almost always cited in some kind of quadrinomial combination. In the following synonymies, nomina collectiva are referenced for each taxon, but not listed individually.

      =    ‡Doritis [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 283, no. 22. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Dalman (1816), K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(1): 60. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804.

      =    ‡Parnassis Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 90. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Hemming (1939), Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B)8(7): 136. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804. This name may have been a misspelling, emendation, or a new description by Hübner; see Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Entomol.) Suppl. 9: 345.

      =    ‡Therius Billberg, 1820

Enum. Ins. Mus. Billb.: 75. Type-species: Papilio apollo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 41, by designation of Hemming (1933), Entomol. 66(844): 199. A junior objective synonym of Parnassius Latreille, 1804.

=    Tadumia Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 116. Type-species: Parnassius acco Gray, [1853], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1(Pap.): 76, no. 350, pl. 12, figs. 5, 6, by original designation.

=    Kailasius Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 118. Type-species: Parnassius charltonius G. Gray, [1853] Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1(Pap.): 77, no. 355, pl. 12, fig. 7, by original designation.

=    Koramius Moore, 1902

Lepid. Ind. 5(53): 120. Type-species: Doritis delphius Eversmann, 1843, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 16(3): 541, pl. 7, fig. 1A, B, by original designation.

=    Lingamius Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 538-540. Type-species: Parnassius hardwickii G. Gray, 1831, Zool. Miscell. (J. E. Gray) (1): 32, by original designation. This name was proposed twice by Bryk (1932), Parnassiana 2(1): 1, and Parnassiana 2(2): 20; no diagnosis or type-species designation was included in either publication. Since these names were proposed after 1930, they are not available (Code Articles 13.1.1, 13.3, 67.4.1).

=    Eukoramius Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 630, 673-674. Type-species: Parnassius imperator Oberthür, 1883, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 6(3)(bull.)2(5): lxxvi-lxxvii, by monotypy. This name was proposed by Bryk (1934), Parnassiana 3(3): 43; without a diagnosis or type-species designation; since this name was proposed after 1930, it is not available (Code Articles 13.1.1, 13.3, 67.4.1).

=    Driopa Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 65-67. Type-species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 42, by original designation.

=    Erythrodriopa Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 67. Type-species: Parnassius ariadne Lederer, 1853, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 3: 354, by original designation.

=    Sachaia Korshunov, 1988

Nov. Maloizvestiye Vidy Fauny Sib. No. 20: 67-68. Type-species: Parnassius tenedius Eversmann, 1851, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 24(2)(11): 621-622, no. 10, by original designation.

      =    ‡Adoritis Koçak, 1989

Priamus 4(4): 165-167. Type-species: Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 465, no. 42, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Driopa Korshunov, 1988.

=    Quinhaicus Korshunov, 1990

Chlenist. Gelmint. sbornik trudov: 99. Type-species: Parnassius szechenyii Frivaldszky, 1886, Természettud. Füz. 10(1): 39, pl. 4, figs. 1, 1a, by original designation.

=    Kreizbergius Korshunov, 1990

Chlenist. Gelmint. sbornik trudov: 102. Type-species: Parnassius simo G. Gray, [1852], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 76, no. 351, pl. 12, figs. 3, 4, by original designation.

=    Eversmanniodriopa Korb, 2005

Cat. Butterflies ex USSR: 13. Type-species: Parnassius eversmanni [Ménétriés], [1850], in: Simashko, Russk. Fauna (17)(Lepid.): Pl. 4, fig. 5 ♂ D&V, legend, by original designation.


*289.    Parnassius eversmanni [Ménétriés], [1850]

In: Simashko, Russk. Fauna (17)(Lepid.): Pl. 4, fig. 5 ♂ D&V, legend.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. Eversmanni

Type Locality: Not stated; “Russia” implied from the title of the work; defined as “Kansk” by Ménétriés (1855), Enum. corp. anim. (1): 74, no. 110. [Krasnoyarsk Kray, Russia]

Types: Holotype in ZIN; figured by Chikolovets et al. (2002), Butterflies Transbaikal Siberia: pl. 48, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Nekrutenko and Kerzhner (1986), Entomol. Obozr. 65(4): 774, discussed this species. Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Bryk and Eisner (1932), Parnassiana 2: 92-93, Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 139, and (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): 18.

=    ‡altaica Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (26-29): 319, pl. 64, fig. 19 ♂ D; ind. syst.: xxiii.

Original Combination: [Parnassius eversmanni] race altaica

Type Locality: “Tchuja Mts., 1800-2400 m, S.-E. de l’Altaï” implied from the legend to plate 64.

Types: Syntypes in BMNH and ZMKU.

Preoccupied by Parnassius intermedius var. altaica Ménétriés, 1859, in: Schrenck, Reise Amur-Lande 2(1): 12, 13.

=    lacinia Hemming, 1934

Stylops 3(9): 198.

Original Combination: Parnassius eversmanni lacinia

Proposed as a replacement name for Parnassius eversmanni race altaica Verity, [1911], with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡”flavescens” O. Bang-Haas, 1927

Horae Macrolepid. 1(1): 7.

Original Combination: [Parnassius eversmanni felderi] ab. flavescens

Type Locality: “Sajan-Gebirgen” [Sayan Mountains, Krasnoyarski Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” in ZMHB.

=    ‡”ampliusdecora” Eisner, 1928

Int. Entomol. Z. 22(32): 302.

Original Combination: [Parnassius eversmanni eversmanni] ab. ampliusdecora

Type Locality: “Sajan-Gebirge” [Sayan Mountains, Krasnoyarski Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

a.   Parnassius eversmanni thor Hy. Edwards, 1881

Papilio 1(1): 4.

Original Combination: Parnassius Thor

Type Locality: “about 800 miles up the Yukon river, Alaska”

Types: Holotype in AMNH; figured by Skinner (1916), Entomol. News 27(5): pl. 12, fig. 1 ♀ D.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Bryk and Eisner (1934), Parnassiana 3(1): 15, Bryk (1934), Parnassiana 3(2): 32, and Eisner (1978), Zoöl. Meded. 53(11): 109.

=    ‡meridionalis Eisner, 1978

Zoöl. Meded. 53(11): 109, pl. 2, figs. 9 ♀ D, 10 ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: Parnassius eversmanni meridionalis

Type Locality: “Pink Mt., B. C., 122o 30' long., 57 o lat.” [British Columbia]

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

Preoccupied by Parnassius apollo meridionalis Pagenstecher, 1909, Entomol. Z. 22(44): 187.

=    pinkensis Gauthier, 1984

Entomol. Z. 94(21): 319.

Original Combination: Parnassius eversmanni pinkensis

Proposed to replace meridionalis Eisner, 1978, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡”kohlsaati” Gunder, 1932

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 8(3): 123.

Original Combination: Parnassius eversmanni race thor tr. f. kohlsaati

Type Locality: “McKinley National Park, Alaska” [Denali National Park]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

290.      Parnassius clodius Ménétriés, 1855

a.   Parnassius clodius strohbeeni Sternitzky, 1945                                       

Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club 23: 82-83.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius strohbeeni

Type Locality: “Santa Cruz, California” [Santa Cruz County]

Types: Holotype (#27214) in MCZ.

=    ‡”dodgei” Gunder, 1932

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 8(3): 123; cited J. A. Comstock (1927), Butterflies Calif.: pl. 5, fig. 6 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius tr. f. dodgei

Type Locality: “Santa Cruz Hills, Santa Cruz, California” [Santa Cruz County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

b.   Parnassius clodius clodius Ménétriés, 1855

Enum. corp. anim. (1): 7, no. 109; 73, no. 109.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius

Type Locality: “Californie”; defined as “Marin county...Bear Valley” by J. Shepard and S. Shepard (1975), in: Howe, Butterflies N. Am.: 405.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZIN.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Bryk and Eisner (1932), Parnassiana 2(6-8): 96, (1937), Parnassiana 5(1/3): 4, Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 141, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 87.

=    ‡”castus” Bryk, 1913

Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(3): 2-3, no. 7; cited Parnassius clodius (sensu W. H. Edwards (1871), Butterflies N. Am. [1](7): pl. Parnassius 1, fig. 5 ♂ D).

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius ab. castus

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” (#375) in ZMHB.

c.   Parnassius clodius claudianus Stichel, 1907

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. 58: 15, no. 5c (nota 1); cited Parnassius clodius (sensu Verity [1907], Rhop. Pal.: pl. 22, figs. 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ D, 19 ♀ D).

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius claudianus

Type Locality: “Washington”; “western Washington” according to J. Shepard and S. Shepard (1975), in: Howe, Butterflies N. Am.: 405.

Types: Syntypes (#27918, 27919, 27920, 27921) in ZMHB. The specimen cited by Verity (fig. 19, ♀ from British Columbia) is in ZMKU.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 142, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 88-89.

=    baldus Ehrmann, 1918

Lepidoptera 2(4): 29.

Original Combination: Parn[assius]. smintheus v. baldus

Type Locality: “Olympic Mountains, Washington” [Clallam County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    ‡kallias Ehrmann, 1918

Lepidoptera 2(6): 41.

Original Combination: Parn[assius]. clodius var. kallias

Proposed to replace baldus Ehrmann, 1918, erroneously thought preoccupied; a junior objective synonym of baldus.

d.   Parnassius clodius pseudogallatinus Bryk, 1913

Arch. Naturgesch. (A)79(3): 3; cited Parnassius clodius (sensu Verity [1907], Rhop. palae. (7-8): pl. 22, figs. 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ D, 19 ♀ D); figured by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: fig. 158 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius var. pseudogallatinus

Type Locality: “Brit. Columb. (Yale 1890)”

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB and BMNH.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 143, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 89.

=    hel Eisner, 1956

Zoöl. Meded. 34(18): 243-244, pl. 3, figs. 1 ♂ D (holotype), 2 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius hel

Type Locality: “Stevens Pass, Mts. Cascade, Washington, 4500'” [King-Chelan counties]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1956), Zoöl. Meded. 34(18): 243, pl. 2, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 89.

e.   Parnassius clodius incredibilis Bryk, 1935

Tierreich 65: 162-163.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. clodius incredibilis

Type Locality: “S. Elja Berg (Alaska)” [Mt. St. Elias, Alaska.]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Bryk & Eisner 1932, Parnassiana 2(6-8): 99, listed this name without a description or indication; a nomen nudum. It is possible that the type of this taxon was mislabeled.

f.    Parnassius clodius sol Bryk & Eisner, 1932

Parnassiana 2(6-8): 97, fig. 6 ♂ D (holotype); figured by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: fig. 157 ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: [Parnassius clodius] sol

Type Locality: “Nevada”; corrected to “Sierra-Nevada” [California] by Eisner (1961), Zool. Meded. 37(11): 172; defined as “California...Baxters, Placer County” by J. Shepard and S. Shepard (1975), in: Howe, Butterflies N. Am.: 405.

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by the authors at the time of the original description.

=    ‡”sulfureus” Gunder, 1932

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 8(3): 124.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius race baldur tr. f. sulfureus

Type Locality: “Davis Creek, Modoc County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

g.   Parnassius clodius baldur W. H. Edwards, 1877

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 12, no. 24; cited Parnassius clarius (sensu W. H. Edwards (1871), Butterflies N. Am. [1](7): pl. Parnassius 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Parnassius Baldur

Type Locality: “California, Sierras; Utah; Montana”; defined as “Tioga Pass” by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 5. [Mono-Tuolumne counties, California]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 5, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Bryk and Eisner (1932), Parnassiana 2: 97, Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 142, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 87-88.

=    ‡”lorquini” Oberthür, 1891

Étud. Entomol. 14: 7, 17-18, pl. 2, fig. 17 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius ab. lorquini

Type Locality: “Californie”

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH?

=    ‡”lusca” Stichel, 1907

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. 58: 14, no. 5bα (nota 1).

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius baldur forma lusca

Type Locality: “Californien”

Types: “Holotype” may be in SMNS (Seitz collection).

=    ‡”binigrimaculella” Gunder, 1926

Entomol. News 37(1): 8-9, no. 13, pl. 1, figs. 13 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius var. baldur ab. ♂ binigrimacullela

Type Locality: “Gold Lake, Sierra County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

h.   Parnassius clodius altaurus Dyar, 1903

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 5(4): 290-291.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius var. altaurus

Type Locality: “Alturas Lake, near Saw-tooth Mt., Idaho, 7,000-9000 feet”

Types: Holotype (#6769) in USNM.

Dyar [1903], Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 52: 1, no. 1, listed this name without a description or indication; a nomen nudum. A nomen collectivum was proposed for this taxon by Bryk and Eisner (1932), Parnassiana 2(6): 96.

=    gallatinus Stichel, 1907

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. 58: 15, no. 5d (nota 2); cited Parnassius clodius (sensu Elrod and Maley (1906), Bull. Univ. Montana 30, (Biol. Ser.) 2(10): fig. 15 ♀&♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius gallatinus

Type Locality: “aus dem südlichen Teile von Montana”; suggested to be “Gallatin Co. Mont./ Elev. 6800" by Kohler (1978), J. Lepid. Soc. 32(1): 1-2.

Types: Lectotype in AMNH, designated by Kohler (1978), J. Lepid. Soc. 32(1): 1-2, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (figs. 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V are of the sole paralectotype).

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 143, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 89.

=    immaculata Skinner, 1911

Entomol. News 22(3): 108; figured by Skinner (1916), Entomol. News 27(5): pl. 12, fig. 7 ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: Parnassius immaculata

Type Locality: “Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming”

Types: Holotype (#7025) in ANSP; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book. (rev. ed.): pl. 75, fig. 3 ♂ D.

=    shepardi Eisner, 1966

Zoöl. Meded. 41(8): 145-146, pl. 1, figs. 1 ♂ D (holotype), 2 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius clodius shepardi

Type Locality: “Wawawai, Snake River, Whitman Co., Washington, U.S.A.”

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

A. Warren (2005), Butterflies Ore.: 59, discussed this taxon and its placement in synonymy.

i.    Parnassius clodius menetriesii Hy. Edwards, 1877

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]7(12): 164-165.

Original Combination: Parnassius Menetriesii n. var. of Clodius

Type Locality: “Bear Valley, Sierra Nevada...Lake Tahoe...Downieville, Cal[ifornia]...Mt. Nebo, Utah”; lectotype from “Mt. Nebo, Utah.” [Juab-Utah counties]

Types: Lectotype in AMNH; designated by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1918), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 4(2): 62; figured by Skinner (1916), Entomol. News 27(5): pl. 12, fig. 3 ♂ D.

A nomen collectivum was proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 90.

*291.    Parnassius phoebus (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 181, no. 561; cited Jones’ Icones 2: pl. 2, fig. 2.

Original Combination: P[apilio] P[arnasius]. Phoebus

Type Locality: “Siberia”; “neotypes” from “Altai: Ongodai, Kurai Paß, Arassam Quelle.” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: Type(s) presumed lost. “Neotypes” in ZMHB, designated by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: 219, figs. 215 ♂ D, 215a ♀ D, but this action violated Code Article 75. Bryk designated two neotypes, which is improper procedure. It is here presumed that one will eventually be accepted.

Nekrutenko and Kerzhner (1986), Entomol. Obozr. 65(4): 776, discussed the probable type locality for this species. They determined that Pallas (collector of the original specimen) probably sent the type to Drury, which became the basis for William Jones’ unpublished figure. The details of Pallas’ journey indicate two regions from which phoebus might have been collected: 1) the Irtysh Valley, Western and Northern Altai, or 2) the Transbaikalian area of the Yenisey. Nekrutenko and Kerzhner considered that the Altai region was more probable. The nomenclature proposed by J. Shepard and Manley (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (58): 717-726, is followed. Also see Gluschenko and Martynenko (1997), Anim. Veg. World Far East: 31-40, (2000), Kurentsov’s Ann. Mem. Mtgs. 11: 63-96, Martynenko et al. (2003), Helios 4: 75-91, Churkin (2004), Helios 5: 110-114, and Omoto, et al. (2004), Gene 326: 141–147, where divergent arguments are presented.

=    ‡”altaica” Ménétriés, 1859

In: Schrenck, Reise Amur-Lande 2(1): 12-13, under no. 53.

Original Combination: Parnassius Phoebus var. intermedius Forme altaica

Type Locality: “l'Altai” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: Lectotype in ZIN, designated by Nekrutenko and Kerzhner (1986), Entomol. Obozr. 65(4): 775.

=    halasicus Huang & Murayama, 1992

Tyo to Ga 43(1): 3, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus halasicus

Type Locality: “Halasai, Altai, 1700-1900 m, grassland in forest zone to subalpine grassland” [Xinjiang Uygur, China]

Types: Holotype in Xinjiang University, China.

=    ‡”virginea” Austaut, 1910

Entomol. Z. 24(11): 55.

Original Combination: Parnassius Ruckbeil ab. virginea

Type Locality: ”Barkoul” [Barkol, Xinjiang Uygur, China]

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known; possibly at MNHP?

=    ‡”alpestris” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (26-29): 314, pl. 63, figs. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♀ D; (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. intermedius forme alpestris, from the legend to plate 63 and the index.

Type Locality: “l’Altaï...hauts sommets” implied from the text, “Tchuja mountains, 1800-2400m” from the legend to plate 63. [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Syntypes” in BMNH and ZMKU.

=    ‡”melanica” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (26-29): 314, pl. 63, fig. 18 ♂ D (“holotype”); (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. intermedius ♀ ab. melanica, from the legend to plate 63 and the index.

Type Locality: “l’Altaï...des vallées” implied from the text, “Kuraipan, 2100m., Altai” from the legend to plate 63. [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH.

=    ‡”leucostigma” Austaut, 1912

Int. Entomol. Z. 6(13): 87, 125.

Original Combination: Parnassius Ruckbeil ab. leucostigma

Type Locality: “alpe de Chamil-Hami” “alpes de Chamil” [Hami, Xinjiang Uygur, China]

Types: Location of “holotype” not known; possibly at MNHP?

=    ‡”punctatus” Bryk, 1912

Soc. Entomol. 27(12): 57.

Original Combination: Parnassius delius ab. punctatus

Type Locality: “Altai” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” probably in RMNH.

=    ‡”reciprocus” Bryk, 1913

Soc. Entomol. 28(16): 95.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus var. intermedia ab. reciprocus

Type Locality: “Altai” [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: “Holotype” probably in RMNH.

a.   Parnassius phoebus apricatus Stichel, 1906

Berl. Entomol. Z. 51(1): 87, pl. 2, figs. 13a ♂ D, 13b ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus apricatus

Type Locality: “aus Kadiak, Insel südlich von Alaska, Nord-Amerika” [Kodiak Island, Alaska]

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB; figured by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: figs. 234 ♂ D, 234a ♀ D.

=    elias Bryk, 1934

Parnassiana 3(2): 31-32, no. 41; figured by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: fig. 233 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus elias

Type Locality: “St. Ilja (Alaska)” [Mt. St. Elias]

Types: Holotype in RMNH; figured by Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): pl. 22, fig. 3 ♂ D.

=    alaskensis Eisner, 1956

Zoöl. Meded. 34(18): 244-245, pl. 3 figs. 7 ♂ D (holotype), 8 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus alaskensis

Type Locality: “Mt. Kinley Park, Alaska centr.”; stated as “Mount McKinley National Park” by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 95. [Denali National Park]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

This was spelled “alaskaensis” by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 95, representing either an incorrect subsequent spelling of alaskensis Eisner, 1956, or an unjustified emendation.

b.   Parnassius phoebus golovinus W. Holland, 1930

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 19(3): 155-156; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 69, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Parnassius golovinus

Type Locality: “Golovin Bay” [NW Alaska]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 69, figs. 3 ♂ D (lectotype) 4 ♂ V (paralectotype), 5 ♀ D (paralectotype), 6 ♀ V (paralectotype).

292.      Parnassius behrii W. H. Edwards, 1870

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(1): 10, no. 1; figured by W. H. Edwards (1872), Butterflies N. Am. [1](10): pl. Parnassius 3, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Parnassius Behrii

Type Locality: “Sierra Nevada”; defined as “top of Mt. Lyell, at an altitude of nearly 11,000 ft.” by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 11; neotype from “Tioga Pass, Cal.” [Mono-Tuolumne counties, California]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 12, fig. 3 ♂ D&V.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 97.

=    niger W. G. Wright, 1905

Butterflies W. Coast: 47, no. 10; 79, no. 10, pl. 2, fig. 10 ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: [Parnassius Smintheus var.] Niger, Parnassius Niger n. v.

Type Locality: “Sierra Nevada”; “Summit, Cal.” [Donner Summit, Sierra County, California]

Types: Holotype (#4278) in CAS.

=    astriotes Fruhstorfer, 1923

Soc. Entomol. 38(2): 5.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius astriotes

Type Locality: “California, Süd-Ost Sierra”

Types: Syntypes in ZSMC.

293.      Parnassius smintheus E. Doubleday, 1847

a.   Parnassius smintheus sternitzkyi McDunnough, 1937

Can. Entomol. 68(12): 273-274, figs. of ♂ D (holotype) and ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus var. sternitzkyi

Type Locality: “Castle Lake, Siskiyou Co. Calif.” [California]

Types: Holotype (#4116) in CNC.

W. H. Edwards (1862), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 14(5): 225, no. 10, redescribed Parnassius smintheus from “California” A “neotype” of this misidentification was designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 6; this is the holotype of sternitzkyi.

b.   Parnassius smintheus olympianna Burdick, 1941

Can. Entomol. 73(7): 117-118, figs. ♂ D, ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus olympianna

Type Locality: “Hurricane Ridge, Olympic Range, Clallam Co., Washington”

Types: Holotype (#5191) in CNC.

Species-genus gender conformation is olympiannus.

=    guppyi Wyatt, 1969

Z. wien. entomol. Ges. 54[80](9-12): 132-133, pl. 15, figs. 1 ♂ D (holotype), 2 ♀ D, 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus guppyi

Type Locality: “Mt. Arrowsmith, Vancouver-Insel, Britisch Kolumbien, Kanada, 1500 m”

Types: Holotype in LNKD.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 96-97.

c.   Parnassius smintheus yukonensis Eisner, 1969

Zoöl. Meded. 43(14): 175; figured by Eisner (1976), Zool. Verh. (146): pl. 2, fig. 9 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus yukonensis

Type Locality: “5 miles s.w. Haines Junction, Yukon” [Yukon Territory]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

d.   Parnassius smintheus smintheus E. Doubleday, 1847

In: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (1)(3): 26; 27, no. 8, pl. 4*, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius Smintheus

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains”; defined as “vicinity of Rock Lake, [near Jasper] Alberta (53o27'N, 118.o16'W)” by J. Shepard (1984), Quaest. Entomol. 20(1): 40-41.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Shepard (1984), Quaest. Entomol. 20(1): 41.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 150, (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 96, and (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): 25, no. 273.

=    nanus Neumoegen, 1890

Entomol. Am. 6(4): 61-62.

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus var. nanus

Type Locality: “near Fort Calgarry [sic!]...at Spence's Bridge, both places being in British Columbia” [Fort Calgary is in Alberta]

Types: Syntypes in USNM; two figured by Skinner (1916), Entomol. News 27(5): pl. 12, figs. 4 ♀ D (‘Ft. Calgary’), 5 ♂ D (“British Columbia”).

McDunnough (1936), Can. Entomol. 68(10): 223, discussed the Spence’s Bridge locality. Upon any future lectotype designation, the position of this taxon in the synonymy of P. smintheus may require revision.

=    manitobaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 55.

Original Combination: [Parnassius phoebus] manitobaënsis

Type Locality: “Manitoba, End-Mountains”; corrected to “End Mountain, Alta.” by McDunnough (1936), Can. Entomol. 68(2): 43; further defined as “End Mountain, near Exsham, Alberta” by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 96. [Exshaw]

Types: Holotype in ZMHB.

=    ‡”nigerrima” Verity, [1907]

Rhop. palae. (7/8): pl. 16, fig. 23 ♀ D (“holotype”) [28 Feb 1907]; (11-12): 108 [31 Oct 1907]; (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: Parnassius delius var. smintheus forme hermodur ab. nigerrima

Type Locality: “Montagnes Rocheuses de la Colombie Britannique” implied from the legend to plate 16.

Types: “Holotype” in ZMKU.

Date of publication is that of plate 16; original combination is from page 108.

=    ‡”minor” Verity, [1907]

Rhop. palae. (7/8): pl. 16, fig. 21 ♂ D (“holotype”) [28 Feb 1907]: (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. smintheus forme minor

Type Locality: “Montagnes Rocheuses de la Colombie Britannique” implied from the legend to plate 26.

Types: “Holotype” in ZMKU.

Date of publication is that of plate 16; original combination is from the legend to plate 16.

=    ‡”minusculus” Bryk, 1912

Soc. Entomol. 27(12): 58, fig. 4 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius v. smintheus ab. minusculus

Type Locality: “Colorado” apparently in error.

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

Original combination given on figure.

=    ‡”ernestinae” Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 51.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus smintheus form ernestinae

Type Locality: “Ptarmigan-Paß 135o 20'/ 50o 20” [Alberta]

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

=    ‡”verity” Ehrmann, 1918

Lepidoptera 2(4): 30.

Original Combination: Parnassius verity

Proposed to replace minor Verity, [1907], but unavailable names cannot be replaced (Code Article 1.3.4).

‡”rocky” Grum-Grshimaïlo, 1890

In: Romanov, Mém. Lépid. 4: 149 (note 9).

Original Combination: [Parnassius Smintheus var.] Rocky

Proposed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

e.   Parnassius smintheus magnus W. G. Wright, 1905

Butterflies W. Coast: 47, no. 13; 80-81, no. 13, pl. 2, figs. 13 ♂ D (lectotype), 13b ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Parnassius Smintheus var.] Magnus; Parnassius Magnus n. v.

Type Locality: “British Columbia”; “Enderby, B. C.”

Types: Lectotype (#4279) in CAS, designated by Tilden (1975), Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. (118): 5.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 152, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 97-98.

=    xanthus Ehrmann, 1918

Lepidoptera 2(3): 21-22.

Original Combination: Par[nassius]. Smintheus var. xanthus

Type Locality: “Moron [sic!], Idaho” [Moscow, Latah County, Idaho]

Types: Syntypes in CMNH.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 152, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 98-99.

=    idahoensis Bryk & Eisner, 1931

Parnassiana 1(5): 5-6, fig. 4 ♂ D&V, 5 ♀ D&V; figured by Bryk (1935), Tierreich 65: figs. 231, ♂ D&V (holotype), 231a ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: P[arnassius] phoebus idahoensis

Type Locality: “Wallace, Idaho” [Shoshone County]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

=    montanula Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 55; figured by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): pl. 4, figs. 5 ♀ D (holotype), 6 ♂ D, 7 ♀ D, 8 ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Parnassius phoebus] montanula

Type Locality: “Turah, Montana” [Missoula County]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

=    ‡”mendica” Stichel, 1907

In: Wytsman, Gen. Ins. 58: 20, no 9hα (nota 1); cited Neumoegen (1890), Entomol. Am. 6(4): 61, and W. G. Wright (1905), Butterflies W. Coast: 79.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. phoebus smintheus forma mendica

Type Locality: “Montana, Brit. Columbia, Colorado”

Types: “Types” should be in ZMHB.

Upon any future lectotype designation, the position of this taxon in the synonymy of P. smintheus may require revision.

f.    Parnassius smintheus maximus Bryk & Eisner, 1937

Parnassiana 5(1-3): 7; cited Parnassius phoebus sayii (sensu Bryk and Eisner (1935), Parnassiana 3(4/5): 54); figured by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): pl. 4, figs. 1 ♀ D (holotype), 2 ♂ D, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus maximus

Type Locality: “Judith Mts., Montana, U.S.A.” [Fergus County]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

=    ‡”pseudocorybas” Verity, [1909]

Rhop. palae. (11/12): 107 [31 Oct 1907]; (24/25): pl. 24, figs. 12 ♂ D, 13 ♀ D [31 Dec 1909]; (30-36): ind. syst.: xx [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius var. apricatus forme pseudocorybas

Type Locality: “Montana” implied from the text, “Montana, Montagnes Rocheuses” from the legend to plate 24.

Types: Location of “types” not known (possibly in MNHP).

Date of publication and original combination determined from the legend to plate 24.

g.   Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 78, no. 1; figured by W. H. Edwards (1872), Butterflies N. Am. [1](10): pl. Parnassius 2, figs. 2 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Parnassius Sayii

Type Locality: “Pikes Peak”; corrected to “gold region west of Denver” by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 6; neotype from “Running Creek Field Sta., 6950', Elbert Co., Colo., T9S R65W, SW ¼ 25" [Colorado]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 9, fig. 2 ♀ D&V.

Nomina collectiva were proposed for this taxon and its synonyms by Bryk and Eisner (1935), Parnassiana 3(4/5): 55, Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): 151, and (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 98, 100, 102, 103, 104.

=    hermodur Hy. Edwards, 1881

Papilio 1(1): 4.

Original Combination: Parnassius Hermodur

Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”

Types: Holotype in AMNH; figured by Skinner (1916), Entomol. News 27(5): pl. 12, fig. 8 ♀ D.

Scott (1992), Papilio (n.s.) 6: 6-7, treated this as a subspecies-level taxon, a position which would require a thorough reevaluation of the synonymy of P. s. sayi.

=    polus Ehrmann, 1917

Lepidopterist 1(7): 54-55.

Original Combination: Parnassius polus

Type Locality: “Ashcroft, Pidkin [sic!] County, Colorado” [Pitkin County]

Types: Syntypes in CMNH.

=    montanus Ehrmann, 1918

Lepidoptera 2(4): 29-30.

Original Combination: Parn[assius]. smintheus v. montanus

Type Locality: “Bullion Peak, Colorado” [Park County]

Types: Syntypes in CMNH.

=    utahensis Rothschild, 1918

Novit. Zool. 25(1): 233.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus utahensis

Type Locality: “Park City, Utah” [Summit County]

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    catullius Fruhstorfer, 1923

Soc. Entomol. 38(2): 5.

Original Combination: Parnassius delius catullius

Type Locality: “Colorado, Pikes Peak...ca. 12-13 500 fuß” [El Paso-Teller counties]

Types: Syntypes said to be in Fruhstorfer collection, but may be in SMNS (Seitz collection).

=    aristion Fruhstorfer, 1923

Soc. Entomol. 38(2): 5.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius aristion

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: Holotype said to be in ZSMC, but may be in SMNS (Seitz collection).

=    sordellus Fruhstorfer, 1923

Soc. Entomol. 38(2): 5.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. delius sordellus

Type Locality: “Nordamerika--näherer Fundort unbekannt”

Types: Syntypes possibly in ZSMC.

=    hollandi Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 53; figured by Eisner (1955), Zoöl. Meded. 33(17): pl. 23, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Parnassius phoebus] hollandi

Type Locality: “La Sal Mts., Turpus Valley, Californien [sic!]” [Grand-Wayne counties, Utah]

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

ZMHB was originally noted as the repository of the type, but Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): 24, claimed to have deposited the holotype and allotype in RMNH.

=    dakotaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935

Parnassiana 3(4/5): 55; figured by Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): pl. 22, figs. 4 ♂ D (holotype), 5 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Parnassius phoebus] dakotaensis

Type Locality: “Black Hills, Mt. Roosevelt, Dakota merid.” [Lawrence-Pennington counties, South Dakota]

Types: Holotype noted to be in RMNH, but “syntype” series apparently split between that institution and ZMHB.

=    rotgeri O. Bang-Haas, 1938

Parnassiana 6(3/4): 20, pl. 1, figs. 6 ♂ D, 9 ♀ D.

Original Combination: P[arnassius]. phoebus rotgeri

Type Locality: “Colorado, westl. von Denver, Evans mont., Clear Creek, 3800 m” [Mount Evans, Clear Creek County, Colorado]

Types: Syntypes probably in ZMHB.

=    rubina Wyatt, 1961

Z. wien. entomol. Ges. 46[72](9): 145-146, pl. 11, figs. 1 ♂ D (holotype), 2 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus rubina

Type Locality: “Liberty Peak, 3,120 m, Ruby Gebirge, südlich von Elko, Nevada”; redefined as “above Liberty Lake, Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada” by Austin (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (50): 630.

Types: Holotype in LNKD.

=    ‡”leonhardi” Bryk, 1912

Soc. Entomol. 27(12): 57, fig. 1 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius v. smintheus ab. Leonhardi

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: “Holotype” should be in MTD; figured by Bryk (1921), Entomol. Tidskr. 42(2): 114, fig. 3 ♂ V, 4 ♂ D.

Original combination as given on figure.

=    ‡”mariae” Bryk, 1912

Soc. Entomol. 27(12): 57-58, fig. 3 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius v. smintheus ab. Mariae

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: “Holotype” should be in MTD (O. Bang-Haas collection).

=    ‡”quincunx” Bryk, 1915

Arch. Naturgesch. (A)80(7): pl. 9, fig. 67 ♂ (“cotype”); (9): 140, text.

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus ab. quincunx

Type Locality: Not stated; suggested to be “Colorado, U.S.A.” by Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): 25.

Types: “Cotype” in RMNH; figured by Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): pl. 22, fig. 6 ♂ D.

=    ‡”fermata” Bryk, 1921

Entomol. Tidskr. 42(2): 112-114, figs. 1 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parnassius smintheus ab. fermata

Type Locality: “Denver Colorado Rocky mountains”

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH; figured by Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): pl. 22, fig. 6 ♂ D.

=    ‡”melanophorus” Bryk, 1921

Entomol. Tidskr. 42(2): 114, fig. 2 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Parnassius smintheus] ab. melanophorus

Type Locality: “Denver Colorado Rocky mountains”

Types: “Holotype” in RMNH.

=    ‡”reducta” O. Bang-Haas, 1938

Parnassiana 6(3/4): 20.

Original Combination: [Parnassius phoebus rotgeri] f[orm]. reducta

Type Locality: “Colorado, westl. von Denver, Evans mont., Clear Creek, 3800 m” [Mount Evans, Clear Creek County, Colorado]

Types: “Holotype” should be in ZMHB.

h.   Parnassius smintheus pseudorotgeri Eisner, 1966

Zoöl. Meded. 41(8): 144.

Original Combination: Parnassius phoebus pseudorotgeri

Type Locality: “Elwood-Pass, Rio Grande Co., Colorado, U.S.A.”

Types: Holotype in RMNH.

Eisner (1964), Zoöl. Meded. 40(16): 135-136, credited this name to F. Chermock; a nomen nudum. Subsequently, Eisner (1966), adopted the name and described it based on his own specimens.


Subfamily Papilioninae Latreille, [1802]


Tribe Troidini Talbot, 1939

Fauna Brit. Ind., Butterflies 1 (ed. 2): 60 (key), 61. Type-genus: Troides Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 88.


Subtribe Troidina Talbot, 1939


Genus Parides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 87. Type-species: Princeps echelus Hübner, [1815], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [126], figs. 1, 2 (= Princeps echemon Hübner, [1813], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [121], figs. 3, 4; synonym), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 241, no. 811.


Subgenus Parides Hübner, [1819]

=    Hectorides Hübner, 1821

Index. exot. Lepid.: [1], [2]. Type-species: Papilio agavus Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: 11, index, pl. 9, fig. 4, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 184, no. 502.

=    Endopogon Lacordaire, 1833

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. [1]2: 384. Type-species: Papilio sesostris Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(18): 34, pl. 211, figs. F, G; (24): 176, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 162, no. 377.

=    Ascanides Geyer, 1837

In: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 5: 32. Type-species: Papilio triopas Godart, 1819, Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (14), 33, no. 23 (= Parides chabrias ygdrasilla Hemming (1935), Entomol. 68(2)[861]: 41; homonym), by monotypy.

=    Blakea Grote, 1876

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(2): 118. Type-species: Papilio gundlachianus C. Felder & R. Felder, 1864, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14: 294, no. 75, by original designation.

‡”Mineroides” Bryk, 1930

Lepid. Cat. 37: 63. This name was published in synonymy without description or indication; a nomen nudum.


*294.    Parides eurimedes (Stoll, 1782)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(33): 199, pl. 386, pl. 386, figs. E ♂ D, F ♂ V ; (34): 249 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eques Troj[anus]. Eurimedes

Type Locality: “Berbices”

Types: Syntype (#665199) in BMNH; figured by Chainey (2005), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 145(3): fig. 11 ♂ D.

=    ‡arcas (Stoll, 1781)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(32): 174, pl. 378, fig. C ♀ D&V; (34): 247 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eques Trojanus Arcas

Type Locality: “Brasilien” “Brazil”

Types: Type(s) maybe in BMNH or lost.

Preoccupied by Papilio arcas Drury, 1773, Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 38, pl. 19, figs. 5, 6; 2: (index).

a.   Parides eurimedes mylotes (H. Bates, 1861)

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (2)5(8): 346 (nota), 360; cited Papilio mylotes G. Gray, 1856, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 64, no. 258.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Mylotes and [Papilio Eurimedes] Local var. Mylotes

Type Locality: “Nicaragua”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

First mentioned by G. Gray (1856), List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 64, no. 258, without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

=    caleli (Reakirt, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 138-139, no. 8.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Caleli

Type Locality: “Guatemala” “near the Copán river”

Types: Syntype in FMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 59, fig. H ♂ D.

=    tonila (Reakirt, 1863)

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 140, no. 10.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Tonila

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Holotype in FMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 59, fig. I ♀ D.

=    aristomenes (C. Felder & R. Felder, [1865])

Reise Novara (1): 38, no. 27, pl. 7, fig. a ♀ D.

Original Combination: Papilio Aristomenes

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntypes probably in BMNH.

This taxon was listed without a description or indication by C. Felder and R. Felder (1864), Verh. zool.-bot Ges. Wien 14: 286, no. 108; a nomen nudum.

‡”docimus” (G. Gray, 1856)

List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 64, no. 259.

Original Combination: Papilio docimus

Published without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

295.      Parides alopius (Godman & Salvin, 1890)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(87): 197-198, no. 12; 3(87): pl. 65, figs. 10 ♀ D, 11 ♀ V; cited Papilio alopius G. Gray, 1856, List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 58, no. 231.

Original Combination: Papilio alopius

Type Locality: “Mexico, Los Remedios in Chihuahua...Ciudad in Durango”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

This name was mentioned by G. Gray (1856), List Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 58, no. 231, and Weidemeyer (1863), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 146, each time without a description or indication; nomina nuda.

=    lopiusa (Schaus, 1911)

Entomol. News 22(10): 439.

Original Combination: Papilio lopiusa

Type Locality: “Guadalajara, Mexico” [Jalisco]

Types: Holotype in USNM; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 55, fig. M ♂ V.

This may be a hybrid taxon, as Schaus suggested in the original description.

=    ‡”tepoztecatl” R. de la Maza, 1976

Revta. Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(1): 5, 7, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Parides alopius ab. tepoztecatl

Type Locality: “pueblo Tepoztlán, en el Estado de Morelos” [Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in de la Maza collection.

 


Subtribe Battina Munroe & Ehrlich, 1960

J. Lepid. Soc. 14(3): 171, defined on 170 (as “Battiti”). Type-genus: Battus Scopoli, 1771, Intro. Hist. Nat.: 433.


Genus Battus Scopoli, 1777

Intro. Hist. Nat.: 433, no. 173. Type-species: Papilio polydamas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 11, by designation of Lindsey (1925), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 18(1): 80.

=    Laertias Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 84. Type-species: Papilio philenor Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 535, by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 64.

      =    ‡Ithobalus Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 88. Type-species: Papilio polydamas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 11, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 198, no. 579. A junior objective synonym of Battus Scopoli, 1777.

=    Battuosa Möhn, 1999

In: Bauer and Frankenbach, Schmetterlinge Erde. 5: 6. Type-species: Papilio belus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(10): 23, pl. 112, figs. A, B; (16): 148 (index), by original designation.


296.      Battus philenor (Linnaeus, 1771)

a.   Battus philenor philenor (Linnaeus, 1771)

Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 535.

Original Combination: Papilio E[ques]. T[rojanus]. Philenor

Type Locality: “America”

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 363, fig. 14 ♀ D.

=    astinous (Drury, 1773)

Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 21, pl. 11, figs. 1 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V (1770); 2: index (1773, name given).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Troj[anus] Astinous

Type Locality: “New York, Maryland and Virginia”

Types: Types probably lost.

=    nezahualcoyotl (Strecker, 1885)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 37(7/8): 174.

Original Combination: Papilio Nezahualcoyotl

Type Locality: “New Mexico, close to the Mexican border”

Types: Holotype in FMNH.

The holotype phenotypically represents what is recognized as Battus philenor acauda (Oberthür, 1879). This may be a case of individual variation or mislabeling.

=    ‡serpentariae (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 23-24, no. 20; cited Papilio philenor Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 535, and J. E. Smith (1797), in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: pl. 3.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Serpentariae

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio philenor based on the name of a foodplant in Smith and Abbot; a junior objective synonym of philenor.

=    ‡”obsoleta” (Ehrmann, 1900)

Can. Entomol. 32(11): 348.

Original Combination: Papilio philenor, Var. obsoleta ♂, nov. var.

Type Locality: “S. W. Penn’a.” [Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 9 ♂ D.

=    ‡”wasmuthii” (A. C. Weeks, 1901)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 9(2): 82-83, pl. 6 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio philenor aberr. Wasmuthii

Type Locality: “in front of his residence” [Brooklyn, Kings County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH.

b.   Battus philenor hirsuta (Skinner, 1908)

Entomol. News 19(4): 149.

Original Combination: Papilio phflenor [sic!] hirsuta

Type Locality: “Plumas County, California, 9,500 feet elevation”

Types: Syntype (#7028) in ANSP; one figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, fig. 5 ♀ D.

=    ‡”inghami” (Gunder, 1927)

Entomol. News 38(9): 268, pl. A, figs. E ♀ D, E2 ♀ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio philenor race hirsuta tr. fm. inghami

Type Locality: “Fairfax, California” [Marin County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

297.      Battus polydamas (Linnaeus, 1758)

a.   Battus polydamas polydamas (Linnaeus, 1758)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 11; cited Merian (1705), Ins. Surinam.: pl. 31, but that figure represents Papilio androgeus.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Trojanus]. Polydamas

Type Locality: “Americes”; suggested to be “Surinam” by F. Brown (1968), J. Lepid. Soc. 22(2): 82.

Types: Lectotype in UZIU, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 369.

=    ‡anguicidas (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 34, no. 55; cited Papilio polydamas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 11.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Anguicidas

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio polydamas, based on the name of a foodplant; a junior objective synonym of polydamas.

b.   Battus polydamas lucayus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 521-522, no. 51g.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. polydamas lucayus

Type Locality: “Bahamas: Nassau and New Providence”; lectotype from “Bahamas Nassau.”

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by Racheli and Pariset (1992), Fragm. Entomol. 23(suppl.): 67.

Racheli and Pariset (1992), Fragm. Entomol. 23(suppl.): 64-67, treated this taxon as a synonym of B. p. polydamas; this arrangement follows L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 60, and Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: 28.


Tribe Leptocircini W. F. Kirby, 1896

In: Allen, Nat. Libr., Lepid. 2: xviii, 307-308 (as “Leptocircinae, Leptocirciti”). Type-genus: Leptocircus Swainson, 1833, Zool. Illustr. (2)3(23): pl. 106, unnumbered text. The application of this family-group name is discussed by Smith and Vane-Wright (2001), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. 70(2): 506-508.


Genus Eurytides Hübner, [1821]

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [92]. Type-species: Eurytides iphitas Hübner, [1821], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [92], figs. 3, 4, by monotypy.

=    Bellerographium Möhn, 2002

In: Bauer and Frankenbach, Butterflies World. Part. 14: 5. Type-species: Papilio bellerophon Dalman, 1823, Analecta Entomol.: 37, no. 1, by original designation.


Subgenus Neographium Möhn, 2002

In: Bauer and Frankenbach, Butterflies World. Part. 14: 2. Type-species: Papilio philolaus Boisduval, 1836, Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 256, no. 80, by original designation. The use of the name Protographium Munroe (1961), Can. Entomol. 93(suppl. 17): 16, 18, 37, 41, 51, for this subgenus was supported by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: 30. de Jong (2003), Ins. Syst. 17(1): 147-148, determined that adding the type species of Protographium (Papilio leosthenes E. Doubleday, 1846, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [1]18(121): 372) to the New World assemblage renders the group paraphyletic.

=    Asiographium Möhn, 2002

In: Bauer and Frankenbach, Butterflies World. Part. 14: 4. Type-species: Papilio asius Fabricius, 1781, Spec. Ins. 2: 5, no. 17, by original designation.

=    Eurygraphium Möhn, 2002

In: Bauer and Frankenbach, Butterflies World. Part. 14: 4. Type-species: Papilio thyastes Drury, 1782, Ill. Nat. Hist. 3: index, pl. 35, fig. 1, by original designation.


marcellus group K. Brown, 1991

Entomol. Z. 101(21): 399.

298.      Eurytides marcellus (Cramer, 1777)

Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 4, pl. 98, figs. F ♂ D, G ♂ V; (16): 149 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Achiv[us]. Marcellus

Type Locality: “Virginien” “Virginie”

Types: Possible syntype (#665081) in BMNH.

=    ‡ajax (Linnaeus, 1758) in partim

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 26; cited Ray (1710), Hist. Ins.: 111, no. 2, and Edwards (1743), Nat. Hist. Birds 1: pl. 34.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Achivus] Ajax

Type Locality: “America boreali”

Types: Type(s) lost.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 286 suppressed this name, and placed it on the Official Index of Unavailable and Rejected Names as name no. 68. The original description of ajax applied to several different insects. Linnaeus based his description on figures from earlier authors, and in North America the species figured include Eurytides marcellus (Cramer, 1777), Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758 and P. polyxenes asterius (Stoll, 1782).

=    telamonides (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1864)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 14: 303, no. 205; cited Papilio ajax (sensu Palisot de Beauvois (1805), Ins. Afr. Amér.: 71, pl. 2, fig. 2).

Original Combination: [Papilio] Telamonides

Type Locality: “America sept. (Unio austral.)”

Types: Syntypes in NMW and BMNH.

The reference to Palisot de Beauvois qualified as an indication and made this name available (Code Articles 12.1 and 12.3).

=    ‡”walshii” (W. H. Edwards, [1872])

Butterflies N. Am. [1](9): [1-2], pl. Papilio 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Papilio] Ajax var. Walshii

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: No “types” designated.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”abbottii” (W. H. Edwards, [1872])

Butterflies N. Am. [1](9): [2], pl. Papilio 1, fig. 6 ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Papilio Ajax] var. Abbotii

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: No type(s) designated.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”floridensis” (W. Holland, 1898)

Butterfly Book: 307, pl. 44, fig. 2 ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Papilio ajax winter form] floridensis

Type Locality: “St. Johns River, in Florida”

Types: “Syntypes” in CMNH.

=    ‡”lecontei” (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)

Novit. Zool.. 13(3): 690, no. 138d’; cited Papilio marcellus (sensu Boisduval and Le Conte (1829), Hist. Lepid. Amér. sept. (1): pl. 2, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3, larva, 4 pupa).

Original Combination: P[apilio]. marcellus f. aest. Le Contei

Type Locality: “Nashville” [Davidson County, Tennessee]

Types: “Syntypes” in BMNH.

=    ‡”tockhorni” (Schultz, 1908)

Entomol. Z. 22(23): 92.

Original Combination: Papilio ajax ab. (nov.) tockhorni

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “holotype” not known.

=    ‡”broweri” (Gunder, 1927)

Entomol. News 38(9): 269.

Original Combination: Papilio marcellus tr. fm. broweri

Type Locality: “Willard, Missouri” [Greene County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”pricei” (W. D. Field, 1936)

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 18-19.

Original Combination: Iphiclides marcellus gen. aest. Le Contei tr. f. pricei

Type Locality: “Greenwood Co., Kansas”

Types: “Holotype” probably in USNM.

=    ‡”nigrosuffusa” (W. D. Field, 1936)

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 19.

Original Combination: Iphiclides marcellus gen. aest. Le Contei tr. f. nigrosuffusa

Type Locality: “Lawrence, Kansas” [Douglas County]

Types: “Holotype” probably in USNM.

=    ‡annonae (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 49, no. 108; cited Papilio marcellus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 4, pl. 98, figs. F, G; (16): 149 (index), and Papilio ajax (sensu J. E. Smith (1797), in: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: pl. 4).

Original Combination: P[apilio]. A[chivus]. Annonae

Proposed as a replacement name for ajax and marcellus based on an erroneous foodplant name in Smith and Abbot; a junior objective synonym of Papilio marcellus.

‡”cubensis” (Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912)

Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris Suppl. [1]18(2): 41.

Original Combination: [Papilio] marcellus-cubensis

Proposed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

299.      Eurytides philolaus (Boisduval, 1836)

a.   Eurytides philolaus philolaus (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 256, no. 80.

Original Combination: Papilio Philolaus

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

=    ‡ajax (Eimer, 1889)

Artb. Verwandtsch. Schmett. 1: 212.

Original Combination: Papilio Philolaus Ajax

Type Locality: “Mexiko”

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known.

Preoccupied by Papilio ajax Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 26.

=    ‡”nigrescens” (Eimer, 1889)

Artb. Verwandtsch. Schmett. 1: 213.

Original Combination: Papilio Philolaus nigrescens

Type Locality: “Honduras”

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known.

Preoccupied by Papilio nigrescens Eimer, 1889, Artb. Verwandtsch. Schmett. 1: 88.

=    ‡”niger” (Eimer, 1889)

Artb. Verwandtsch. Schmett. 1: 214, pl. 4, fig. 1 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Papilio] Philolaus niger

Type Locality: “Honduras”

Types: Location of “holotype” not known.

=    ‡”felicis” (Fruhstorfer, 1904)

Soc. Entomol. 19(4): 25.

Original Combination: Papilio philolaus ab. felicis

Type Locality: “Honduras”; syntype from “San Pedro Sula, Honduras.”

Types: “Syntype” in BMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 65, fig. I ♀ D.

=    ‡”vazquezae” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta. Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 61, fig. 1B ♂ D.

Original Combination: Eurytides philolaus forma vazquezae

Type Locality: “Zoquiapan, Pue. (colln. Inst. Biol. UNAM)...Cañon del Novillo, Tamps....Tamán, S.L.P...Fortín, Ver....Mesa de San Diego, Pue....El Salto, S.L.P.”

Types: “Syntypes” in UNAM and de la Maza collection.

 


Genus Mimoides K. Brown, 1991

Entomol. Z. 101(20): 375. Type-species: Papilio ariarathes, Esper, 1788, Ausl. Schmett. (4): 57, pl. 14, figs. 2 ♂ D, 3 ♂V, by original designation.


300.      Mimoides phaon (Boisduval, 1836)

a.   Mimoides phaon phaon (Boisduval, 1836)

Hist. nat. Ins., Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 319-320, no. 160.

Original Combination: Papilio phaon

Type Locality: “Mexique...Pérou”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

Reported for Texas by Reid (2008), News Lepid. Soc. 50(3/4): 75, 87.

=    ulopos (G. Gray, [1853])

Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 69, no. 312.

Original Combination: Papilio Ulopos

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    xenarchus (Hewitson, 1861)

Ill. exot. Butterflies 2(39): [5], pl. Papilio V, fig. 12 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Papilio Xenarchus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    eridamus (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 248-249, no. 25.

Original Combination: Papilio Eridamus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntype in FMNH.

=    metaphaon (Butler, 1874)

Trans. ent. Soc. Lond. 1874(4): 434.

Original Combination: Papilio Metaphaon

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntype(s) probably in BMNH.

=    immarginatus (Oberthür, 1879)

Étud. Entomol. 4: 97, under phaon, no. 298

Original Combination: [Papilio phaon] var. A immarginatus

Type Locality: “Mexíque”

Types: Holotype probably in BMNH.

=    pharax (Godman & Salvin, 1890)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(88): 211, no. 36, (167): 729; 3: pl. 67, fig. 8 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Papilio pharax

Type Locality: “British Honduras, Corosal”

Types: Syntype(s) in BMNH.

=    praxenus (Ehrmann, 1919)

Lepidoptera (Boston) 3(5): 36.

Original Combination: Papilio ulopus [sic!] praxenus

Type Locality: “Honduras”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

 


Tribe Papilionini Latreille, [1802]


Genus Papilio Linnaeus, 1758

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 458. Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27, by designation of Latreille (1810), Consid. gén. Anim. Crust. Arach. Ins.: 350, 440. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 703. The generic and subgeneric arrangement follows J. Miller (1987), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 186(4): 365-512.


Subgenus Papilio Linnaeus, 1758

      =    ‡Amaryssus Dalman, 1816

K. svenska VetenskAkad. Handl. 37(1): 60. Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Papilio.

      =    ‡Aernauta Berge, 1842

Schmetterlingsbuch: 19, 106-109. Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27, by designation of Hemming (1934), Entomol. 67(849): 38. A junior objective synonym of Papilio.

      =    ‡Achivus W. F. Kirby, 1896

In: Allen, Nat. Libr., Lepid. 2: 286. Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Papilio.

      =    ‡Princeps Hübner, [1806]

Tentamen: [1]. Type-species: Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27, by monotypy. The Tentamen was suppressed by I.C.Z.N. Opinion 97; Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 83.


*301.    Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27; referred to many earlier authors.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Achivus] Machaon

Type Locality: “Europae”

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 344.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology as name no. 107. Most of the Palaearctic synonymy is not listed. The evidence that machaon and bairdii are conspecific is compelling to many authors; see Scott (1986), Butterflies N. Am.: 164-170, no. 5; Sperling (1987), Quaest. Entomol. 23(2): 198-315, (1993), Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 165: 233-242, and Sperling and Harrison (1994), Evolution 48(2): 408-422.

=    reginae Retzius, 1783

Gen. Spec. Ins.: 30, no. 5; cited de Geer (1771), Mém. Hist. Ins. 2: 185, pl. 1, figs. 2, 3, and Papilio machaon Linnaeus (1758), Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Reginae

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s), if they existed, are probably lost.

=    ‡umbellatarum Fabricius, 1938

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 46-47, no. 98; cited Papilio machaon Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 462, no. 27.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. A[chivus]. Umbellatarum

Proposed as a replacement name for machaon based upon a foodplant; a junior objective synonym of machaon.

a.   Papilio machaon aliaska Scudder, 1869

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 407.

Original Combination: Papilio Aliaska

Type Locality: “most of them at Nulato...others...at a short distance below the Ramparts, and also just above them” “cañons, commencing two hundred miles below Fort Yukon” [Alaska]

Types: Syntype (#2144) in MCZ.

Eitschberger (1993), Atalanta (Münnerstadt) 24(1/2): 30, figs. 27, 34-38, 46, treated this as a species-level taxon, with hudsonianus and pikei as subspecies.

=    joannisi Verity, [1907]

Rhop. palae. (1): 12 [31 Dec 1908]; (7/8): pl. 10, fig. 16 ♂ D (not fig. 17) [28 Feb 1907]; (30-36): ind. syst.: xiv [31 Oct 1911]

Original Combination: P[apilio] machaon var. joannisi

Type Locality: “l’Alaska” implied from the text, “Nulato, Alaska” from the legend to plate 10.

Types: Syntype in MZS.

Considered available from the date and original combination on the legend to plate 10.

=    petersii A. Clark, 1932

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 81(2934): 8-9, pl. 4, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype), pl. 5, fig. 3 ♂ D, pl. 6, fig. 3 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio machaon petersii

Type Locality: “Koyukuk River, central Alaska (lat. 67o-69o N., long. 151o W)”

Types: Holotype (#34479) in USNM.

b.   Papilio machaon hudsonianus A. Clark, 1932

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 81(2934): 6-8, pl. 3, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V (holotype).

Original Combination: Papilio machaon hudsonianus

Type Locality: “Kettle Rapids, Nelson River, Manitoba, on the Hudson Bay Railway”

Types: Holotype (#34478) in USNM.

=    avinoffi F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1937

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 36(1): 11-12.

Original Combination: Papilio machaon race Avinoffi

Type Locality: “Whirlpool River, Riding Mts., Manitoba”

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    kahli F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1937

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 36(1): 12-13.

Original Combination: Papilio nitra form Kahli

Type Locality: “Riding Mts., Manitoba”

Types: Holotype stated to be in CMNH.

The taxa avinoffi and kahli apparently derived from hybridization and long term introgression between P. polyxenes asterius and P. machaon hudsonianus. They are placed under the senior name in this synonymy. For discussion and explanation of the complex relationships between members of the Papilio machaon complex, see Sperling (1987), Quaest. Entomol. 23(2): 198-315, (1993), Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 165: 233-242, and Sperling and Harrison (1994), Evolution 48(2): 408-422.

‡”kwakwapooshesi” Seyer, 1977

Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Basel (nf)27(4): 113.

Original Combination: Papilio machaon kwakwapooshesi (Chermock in litt.)

This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”prestoni” Seyer, 1977

Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Basel (nf)27(4): 113.

Original Combination: Papilio machaon prestoni (Chermock in litt.)

This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”frechini” Seyer, 1977

Mitt. Entomol. Ges. Basel (nf)27(4): 113.

Original Combination: Papilio machaon frechini (Chermock in litt.)

This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”comstocki” Scott & Troubridge, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 1.

Original Combination: Papilio polyxenes kahli form comstocki

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

‡”comstocki” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 167, no. 5.

Original Combination: [Papilio machaon] hudsonianus form comstocki

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

c.   Papilio machaon pikei Sperling, 1987

Quaest. Entomol. 23(2): 219-221, pl. 1, figs. e ♂ D&V, f ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio machaon pikei

Type Locality: “Canada, Alberta, Dunvegan (s. Fairview)”

Types: Holotype in CNC.

d.   Papilio machaon oregonia W. H. Edwards, 1876

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 208; figured by W. H. Edwards (1880), Butterflies N. Am. 2(9): pl. Papilio 7, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Hippocrates Var. Oregonia

Type Locality: “Columbia River”; defined as “the Dalles, Columbia River” by W. H. Edwards (1880), Butterflies N. Am. 2(9): [29-31]; neotype from “Hepner [sic!], Oregon, some miles upstream.” [Heppner, Morrow County]

Types: Neotype (#36915) in AMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 24, fig. ♀ D&V.

Species-genus gender conformation is oregonius.

e.   Papilio machaon dodi McDunnough, 1939

Can. Entomol. 71(10): 216-217, fig. ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: Papilio machaon var. dodi

Type Locality: “Red Deer River, Alta. (50 miles N. E. of Gleichen)”; defined as “Dorothy, Alberta” by Kondla (1981), Blue Jay 39(3): 144.

Types: Holotype (#4913) in CNC.

f.    Papilio machaon bairdii W. H. Edwards, 1866

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(2): 200, no. 1; figured by W. H. Edwards (1880), Butterflies N. Am. 2(9): pl. Papilio 10, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Bairdii

Type Locality: “Arizona”; defined as “vicinity of Fort Whipple, near Prescott, Arizona” by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 14. [Yavapai County]

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 15, fig. 4 ♂ D&V.

=    utahensis Strecker, [1878]

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (14): 128.

Original Combination: Papilio (Asterius) var. Utahensis

Type Locality: “Utah”

Types: Syntypes in FMNH.

=    hollandii W. H. Edwards, 1892

Can. Entomol. 24(3): 50, no. 4.

Original Combination: Papilio Hollandii

Type Locality: “West Colorado”; defined as “Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, Colorado” by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 17; lectotype from “Roaring Forks, Colo.”

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 18, fig. 5 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 40, fig. 3 ♂ D.

=    brucei W. H. Edwards, 1895

Can. Entomol. 27(9): 239.

Original Combination: Papilio Brucei

Type Locality: “Glenwood Springs, Colorado” [Garfield County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. M. Brown, 1975, Trans. amer ent. Soc. 101(1): 21, fig. 6 ♂ D&V; paralectotype figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 40, fig. 4 ♀ [not ♂] D.

This name was mentioned without a description or indication by W. H. Edwards (1893), Can. Entomol. 25(10): 253; a nomen nudum.

‡”ampliata” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 2.

Original Combination: Papilio bairdii form ampliata

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

‡”comstocki” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 2.

Original Combination: Papilio bairdii form comstocki

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

302.      Papilio brevicauda Saunders, 1868

a.   Papilio brevicauda brevicauda Saunders, 1868

In: Packard, Guide Study Ins.: 245-246 (nota).

Original Combination: Papilio Brevicauda

Type Locality: “St. John’s, Newfoundland” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Holotype in CNC.

=    anticostiensis Strecker, 1873

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (2): 10-11, pl. 2, fig. 2 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio Anticostiensis

Type Locality: “Fox Bay, Anticosti Island; Labrador” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Syntypes in FMNH.

b.   Papilio brevicauda gaspeensis McDunnough, 1934

Can. Entomol. 66(4): 84.

Original Combination: [Papilio brevicauda] gaspeensis

Type Locality: “Mt. Lyall, Gaspe Co., Que.” [Quebec]

Types: Holotype (#3735) in CNC.

c.   Papilio brevicauda bretonensis McDunnough, 1939

Can. Entomol. 71(7): 157, pl. 22 ♂ D (holotype), ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Papilio brevicauda] [race] bretonensis

Type Locality: “Baddeck, N. S.” [Nova Scotia]

Types: Holotype (#4549) in CNC.

303.      Papilio joanae J. Heitzman, 1973

J. Res. Lepid. 12(1): 3, 4, 7, figs. 1(A) ♂ D, (B) ♂ V (holotype); (C) ♀ D, (D) ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio joanae

Type Locality: “Warsaw, Benton County, Missouri, elevation 800-880 feet, in forest area”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

As noted by Sperling and Harrison (1994), Evolution 48(2): 408-422, this taxon is closely related to Papilio machaon.

*304.    Papilio polyxenes Fabricius, 1775

Syst. Entomol.: 444-445, no. 10.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques]. T[rojanus]. Polyxenes

Type Locality: “America”; further defined as “Americae meridionali insulis” by Fabricius (1781), Spec. Ins. 2: 4, no. 13; defined as “Cuba” by Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 547.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

a.   Papilio polyxenes asterius (Stoll, 1782)

Uitl. Kapellen 4(33): 194-196, pl. 385, figs. C ♂ D, D ♂ V; 4(34): 248 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eq[ues]. Achiv[us]. Asterius

Type Locality: “Noord-Amerika en wordt in Niewjork, Virginien en Carolina” “l’Amerique Septentrionale, dans la Nouvelle York, en Virginie & dans la Caroline”

Types: Possible syntype in RMNH.

This is one of the species implied in Linnaeus' original description of Papilio ajax (see Eurytides marcellus), based on Petiver (1709), Gazophylacium: pl. 6, fig. 12.

=    ampliata Ménétriés, 1857

Enum. corp. anim. (2): 99-100, under no. 60.

Original Combination: [Papilio Asterias] var. Ampliata

Type Locality: “l’Amerique septentrionale”; suggested to be “Mexico” by Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 545.

Types: Type(s) probably in ZIN.

=    calverleyi Grote, 1864

Proc. Ent. Soc . Philad. 2(4): 441-442, pl. 10.

Original Combination: Papilio Calverleyi

Type Locality: “New York State...immediate neighborhood of the village of New Lots, Queen's County, Long Island”

Types: Holotype probably in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 41, fig. 6 ♀ D.

=    asterioides Reakirt, [1867]

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(4): 331-332, no. 27.

Original Combination: Papilio asterioides

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype (#7011) in ANSP.

=    curvifascia Skinner, 1902

Entomol. News 13(6): 183.

Original Combination: Papilio polyxenes var. curvifascia

Type Locality: “Rincon, New Mexico” [Dona Ana County]

Types: Syntype (#7026) in CMNH; a “paratype” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 70, fig. 12 ♂ D.

=    gracehus Fabricius, 1938

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 23, no. 18.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Gracehus

Type Locality: “Philadelphia” [Philadlephia County, Pennsylvania]

Types: Location of type not known.

This name is probably a printer’s error for gracchus.

=    ‡”viridis” Cockerell, 1889

Entomol. 22(314): 199.

Original Combination: Papilio asterias var. pupae viridis

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: No “type” designated (a variety of the pupa).

=    ‡”alunata” Skinner & E. Aaron, 1889

Can. Entomol. 21(7): 127-128.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. asterias [sic!], var. ♀ alunata

Type Locality: “Philadelphia, Pa.” implied from the title of the paper; “syntype” labeled from “Fairmont Park, Phila.” [Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Syntype” (#7012) in ANSP.

=    ‡”mediocauda” Eimer, 1895

Artb. Verwandtsch. Schmett. 2: 118, 138.

Original Combination: Papilio mediocauda

Type Locality: “Canada”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

This taxon was given a binomial combination, but the appended “♂” indicates an infrasubspecific name. It was listed as Papilio Asterias (P[apilio]. mediocanda) on page 118; an incorrect original spelling. This misspelling occurred in the list of figures given on the plates, and is a printers error judging from the derivation of the name. This taxon might represent P. brevicauda or P. polyxenes asterius.

=    ‡”semialba” Ehrmann, 1900

Can. Entomol. 32(11): 348.

Original Combination: Papilio asterias, Var. semi-alba ♂, nov. var.

Type Locality: “S. W. Penn’a.” [Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 1 ♂ D.

=    ‡”masculina” Reiff, 1911

Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 7(7/8): 235.

Original Combination: [Papilio polyxenes] ab. masculina

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” in MCZ (ex Bussey Institute).

=    ‡”ehrmanni” Ehrmann, 1925

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 20(2): 84.

Original Combination: Papilio ehrmanni n. ab. (of asterius)

Type Locality: “Hammet Place, Allegheny Co., Pa.” [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 2 ♂ D.

I treat this name as if proposed in the form “Papilio asterius ab. ehrmanni.”

=    ‡”gertrudis” Kruck, 1931

Entomol. Rdsch. 48(22): 236, fig. 2 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. asterius ab. gertrudis ab. nov.

Type Locality: “Mexiko-Süd, Dep. Oaxaca”

Types: “Holotype” in Kruck collection.

=    ‡”forsythae” Wood, 1937

Entomol. News 48(10): 273, pl. 4, ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio ajax forsythae new aberration

Type Locality: “Florida City, Florida” [Miami-Dade County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”pseudoamericus” F. Brown, [1943]

Entomol. News 53(10): 291.

Original Combination: [Papilio ajax race] pseudoamericus

Type Locality: “Troy, Illinois” [Madison County]

Types: “Holotype” in Meiners collection, St. Louis, Missouri.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”subamplicata” Dufrane, 1946

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 106.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. polyxenes asterius f. subamplicata

Type Locality: “Temple, Pa. (E. U. A.)” [Berks County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” probably in IRSN.

b.   Papilio polyxenes coloro W. G. Wright, 1905

Butterflies W. Coast: 86, no. 25, pl. 3, fig. 25 ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: [Papilio Zelicaon var.] Coloro; Papilio Coloro n. v.

Type Locality: “Colorado Desert of California” “Colorado Desert of southeastern California”; defined as “Whitewater Hill, Coachella Valley, Colorado Desert, Riverside Co.” by Ferris and J. Emmel (1982), Bull. Allyn Mus. (76): 2.

Types: Holotype (#4281) in CAS; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 92, fig. W ♂ D&V.

=    rudkini J. A. Comstock, 1935

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 34(2): 143-144.

Original Combination: Papilio bairdii form rudkini

Type Locality: “Ibanpah [sic!] Mts., Calif.” [Ivanpah Mountains, San Bernardino County, California]

Types: “Holotype” in LACM.

=    ‡”clarki” F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1937

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 36(1): 8-9.

Original Combination: Papilio rudkini form Clarki

Type Locality: “Ibanpah [sic!] Mts., Calif.” [Ivanpah Mountains, San Bernardino County, California]

Types: “Holotype” in LACM.

=    ‡”comstocki” F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1937

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 36(1): 10.

Original Combination: Papilio rudkini form comstocki

Type Locality: “Clark Mt., Mojave Desert, Calif.” [San Bernardino County]

Types: “Holotype” in LACM.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

305.      Papilio zelicaon Lucas, 1852

Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3): 136-138.

Original Combination: Papilio Zelicaon

Type Locality: “Californie”; defined as “San Francisco, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 78. [San Francisco County]

Types: Lectotype in MNHP, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 78, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

=    zolicaon Boisduval, 1852

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 281-2, no. 3.

Original Combination: Papilio zolicaon

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of paper.

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

=    californica Ménétriés, 1855

Enum. corp. anim. (1): 69-70, under no. 58; cited Papilio zolicaon Boisduval, 1852, Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 281-2, no. 3.

Original Combination: P[apilio] Machaon var. Californica

Type Locality: “Californie”

Types: Type(s) probably in ZIN.

=    nitra W. H. Edwards, [1884]

Papilio 3(7-10): 158, 162, no. 3; figured by W. H. Edwards (1888), Butterflies N. Am. 3(6): pl. Papilio 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Nitra

Type Locality: “some parts of Montana, and probably in Brit. Am.”; “Judith Mtns., Montana” implied from the title of the paper. The lectotype is from “Mt. Judith, Montana.” [Fergus County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 26, fig. 8 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 41, fig. 2 ♂ D.

=    gothica C. Remington, 1968

Postilla 119: 2-6, figs. 1 ♂ D, 3 ♂ V (holotype), 2 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 6 ♂ D, 7 ♀ D, 8 ♂ D, 9 ♀ D, 14 ♂ V, 15 ♀ V, 16 ♂ V, 17 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio gothica

Type Locality: “Gothic, 9500', Gunnison Co., Colorado”

Types: Holotype in PMNH.

=    ‡”impunctata” Fischer, 1908

Soc. Entomol. 23(17): 129.

Original Combination: Papilio zolicaon ab. impunctata

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”melanotaenia” Fischer, 1908

Soc. Entomol. 23(17): 129.

Original Combination: Papilio zolicaon ab. melanotaenia

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”formosa” Fischer, 1908

Soc. Entomol. 23(17): 129-130.

Original Combination: Papilio zolicaon ab. formosa

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”mcdunnoughi” Gunder, 1928

Can. Entomol. 60(7): 162, pl. A, figs. 1 ♂ D, 1a ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio zelicaon tr. f. mcdunnoughi

Type Locality: “Waterton lakes, Alta., Can.” [Alberta]

Types: “Holotype” in CNC.

This was spelled “macdunnoughi” by dos Passos (1964), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 1: 35, representing an unjustified emendation.

‡”comstocki” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 1-2.

Original Combination: Papilio zelicaon form comstocki

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

‡”ampliatanitra” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 1-2.

Original Combination: Papilio zelicaon form ampliatanitra

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

306.      Papilio indra Reakirt, 1866

a.   Papilio indra shastensis J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (55): 701-702, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra shastensis

Type Locality: “California: Shasta County; McCloud Bridge Campground, Shasta Lake”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

b.   Papilio indra indra Reakirt, 1866

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(1): 123-124.

Original Combination: Papilio Indra

Type Locality: “Pike's Peak, Colorado Terr.” [El Paso-Teller counties] This species is not currently known from the Pikes Peak area; the holotype probably came from the area west of Golden, Jefferson County, most likely Lookout Mountain or Mount Zion (A. Warren pers. comm. 2006).

Types: Holotype (#7010) in ANSP.

c.   Papilio indra phyllisae J. Emmel, 1982

J. Lepid. Soc. 35(4): 297-298, figs. 3 ♂ D&V (holotype), 4 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra phyllisae

Type Locality: “Butterbredt Peak and ridge running to the southwest, 4900'-5900', Kern Co., California, S. 30 & S. 31, T. 29 S., R. 36 E”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

d.   Papilio indra pergamus Hy. Edwards, 1874

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]5(27): 423-424.

Original Combination: Papilio Pergamus

Type Locality: “near Santa Barbara”; corrected to “Devil Canyon, about 11 km NNW of San Bernardino, San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino County, California” by S. Miller (1984), J. Res. Lepid. 23(2): 175.

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

e.   Papilio indra fordi J. A. Comstock & Martin, 1956

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 54(3): 144-145, pl. 40, figs. 3 ♂ D (holotype), 4 ♀ D; pl. 41, figs. 3 ♂ V (holotype), 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra fordi

Type Locality: “Granite Mountains, a few miles north and east of Apple Valley, San Bernardino County, California”

Types: Holotype in LACM; figured by Howe (1975), Butterflies N. Am.: pl. 67, fig. 5 ♂ D.

f.    Papilio indra parvindra J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Griffin, 2008

J. Res. Lepid. 40: 118-119.

Original Combination: Papilio indra parvindra

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio indra pygmaeus J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Griffin, 1998, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡pygmaeus J. Emmel, T. Emmel & Griffin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (57): 712, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra pygmaeus

Type Locality: “California: San Bernardino County; eastern Mojave Desert; Dead Mts. NNW of Needles; peak of Mt. Manchester, 3560-3600' el., SW 1/4 of S.18, T.11N., R.22E”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

This name is preoccupied by Papilio menestheus pygmaeus Aurivillius, 1898, K. svenska. VetenskAkad. Handl., ny följd 31: 478.

g.   Papilio indra martini J. Emmel & T. Emmel, 1966

Entomol. News 77(3): 57-60, fig. 1 upper left ♂ D (holotype), upper right ♀ D, lower left ♂ V (holotype), lower right ♀ V, fig. 2 left column, bottom ♀ D, right column ♀ D.

Original Combination: Papilio indra martini

Type Locality: “Gilroy Canyon, elevation 5,600 feet, Providence Mountains, San Bernardino County, California”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

h.   Papilio indra panamintensis J. Emmel, 1982

J. Lepid. Soc. 35(4): 300-301, figs. 5 ♂ D&V (holotype), 6 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra panamintenis

Type Locality: “Thorndike Campground, Wildrose Canyon, 7400', Panamint Range, Inyo Co., California, S. 35, T. 19 S., R. 45 E”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

i.    Papilio indra nevadensis T. Emmel & J. Emmel, 1971

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 47(3): 220-222, fig. 1 ♂ D&V, ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra nevadensis

Type Locality: “Jett Canyon, 6,600 feet elevation, east side; Toiyabe Range, Nye County, Nevada”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

j.    Papilio indra calcicola J. Emmel & Griffin, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (56): 707-708, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio indra calcicola

Type Locality: “Nevada: Clark County; Muddy Mountains; canyon east of Buffington Pockets; 5.9 air miles north and 0.3-0.4 air miles east of 5363' Muddy Peak, 3,400-3,800' elevation; T18S R65E”

Types: Holotype in LACM.

k.   Papilio indra minori Cross, 1937

Proc. Colo. Mus. Nat. Hist. 16(1): 4-5, fig. ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: Papilio indra minori

Type Locality: “'Black Ridge Breaks'...Mesa County” [Colorado]

Types: Holotype in USNM.

l.    Papilio indra kaibabensis Bauer, 1955

Lepid. News 9(2/3): 49-50, figs. 3rd row ♀ D, ♂ D (holotype), 4th row ♀ V, ♂ V (holotype).

Original Combination: Papilio indra kaibabensis

Type Locality: “Bright Angel Point, Grand Canyon, Coconino Co., Ariz.” [Arizona]

Types: Holotype may be in the Grand Canyon National Park Naturalist Workshop collection, or in USNM.

 


Subgenus Sinoprinceps Hancock, 1983

Smithersia 2: 35. Type-species: Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 751, no. 34; corrigenda, by original designation.


307.      Papilio xuthus Linnaeus, 1767 (emended)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 751, no. 34; corrigenda.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques]. A[chivus]. Xanthus

Type Locality: “India orientalis”; suggested to be “Canton” by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 392. [China]

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 392, fig. 20 ♂ D.

This name was emended to xuthus in the index; xanthus is an incorrect original spelling. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 286 placed xuthus on the Official List of Names Available in Zoology as name no. 117 and xanthus on the Official List of Rejected and Unavailable Names in Zoology as name no. 69. Most of the synonymy is not listed.

=    xuthulus Bremer, 1861

Bull. Acad. Sci. St. Pétersbourg (3)3: cols. 463-464, no. 1; figured by Bremer (1864), Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg (ser. 7)8(1): pl. 1, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio xuthulus

Type Locality: “Bureja-Gebirge” [Republic of Buryatia, Russia]

Types: Type(s) in ZIN.

=    xuthulinus Murray, 1874

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 11(126): 166.

Original Combination: Papilio Xuthulinus

Type Locality: “immediate neighborhood of Yokohama” [Japan]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in BMNH.

 


Subgenus Heraclides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 83-84. Type-species: Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 536, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 187, no. 517. Zakharov et al. (2004), Syst. Biol. 53(2):193-215, suggested that this group (with the present synonymy) might be considered a genus-level taxon.

=    Calaides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 86. Type-species: Papilio androgeus Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 24-25, pl. 16, figs. C, D; (8): 151 (index), by designation of Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 358.

=    Priamides Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 87. Type-species: Priamides hipponous Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 87, no. 896 (= Papilio anchisiades Esper, 1788, Ausl. Schmett. (4): 53, no. 22, pl. 13, figs. 1, 2; junior objective synonym), by designation of Hemming (1935), Entomol. 68(861): 39.

=    Troilides Hübner, [1825]

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [111]. Type-species: Troilides tros Hübner, [1825], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [111], figs. 1, 2 (= Papilio polybius Swainson, 1822, Zool. Illustr. (1)2(18): pl. 94, unnumbered text; synonym: a subspecies of Papilio torquatus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(14): pl. 177, figs. A, B; (16) 151 (index)), by monotypy.

      =    ‡Thoas Swainson, 1833

Zool. Illustr. (2)3(26): pl. 121, unnumbered text. Type-species: Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 536, by tautonymy; a junior objective synonym of Heraclides Hübner, [1819].


*308.    Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771

Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 536; cited Drury (1770), Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: pl. 22, figs. 1, 2, Daubenton [1765], Miscellanea: pl. 69, and Seba (1764), Locuplet. Rerum Nat. Thes. 4: pl. 38, figs. 6 ♂ D, 7 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio E[ques]. A[chivus]. Thoas

Type Locality: “Guadelupa, Surinamo”

Types: Type(s) apparently lost, as noted by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 386.

=    archimedes (Fabricius, 1938)

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 46, no. 97.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Archimedes

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Holotype in ‘Museum Gallicum.’

a.   Papilio thoas autocles Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 557-558, no. 66c; cited Papilio thoas (sensu Godman & Salvin (1890), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 3(89): pl. 69, fig. 4, and Maynard (1891), Man. N. Am. Butterflies: fig. 10b).

Original Combination: P[apilio]. thoas autocles

Type Locality: “Guerrero” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    ‡”nigrocaudata” Vázquez, 1948

An. Instit. Biol., Univ. Nac. Auton. Méx. (Zool.) 19(1): 234-235.

Original Combination: Papilio thoas autocles f[orma]. nigro-caudata

Type Locality: “Mapastepec, Chis...Tierra Blanca, Ver.” [Mexico]

Types: “Syntypes” in UNAM and MGCL.

=    ‡”ochracea” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta. Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 63.

Original Combination: Papilio thoas autocles forma ochracea

Type Locality: “Yaxchilan, Chis.” [Chiapas, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in UNAM.

=    ‡”nigrimarginata” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta. Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 63.

Original Combination: Papilio thoas autocles ab. nigrimarginata

Type Locality: “Tajín, Ver.” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in de la Maza collection.

309.      Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777

Uitl. Kapellen 2(14): 106-107, pl. 165, figs. A ♀ D&V, pl. 166, fig. B ♂ D; (16): 148 (index); cited Daubenton [1765], Miscellanea: pl. 69.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Achiv[us]. Cresphontes

Type Locality: “Noord-Amerika, te Nieuwjork en op het Eiland Jamaika...Zuid-Carolina” “l’Amerique Septentrionale, à la nouvelle-York & dans l’Isle de la Jamaïque...Caroline Méridionale”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    ‡oxilus (Hübner, [1819])

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 83, no. 850; cited Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(14): pls. 166 A & 165 B: (16): 148 (index).

Original Combination: Heraclides Oxilus

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, erroneously thought preoccupied, with the same data; a junior objective synonym of cresphontes.

=    pennsylvanicus F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1945

Proc. Penn. Acad. Sci. 19: 38-39.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes pennsylvanicus

Type Locality: “State College, Pa.” [Centre County, Penssylvania]

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    ‡”lurida” Schultz, 1908

Entomol. Z. 22(23): 92.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes ab. (nov.) lurida

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”luxuriosa” Reiff, 1911

Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 7(5/6): 159.

Original Combination: [Papilio thoas cresphontes] ab. luxuriosa

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” in MCZ.

=    ‡”intacta” Strand, 1918

Soc. Entomol. 33(12): 47.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes ab. intacta

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known, possibly in DEI.

=    ‡”maxwelli” Franck, 1919

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 14(1): 3, fig. 2 (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes var. maxwelli

Type Locality: Not originally stated; said to be “St. Petersburg, Fla.” by Franck (1919), Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 14(3): 101. [Pinellas County, Florida]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM, according to Calhoun (1992), J. Lepid. Soc. 46(3): 238.

=    ‡”forsythae” Gunder, 1933

Can. Entomol. 65(8): 171.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes tr. f. forsythae

Type Locality: “Florida City, Florida” [Miami-Dade County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”melanurus” Hoffmann, 1940

An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Méx. 11(2): 633-634.

Original Combination: Papilio cresphontes forma melanurus

Type Locality: “Chilpancingo e Iguala” [Guerrero, Mexico]

Types: “Syntypes” in AMNH.

*310.    Papilio astyalus Godart, 1819

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (20), 62, no. 102.

Original Combination: Papilio Astyalus

Type Locality: “Brésil”

Types: Holotype should be in MNHP.

=    lycophron (Hübner, [1823])

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [100], figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Heraclides Lycophron

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    mentor Dalman, 1823

Analecta Entomol.: 37-38, no. 2.

Original Combination: Papilio Mentor

Type Locality: “Brasilia?”

Types: Holotype possibly in NHRS.

=    ‡pirithous Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 358-359, no. 201.

Original Combination: Papilio Pirithous

Type Locality: “Cuba...Missions de l’Uraguay”; defined as “Uruguay” by Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 573.

Types: Type(s) probably in BMNH.

Preoccupied by Papilio pirithous Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 790, no. 235.

=    ‡oebalus Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 360-361, no. 204.

Original Combination: Papilio Œbalus

Type Locality: “l’Amerique du Sud”

Types: Type(s) probably in BMNH.

Preoccupied by Papilio oebalus Hofmannsegg, 1804, Mag. f. Insektenk. (Illiger) 3: 185.

=    ‡”delunensis” Niepelt, 1916

In: Strand, Lepid. Niepelt. 2: 21, pl. 13, fig. 10.

Original Combination: Papilio lycophron ab. delunensis

Type Locality: “Brazil”

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known, possibly DEI.

=    ‡”paulina” Krüger, 1934

Entomol. Rdsch. 51(14): 152.

Original Combination: Papilio lycophron ♀ f. paulina

Type Locality: “São Paulo...Minas Geraës” [Brazil]

Types: “Holotype” possibly in ZMUH.

=    ‡”thersitoides” Rousseau-Decelle, 1943

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 48(8): 111.

Original Combination: Papilio lycophron lycophron f. ind. ♂ thersitoides

Type Locality: “Bella Vista, Parana, Argentinien”

Types: “Holotype” in MNHP.

=    ‡”suffusa” Rousseau-Decelle, 1943

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 48(8): 111.

Original Combination: Papilio lycophronpirothous f. ind. ♀ suffusa

Type Locality: “Paraguay”

Types: “Holotype” in MNHP.

‡”drepanon” G. Gray, 1856

List Spec. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. (1): 53, no. 202.

Original Combination: Papilio Drepanon

This name was listed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

a.   Papilio astyalus pallas G. Gray, [1853]

Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 39, no. 193, pl. 6, fig. 1 ♂ D&V; under Papilio oebalus.

Original Combination: Papilio Pallas

Type Locality: “Mexico”; stated to be “Oajaca” by E. Doubleday [1845], List Spec. Lepid. Brit. Mus. 1: 17. [Oaxaca]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

This name was listed without a description or indication by E. Doubleday [1845], List Spec. Lepid. Brit. Mus. 1: 17, and (1846), in: Gen. diurn. Lepid.(1)(2): 17, no. 168; both are nomina nuda.

=    hozaus Ehrmann, 1921

Lepidoptera 5(1): 3.

Original Combination: Papilio hozaus

Type Locality: “Costa Rica”

Types: Type(s) probably in CMNH.

b.   Papilio astyalus bajaensis J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992

Butterflies Baja Calif.: 54.

Original Combination: Papilio astyalus bajaensis

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio (Heraclides) astyalus occidentalis J. Brown and Faulkner, 1984, preoccupied, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡occidentalis J. Brown & Faulkner, 1984

Bull. Allyn Mus. (83): 5-6, figs. 3a ♂ D, 3b ♂ V, 3c ♀ D.

Original Combination: Papilio (Heraclides) astyalus occcidentalis

Type Locality: “San Antonio microwave tower, Baja California Sur, Mexico”

Types: Holotype in SDMC.

Preoccupied by Papilio blumei occidentalis Martin, 1915, Dtsche. Entomol. Z. “Iris” 291): 75.

311.      Papilio ornythion Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 354, no. 196.

Original Combination: Papilio Ornythion

Type Locality: “Yukatan” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype probably in BMNH.

*312.    Papilio aristodemus Esper, 1794

Magaz. Neuest. Ausl. Ins. 1: 8, pl. papill. exot. 2, fig. 2 ♂ D&V; figured by Esper (1801), Ausl. Schmett. (16): 240, pl. 59, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Achiv[us]. Aristodemus

Type Locality: “Port-au-Prince” [Haiti]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    cresphontinus Martyn, 1797

Psyche: 8, pl. 3, fig. 8; pl. 4, fig. 10.

Original Combination: Papilio Cresphontinus

Type Locality: “Port-au-Prince” [Haiti]

Types: Location of “type(s)” not known.

=    ‡daphnis G. Gray, [1853]

Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus. 1: 39, no. 198.

Original Combination: Papilio Daphnis

Type Locality: “Antilles?”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Preoccupied by Papilio daphnis [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775, Ankündung eines syst. Werkes Schmett. Wiener Gegend: 182, no. 2.

a.   Papilio aristodemus ponceanus Schaus, 1911

Entomol. News 22(10): 438-439.

Original Combination: Papilio ponceanus

Type Locality: “Miami, Florida” [Miami-Dade County]

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

=    driophilus Clench, 1979

J. Lepid. Soc. 32(4): 273-274.

Original Combination: Papilio aristodemus driophilus

Type Locality: “Cutlass Bay, near Dolphin Head, southern Cat Island, Bahamas”

Types: Holotype (#680) in CMNH.

Simon and L. Miller (1986), Bull. Allyn Mus. (105): 13, determined this synonymy.

*313.    Papilio andraemon (Hübner, [1823])

a.   Papilio andraemon andraemon (Hübner, [1823])

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pls. [98], figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, [99], figs. 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Heraclides Andraemon

Type Locality: Not stated; defined as “Cuba” by Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 571.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

Documented from Florida by Cannon (2006), Am. Butterflies 14(3/4): 4-15.

=    hernandezi (R. Torre, 1936)

Mems. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat. 10(5): 333-334, pl. 24, fig. 2 ♂ D&V.

Original Combination: Papilio (Heraclides) andraemon hernandezi

Type Locality: “Ampliación de Almendares, Marianao, Habana, Cuba”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in IZAC.

b.   Papilio andraemon bonhotei Sharpe, 1900

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1900(2): 201, no. 19, pl. 19, figs. 1 ♂ D, 1a ♂ V, 1b ♀ D, 1c ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio bonhotei

Type Locality: “Nassau” [Bahamas]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

*314.    Papilio androgeus Cramer, 1775

Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 24-25, pl. 16, figs. C ♂ D, D ♂ V; (8): 151 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eq[ues]. Trojan[us]. Androgeus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Surinam”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    orestes Meerburgh, [1777]

Afbeeld. Gewass.: [15] D2, [16] D2 verso, pls. 26 ♂ D, 30 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio (Orestes)

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    polycaon Cramer, 1779

Uitl. Kapellen 3(17): 17-18, pl. 203, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V ; (24): 176 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eq[ues]. Achiv[us]. Polycaon

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    piranthus Cramer, 1779

Uitl. Kapellen 3(17): 18-19, pl. 204, figs. A ♀ D, B ♀ V: (24): 176 (index); cited Merian (1705), Ins. Surinam.: pl. 31, Seba (1765), Locuplet. Rerum. Nat. Thes. 4: pl. 38, figs. 13, 14, and Kleemann (1765), Beytr. Nat. Ins. 1: pl. 8, figs. 1, 2.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eq[ues]. Achiv[us]. Piranthus

Type Locality: “Surinamen” “Suriname”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    acanthus Gmelin, [1790]

Syst. Nat. (ed. 13) 1(5): 2231, no. 290B, under Papilio androgeus; cited Papilio piranthus Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(17): 18-19, pl. 204, figs. A, B; (24): 176 (index).

Original Combination: Papilio Acanthus

Type Locality: “Surinamo”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

=    bagous Fruhstorfer, 1910

In: Koch-Grünberg, Zwei Jahre Indianern 2: 357-358, no. 54.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Androgeus bagous

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; “oberen Rio Negro” implied from the introduction (pp. 350-351), “nordwest-Brasilien” from the title of the work.

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in ZMHB or BMNH.

=    ‡”mira” Fassl, 1922

Entomol. Rdsch. 39(1): 1.

Original Combination: Papilio androgeus ♀ form. mira

Type Locality: “Manicoré” [Amazonas, Brazil]

Types: “Holotype” in NHMB.

=    ‡”feyeri” Niepelt, 1924

Int. Entomol. Z. 18(11): 49.

Original Combination: Papilio androgeos ♀ forma feyeri

Type Locality: “Ecuador”

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 87, fig. I ♀ D.

=    ‡”fassli” Knop, 1925

Entomol. Z. 39(11): 43.

Original Combination: Papilio Androgeus var. Fassli

Type Locality: “Manicoré Brasilien” [Amazonas, Brazil]

Types: “Holotype” in NHMB.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”decellei” Krüger, 1934

Entomol. Rdsch. 51(14): 151.

Original Combination: Papilio androgeusandrogeus ab. Decellei

Type Locality: “São Paulo de Olivenca” [Amazonas, Brazil]

Types: “Holotype” possibly in ZMUH.

=    ‡hibisci Fabricius, 1938

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 34, no. 57; cited Papilio androgeus Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 24-25, pl. 16, figs. C ♂ D, D ♂ V’ (8): 151 (index).

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Hibisci

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio androgeus, based on a supposed foodplant name; a junior objective synonym of androgeus.

=    ‡altheae Fabricius, 1938

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 48, no. 107; cited Papilio polycaon Cramer (1779), Uitl. Kapellen 3(17): 17-18, pl. 203, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V; (24): 176 (index).

Original Combination: P[apilio]. A[chivus]. Altheae

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio polycaon Cramer (1779), based on a supposed foodplant name; a junior objective synonym of polycaon.

a.   Papilio androgeus epidaurus Godman & Salvin, 1890

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(88): 224-225, no. 55; 3(89): pl. 69, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V, 3 ♂ valve.

Original Combination: Papilio epidaurus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Ciudad, Ventanas in Durango...Cordova...San Lorenzo near Cordova...Atoyac...Guatemala, forests of Northern Vera Paz, Yzabal, Polochic valley...Panzos...Pacific coast...El Reposo...Nicaragua, Chontales...Costa Rica...Panama, Bugaba...Calobre...Veraguas...Lion Hill...San Domingo”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    ‡”ochracea” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta. Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 65, fig. 4 ♂ D&V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio androgeus epidaurus forma ochracea

Type Locality: “Yaxchilán, Chis.” [Chiapas, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in UNAM.

*315.    Papilio anchisiades Esper, 1788

Ausl. Schmett. (4): 53-55, pl. 13, figs. 1 ♂ D&V, 2 ♀ D&V; cited Papilio anchises (sensu Cramer, 1782, Uitl. Kapellen 4(27): pl. 318, figs. A , B), and Merian (1705), Ins. Surinam.: pl. 17.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Equ[es]. Troj[anus]. Anchisiades

Type Locality: “Surinam” implied from the citations.

Types: Location of type(s) not known. Esper might have based his description on Cramer’s illustration of anchises.

Hemming (1964), Annot. Lepid. (3): 106, discussed the name Papilio anchises Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 10 (a taxon currently in the genus Parides), and designated Cramer’s fig. A as the lectotype of P. anchisiades.

=    ‡hipponous (Hübner, [1819])

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 87, no. 896; cited Papilio anchises Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 4(27): pl. 318, figs. A-D.

Original Combination: P[riamides]. Hipponous

Proposed to replace Papilio anchises (sensu Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 4(27): 58-59, pl. 318, fig. A; not anchises). The lectotype is Cramer’s figure, designated by Hemming (1964), Annot. Lepid. (3): 107. A junior objective synonym of anchisiades.

=    archelaus Godart, 1819

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (14), 32, no. 19; cited Merian (1705), Ins. Surinam.: pl. 17, Papilio anchises Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 4(27): pl. 318, figs. A-D, Stoll (1787), Aanhangs. Werkes Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (1): pl. 1, fig. 2 larva, and Princeps anchises (sensu Hübner [1812], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [119]).

Original Combination: Papilio Archelaus

Type Locality: “Guyane au Brésil”

Types: Type(s) may be in MNHP.

=    theramenes C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861

Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 5(3): 74, no. 9.

Original Combination: Papilio Theramenes

Type Locality: “Venezuela, in provincia Caracas”

Types: Syntype in BMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 81, fig. C ♀ D.

=    matusiki (K. Johnson & Rozycki, 1986)

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 94(3): 388-389, figs. 1A ♂ D, 1B ♂ V (holotype), 3H ♂ genitalia, 5A ♂ valve.

Original Combination: Heraclides matusiki

Type Locality: “Venezuela, Caripito” [Monagas]

Types: Holotype in AMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 81, figs. K ♂ V, 7 ♂ D.

a.   Papilio anchisiades idaeus Fabricius, 1793

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 16, no. 48; cited Jones’ Icones 1: pl. 25; figured by Donovan (1800), Epit. Ins. India: pl. [19], fig. 2 (a copy from Jones’ Icones).

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Trojanus] Idaeus

Type Locality: “Madras” in error. [India]

Types: Type(s) probably lost; based on specimens figured by Jones.

=    pandion H. Bates, 1863

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1863(2): 242, no. 5.

Original Combination: Papilio Anchisiades var. pandion

Type Locality: “Southern Mexico”

Types: Holotype probably in BMNH.

This butterfly was listed without a description or indication by Bates (1861), Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (2)5(8): 338; a nomen nudum.

=    ‡pandion C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865

Reise Novara Zool. (1): 79-80, no. 61.

Original Combination: Papilio Pandion

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

Preoccupied by Papilio anchisiades var. pandion H. Bates, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1863(2): 242, no. 5.

=    pandonius Staudinger, 1894

Dtsche. Entomol. Z. “Iris” 7(1): 104 (nota).

Original Combination: [Papilio] Pandonius

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio pandion C. Felder & R. Felder, [1865].

*316.    Papilio rogeri Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 278-279, no. 102.

Original Combination: Papilio Rogeri

Type Locality: “Yukatan” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype in MNHP.

a.   Papilio rogeri pharnaces E. Doubleday, 1846

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [1]18(121): 374-375; figured by G. Gray [1853], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 64, no. 282, pl. 5 fig. 1 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Pharnaces

Type Locality: “America Merid.”; Godman & Salvin (1890), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(88): 231-232, no. 64, noted that all specimens in the BMNH were from “Oaxaca.” [Mexico]

Types: Holotype in the Loddiges collection, possibly in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by Bordelon (1998), News Lepid. Soc. 40(2): 38.

=    phanostratus Godman & Salvin, 1890

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(88): 232, no. 65.

Original Combination: Papilio phanostratus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Jalapa” [Veracruz]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    polycharmus Godman & Salvin, 1890

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(88): 232, no. 66; 3(90): pl. 70, fig. 10 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Papilio polycharmus

Type Locality: “Mexico, Presidio de Mazatlan” [Sinaloa]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    ‡”paucimaculata” Vázquez, 1947

An. Instit. Biol., Univ. Nac. Auton. Méx. (Zool.) 18(1): 249-252, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio pharnaces forma masculina paucimaculata

Type Locality: “Empalme Escobedo, Guanajuato” [Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

=    ‡”dissimilis” Vázquez, 1957

An. Instit. Biol., Univ. Nac. Auton. Méx. (Zool.) 27(2): 478, fig. 6 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio pharnaces f[orma]. dissimilis

Type Locality: “El Ocotal, Chis.” [Chiapas, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

 


Subgenus Pterourus Scopoli, 1777

Intro. Hist. Nat.: 433, no. 173. Type-species: Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 459, no. 5, by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 64. Zakharov et al. (2004), Syst. Biol. 53(2):193–215, suggested that this group (with the present synonymy) could be considered a genus-level taxon.

=    Jasoniades Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 83. Type-species: Papilio turnus Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 536 (= Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 9; synonym), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 199-200, no. 590. As first reviser, Hemming (1934), Gen. Names Holarct. Butterflies 1: 147, gave precedence to Jasoniades over Euphoeades.

=    Euphoeades Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 83. Type-species: Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 9, by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 172, no. 431.

      =    ‡”Caudati” Koch, 1860

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 21(4-6): 230. Type-species: Papilio turnus Linnaeus, 1771, Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.) 2: 536 (= Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 9; synonym), by designation of Hemming (1935), Entomol. 68(861): 40. This name as proposed is not a noun in the nominative singular, and is thus invalid (Code Article 11.8).


=    Pyrrhosticta Butler, 1872

Cist. Entomol. 1(4): 86. Type-species: Papilio laetitia Butler, 1872, Cist. Entomol. 1(4): 84-85 (= Caliades menatius Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (6): 86; subspecies), by monotypy.

=    Motasiona Niculescu, 1979

Revue roum. Biol. (Ser. Biol. Anim.) 24(1): 9-10. Type-species: Papilio zagreus E. Doubleday, 1847, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [1]19(125): 174-175, by original designation.


317.      Papilio canadensis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 586-587, no. 79; cited Papilio glaucus (sensu Gosse (1840), Can. Nat.: fig., Saunders (1874), Can. Entomol. 6: fig. 1, (1875), Rep. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 1874, figs. 13, 14, (1881), Rep. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 1880: figs. 40, 41, W. H. Edwards (1877), Butterflies N. Am. 2(6): pl. Papilio 5, fig. 1 ♂ D, and Maynard (1891), Manual N. Am. Butterflies: pl. 1, fig. 1).

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus canadensis

Type Locality: “Newfoundland”; holotype from “St. John’s.” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

R. Hagen et al. (1991), J. Lepid. Soc. 45(4): 245-246, elevated this taxon to species-level.

=    arcticus Skinner, 1906

Entomol. News 17(10): 379.

Original Combination: Papilio rutulus arcticus

Type Locality: “Eagle City, Alaska...Athabaska River, Canada”

Types: Syntypes (#7027) in CMNH; one figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, fig. 6 ♂ V.

=    ‡”fletcheri” Kemp, 1900

Entomol. News 11(5): 482.

Original Combination: Papilio turnus ab. fletcheri

Type Locality: “Elizabeth, New Jersey” implied from the text. [Union County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”borealis” Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912

Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris Suppl. [1]18(2): 24.

Original Combination: [Papilio glaucus-canadensis] f[orm]. borealis?

Type Locality: “Terre-Neuve, Dear River” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: “Holotype” in MNHP.

=    ‡”deficiens” Dufrane, 1946

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 115.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. glaucus canadensis ab. deficiens

Type Locality: “Etats-Unis d’Amérique, sans localité précise”

Types: “Holotype” may be in ISRN.

318.      Papilio appalachiensis (Pavulaan & D. Wright, 2002)

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 3(7): 8, 11-13, figs. 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ D (holotype); 15 ♀ D, 16 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Pterourus appalachiensis

Type Locality: “Buck Creek Serpentine Barrens, 3200', Clay County, North Carolina”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

Scriber and Ording (2005), Entomol. Exp. Appl. 115(1): 247-264, corroborated species-level status for this taxon.

319.      Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758

a.   Papilio glaucus glaucus Linnaeus, 1758

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 9; Linnaeus (1764), Mus. Lud. Ulr. [1]: 190, no. 9, cited Clerck [1764], Icon. Ins. 2: pl. 24, fig. 1.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Trojanus]. Glaucus

Type Locality: “America”; neotype from “Sandbridge, Virginia Beach, Virginia.” [Virginia Beach City]

Types: Type(s) apparently lost. Neotype in MGCL, designated by Pavulaan and D. Wright (2002), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 3(7): 6, fig. 19 ♀ D.

This species formed part of the type series of Papilio ajax (see Eurytides marcellus), based on Ray (1710), Hist. Ins.: 111, no. 2.

=    antilochus Linnaeus, 1758

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 463, no. 28; cited Petiver (1699), Mus. Petiver. Cent. Rar. Nat. Cont. (6/7): 50. no. 505, and Catesby (1743), Nat. Hist. Carolina 2: pl. 83.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Achivus] Antilochus

Type Locality: “America septentrionali”; neotype from “Corapeake, Gates Co., NC.” [North Carolina]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost or unrecognizable. Neotype in MGCL, designated by Pavulaan and D. Wright (2002), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 3(7): 6-7, fig. 17 ♂ D.

=    turnus Linnaeus, 1771

Mant. Plant. (2nd ed.): 536.

Original Combination: Papilio E[quites]. A[chivus]. Turnus

Type Locality: “America”

Types: Lectotype in LSUK, designated by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 389.

=    alcidamus Cramer, 1775

Uitl. Kapellen 1(4): 62, pl. 38, figs. A ♂ D, B ♂ V; (8): 151 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Eq[ues]. Achivus Alcidamus

Type Locality: “Jamaika...Nieuw-Jork en Carolina” “Jamaïque...Nouvelle York & dans la Caroline”; defined as “New York, Carolina” by Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 583; supposed neotype from “Sandbridge, Virginia Beach, VA.” [Southampton County]

Types: Probable syntype (#665024) in BMNH; the “neotype” in MGCL, designated by Pavulaan and D. Wright (2002), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 3(7): 7, fig. 18 ♂ D, is not valid (Code Article 75.3.4).

=    ‡lauri Fabricius, 1938

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 22, no. 13; cited Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 460, no. 9.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Lauri

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio glaucus Linnaeus, 1758, based on a foodplant name; a junior objective synonym of Papilio glaucus.

=    ‡”delunaris” Schultz, 1908

Entomol. Z. 22(23): 92.

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus ab. (nov.) delunaris

Type Locality: “Seranton, N.-Amerika”; corrected to “Scranton” by Schultz (1908), Entomol. Z. 22(29): 119. [Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania]

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”perfulva” Schultz, 1908

Entomol. Z. 22(23): 92.

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus ab. (nov.) pervulva; an incorrect original spelling. Corrected to “perfulva” by Schultz (1908), Entomol. Z. 22(29): 119.

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”imperfecta” Reiff, 1911

Z. wiss InsektBiol. 7(5/6): 157.

Original Combination: [Papilio glaucus turnus] ab. imperfecta

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” in MCZ.

=    ‡”wheeleri” Reiff, 1911

Z. wiss InsektBiol. 7(5/6): 158.

Original Combination: [Papilio glaucus turnus] ab. wheeleri

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” in MCZ.

=    ‡”paupercula” Reiff, 1911

Z. wiss InsektBiol. 7(5/6): 158.

Original Combination: [Papilio glaucus turnus] ab. paupercula

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” in MCZ.

=    ‡”niger” Hering, 1912

Z. wiss InsektBiol. 8(7/8): 234, fig. ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Papilio turnus] ab. niger

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “holotype” not known.

=    ‡”dietzi” Gunder, 1927

Entomol. News 38(9): 266, pl. 5, fig. A ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus form turnus tr. f. dietzi

Type Locality: “Van Courtland [sic!] Park, New York” [Bronx County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”gerhardi” Gunder, 1927

Entomol. News 38(9): 266-267, pl. 5, fig. B ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus form turnus tr. f. gerhardi

Type Locality: “Evansville, Indiana” [Vanderburgh County]

Types: “Holotype” in FMNH.

‡”ehrmanni” McDunnough, 1938

Mem. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1: 5.

Original Combination: [Papilio glaucus] ab. ehrmanni

This name was listed in the synonymy of Papilio glaucus without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”nigra” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 1.

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus form nigra

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

b.   Papilio glaucus maynardi Gauthier, 1984

Shilap Revta. Lepid. 12(3): 210.

Original Combination: Papilio glaucus maynardi

Proposed to replace Papilio turnus australis Maynard, 1891, preoccupied, with the same data (Code Article 60.3). This taxon may best be considered a “clinal phenotype,” as suggested by Calhoun (1997), Holarct. Lepid. 4(2): 44.

=    ‡australis Maynard, 1891

Manual N. Am. Butterflies: 12; appendix, 215, no. 15a.

Original Combination: Papilio turnus australis

Type Locality: “Florida”

Types: Holotype in MCZ.

Preoccupied by Papilio rumina australis Esper, 1781, Schmett. 1(2)(4): 115, pl. 72, fig. 4.

*320.    Papilio alexiares Höpffer, 1866

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 27(1-3): 31, no. 12.

Original Combination: [Papilio] Alexiares

Type Locality: “Mexico”; Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 592, stated that “Vera Cruz: Cuesta de Misantla, Mexico” was the known range.

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB.

a.   Papilio alexiares garcia Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 592, no. 83a.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. alexiares garcia

Type Locality: “Monterrey, San Luis Potosi” [Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by Grishin and A. Warren (2004), News Lepid. Soc. 46(3): 75, 83, 15 figs. Various recent authors (e.g. Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: 33, Llorente et al. (1996), Biodivers. Taxon. Biogeogr. Artrop. Méx.: 545, (1997), Pap. Pier. Méx.: 8, 15, 51, 137, 162, 198, and Lamas (2004c), Atl. Neotrop. Lepid. Chcklst. Part 4A: 97) have considered alexiares and garcia to be subspecies of P. glaucus; however, relationships between these taxa require further elaboration.

321.      Papilio rutulus Lucas, 1852

Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3): 138-140.

Original Combination: Papilio Rutulus

Type Locality: “Californie”; defined as “vicinity of Queen Lily Campground, near Belden, North Fork Feather River, 2400', Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998) Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 78.

Types: Lectotype in MNHP, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 78, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V.

=    ‡rutulus Boisduval, 1852

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 279-280, no. 1

Original Combination: Papilio rutulus

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

Preoccupied by Papilio rutulus Lucas, 1852, Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3): 138-140.

=    arizonensis W. H. Edwards, 1883

Papilio 3(1): 3-4; figured by W. H. Edwards (1884), Butterflies N. Am. 2(13): pl. Papilio 13, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Papilio] Rutulus var. Arizonensis

Type Locality: “Arizona and South Colorado”; stated to be “vicinity of Fort Grant, Cochise [sic!] Co., and on Graham Mountain” in the introduction to the paper. [Graham County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 28, fig. 9 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book. (rev. ed.): pl. 70, fig. 2 ♂ D.

=    ammoni Behrens, 1887

Can. Entomol. 19(10): 199.

Original Combination: Papilio Rutulus, var. Ammoni

Type Locality: “Nevada”

Types: Location of type(s) not known, possibly in AMNH.

=    ‡”hospitonina” Boullet & Le Cerf, 1912

Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris Suppl. [1]18(2): 25.

Original Combination: [Papilio rutulus] ab. hospitonina

Type Locality: “États-Unis, île Vancouver” [British Columbia]

Types: “Holotype” in MNHP.

=    ‡”fannyae” Gunder, 1927

Entomol. News 38(9): 267, pl. 5, fig. C ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio rutulus tr. f. fannyae

Type Locality: “Yoncalla, Oregon” [Douglas County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

322.      Papilio eurymedon Lucas, 1852 (1805)

Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3): 140-141.

Original Combination: Papilio Eurymedon

Type Locality: “Californie”; defined as “vicinity of Queen Lily Campground, near Belden, North Fork Feather River, 2400', Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 78.

Types: Lectotype in MNHP, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 78, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V.

Wakeham-Dawson (2003), Bull. Zool. Nomen. 60(4): 311-312, established Papilio eurymedon Lucas 1852, as a nomen protectum (Code Article 23.9.2).

=    ‡antinous Donovan, 1805

Epitome Ins. New Holland: pl. 16 and explicative page.

Original Combination: Papilio Antinous

Type Locality: “New South Wales” in error. [Australia]

Types: Holotype in ANIC; figured by Upton (1985), J. Lepid. Soc. 38(3): 158, fig. 2 ♂ D.

This name was discovered as a senior synonym of P. eurymedon by Upton (1985) ibid. However, Wakeham-Dawson (2003), Bull. Zool. Nomen. 60(4): 311-312, established Papilio antinous Lucas 1852, as a nomen oblitum (Code Article 23.9.2).

=    ‡eurymedon Boisduval, 1852

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 280-281, no. 2

Original Combination: Papilio eurymedon

Type Locality: “Californie” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntypes in USNM.

Preoccupied by Papilio eurymedon Lucas, 1852, Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(3): 140-141.

=    albanus C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865

Reise Novara Zool. (1): 93-94, no. 71.

Original Combination: Papilio Albanus

Type Locality: “California”; defined as “Queen Lily Campgrouned, near Belden, North Fork Feather River Canyon, 2400' elev., Plumas County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies: 88.

Types: Lectotype in BMNH, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (3): 88, figs., 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

This taxon was listed without a description or indication by C. Felder and R. Felder (1864), Verh. zool.-bot Ges. Wien 14: 314, no. 349; a nomen nudum.

=    ‡”subnigrata” Schultz, 1908

Entomol. Z. 22(23): 92.

Original Combination: Papilio eurymedon ab. (nov.) subnigrata

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”cocklei” Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(7): 200, no. 12, pl. 5, fig. 12 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio eurymedon form albanus ab. ♂ cocklei

Type Locality: “Kaslo, British Columbia, Canada”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butterflies Calif.: pl. 1, fig. 1 ♂ D.

=    ‡”columbiana” Gunder, 1927

Entomol. News 38(9): 267-268, pl. 5, fig. D ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio eurymedon form albanus tr. f. columbiana

Type Locality: “Kaslo, British Columbia, Canada”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

‡”lewisii” W. F. Kirby, 1884

Papilio 4(5-6): 104.

Original Combination: Papilio Lewisii (Peale manuscript)

This taxon is either a nomen nudum or an unjustified replacement name.

323.      Papilio multicaudata W. F. Kirby, 1884

a.   Papilio multicaudata multicaudata W. F. Kirby, 1884

Papilio 4(5-6): 104.

Original Combination: Papilio Multicaudata

Proposed to replace Papilio daunus Boisduval, 1836, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡daunus Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 342, no. 182.

Original Combination: Papilio Daunus

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Lectotype in MNHP, designated by Austin and J. Emmel (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (53): 692-693.

Preoccupied by Papilio daunus Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(11): 44, pl. 126, fig. F; (16): 148 (index).

=    ‡”ragani” W. Barnes, 1928

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 5(1): 5.

Original Combination: Papilio daunus ragani ab. nov.

Type Locality: “Baboquivari Mountains, Arizona” [Pima County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

b.   Papilio multicaudata pusillus Austin & J. Emmel, 1998

Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (54): 694-695, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V (holotype); 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Papilio multicaudatus pusillus

Type Locality: “Nevada: Elko County; north end of Independence Mountains (Bull Run Mountains), Nevada State Route 11A, 6.7 road miles east (= northeast) of Nevada State Route 226, 1800-2000 m, T43N R52E S2, 3, 10, 15, 16, 21 and T44N R52E S35, 36 on USGS Bull Run, Nev. 15' quadrangle”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

*324.    Papilio garamas (Geyer, [1829])

In: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl. [20], 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Euphoeades Garamas

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    asclepius (Geyer, [1829])

In: Hübner, Samml. exot. Schmett. 3: pl. [22], 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Heraclides Asclepius

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

The relative precedence of garamas over asclepius follows Lamas (2004c), Atl. Neotrop. Lepid. Chcklst. Part 4A: 97.

=    cincinnatus Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 346, no. 186.

Original Combination: Papilio Cincinnatus

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Holotype may be in MNHP or BMNH.

=    ‡”amisa” (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 646, no. 117ba’.

Original Combination: [Papilio garamas garamas] ♀ f. amisa

Type Locality: “West Mexico: Guadalajara, Cuernavaca, Oaxaca”; lectotype from “Cuernavaca.” [Morelos]

Types: “Lectotype” in BMNH, designated by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 95, fig. E ♀ D.

=    ‡”homeroides” Draudt, 1931

Entomol. Rdsch. 48(9): 103.

Original Combination: Papilio garamas ab. homeroides ♀ ab. nov

Type Locality: “Hauptstadt Mexiko” [D. F., Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” possibly in MTD (Draudt collection).

=    ‡”splendida” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 65, fig. 5 ♂ D, front cover ♂ D.

Original Combination: Papilio garamas forma splendida

Type Locality: “Atlixco, Pue....Izúcar de Matamoros, Pue.” [Puebla, Mexico]

Types: “Syntypes” in Velázquez and de la Maza collections.

=    ‡”ampliata” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 65, fig. 6 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio garamas forma ampliata

Type Locality: “Zimapán, Hgo.” [Hidalgo, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in Velázquez collection.

=    ‡”diazi” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 65, fig. 7 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Papilio garamas ab. diazi

Type Locality: “Tepoztlán, Mor.” [Morelos, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in Velázquez collection.

a.   Papilio garamas abderus Höpffer, 1856

Neue Schmett.: [1], no. 1, pl. 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Abderus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB.

Recorded from Texas by Bordelon and Knudson (2000), News Lepid. Soc. 42(1): 7, pl. 1, fig. 1.

=    ‡”amerias” (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906)

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 646, no. 117ab’.

Original Combination: [Papilio garamas abderus] ♀ f. amerias

Type Locality: “Eastern Mexico: Vera Cruz”; lectotype from “Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico.”

Types: “Lectotype” in BMNH, designated by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 95, fig. I ♀ D.

325.      Papilio victorinus E. Doubleday, 1844

a.   Papilio victorinus victorinus E. Doubleday, 1844

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1)14(93): 418; figured by G. Gray [1853], Cat. Lepid. Ins. Brit. Mus.: 35, no. 69, pl. 6, fig. 3 ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. Victorinus

Type Locality: “west coast of America” in error.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Recorded from Texas by Adams (1984), J. Lepid. Soc. 37(4): 318.

=    helleri C. Felder & R. Felder, [1865]

Reise Novara Zool. (1): 91-92, no. 70, pl. 13, figs. c ♂ D, d ♂ V.

Original Combination: Papilio Helleri

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH; figured by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: pl. 98, fig. F ♀ D.

This taxon was listed without a description or indication by C. Felder and R. Felder (1864), Verh. zool.-bot Ges. Wien 14: 313, no. 336; a nomen nudum.

=    amphissus Höpffer, 1866

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 27(1-3): 27-28, no. 8.

Original Combination: [Papilio] Amphissus

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Type(s) may be in ZMHB.

=    ‡”eritromaculata” Beutelspacher, 1976

Revta. Soc. Méx. Lepid. 2(2): 65.

Original Combination: Papilio victorinus form fem. eritromaculata

Type Locality: “Cerro El Vigía, Santiago Tuxtla, Ver....Chiltepec, Oax.” [Mexico]

Types: “Syntypes” in UNAM and de la Maza collection.

326.      Papilio pilumnus Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 340-341, no. 181.

Original Combination: Papilio pilumnus

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Holotype probably in BMNH or MNHP.

327.      Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1758

a.   Papilio troilus troilus Linnaeus, 1758

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 459, no. 5.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques Trojanus]. Troilus

Type Locality: “in Indiis” in error; suggested to be “lower Delaware River” by F. Brown (1968), J. Lepid. Soc. 22(2): 81; neotype from “Charleston Co., SC, visc. [sic.] Middleton Place Plantation.” [South Carolina]

Types: Type(s) apparently lost, as noted by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 388-389; neotype in MGCL, designated by Gatrelle (2000), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 2(4):. 5, fig. 5 ♂ D.

=    ‡ilioneus J. E. Smith, 1797

In: Smith & Abbot, Ins. Georgia 1: 3-4, pl. 2, figs. ♂ D, ♂ V, ♀ D, larvae, pupa.

Original Combination: Papilio Ilioneus

Type Locality: “Georgia” implied from the title of the work; neotype from “River Road, Burke County, GA.”

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing. The specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost. Neotype in MGCL, designated by Gatrelle (2000), Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 2(4): 3-4, fig. 4 ♂ D.

Preoccupied by Papilio illioneus Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(5): 81-82, pl. 52, fig. A; (8): 153 (index).

=    radiatus Strecker, 1900

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (suppl. 3): 17.

Original Combination: Papilio troilus var. radiatus

Type Locality: “Washington, D.C.; Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania”

Types: Syntypes in FMNH.

=    ‡”texanus” Ehrmann, 1900

Can. Entomol. 32(11): 348.

Original Combination: Papilio troilus, Var. Texanus ♂, nov. var.

Type Locality: “Houston, Texas”; suggested to be “Florida” by Tyler et al. (1994), Swallowtail Butterflies Am.: 306, pl. 93 legend.

Types: “Holotype” in CMNH.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡anethi Fabricius, 1938

In: Bryk, Syst. Glossat.: 21, no. 11; cited Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 459, no. 5.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. T[rojanus]. Anethi

Proposed as a replacement name for Papilio troilus Linnaeus, 1758, based on a foodplant name; a junior objective synonym of Papilio troilus.

=    ‡”flava” Dufrane, 1946

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 115.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. t[roilus]. troilus ab. flava

Type Locality: “Pocono Monta, Pa., E. U. A.” [Pocono Mountains, NE Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” may be in MRAC.

=    ‡”addenda” Dufrane, 1946

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 115.

Original Combination: [Papilio troilus troilus] ab. addenda

Type Locality: “Pocono Monta, Pa., E. U. A.” [Pocono Mountains, NE Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” may be in MRAC.

=    ‡”obliterata” Dufrane, 1946

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 116.

Original Combination: [Papilio troilus troilus] ab. obliterata

Type Locality: “E. U. A., sans localité précise”

Types: “Holotype” may be in MRAC.

=    ‡”berioi” Dufrane, 1946

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 115.

Original Combination: [Papilio troilus troilus] ab. berioi

Type Locality: “Pocono Monta, Pa., E. U. A.” [Pocono Mountains, NE Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” may be in MRAC.

b.   Papilio troilus fakahatcheensis (Gatrelle, 2000)

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv. 2(4): 10-11, figs. 8 ♂ D (holotype), 10 ♂ V, 11 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Pterourus troilus fakahatcheensis

Type Locality: “Florida: Collier County, visc. [sic!] Copeland”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

328.      Papilio palamedes Drury, 1773

a.   Papilio palamedes palamedes Drury, 1773

Ill. Nat. Hist. 1: 37-38, pl. 19, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (1770); 2: index (1773, name given).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Equ[es]. Ach[ivus]. Palamedes

Type Locality: “Carolina”

Types: Type(s) probably lost or unidentifiable.

=    chalcas Fabricius, 1775

Syst. Entomol.: 453, no. 44.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. E[ques]. A[chivus]. Chalcas

Type Locality: “America”

Types: Syntypes in HMUG.

Fabricius (1793), Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 31, no. 90, implied this synonymy.

b.   Papilio palamedes leontis Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

Novit. Zool. 13(3): 599, no. 86b.

Original Combination: Papilio palamedes leontis

Type Locality: “Monterrey, Mexico” [Nuevo León]

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

Recorded from southern Texas by H. Freeman (1951) Field & Lab. 19(1): 32.


Family PIERIDAE Swainson, 1820

Zool. Illustr. (1)1(3): pl. 15, unnumbered text. Type-genus: Pieris Schrank 1801, Fauna boica 2(1): 152, no. 198. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 278 placed Pieris on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 704. I.C.Z.N. Direction 112 gave Pieridae precedence over Coliadinae whenever their type genera are considered to be in the same family-group taxon. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 500 placed Pieridae on the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology as name no. 206, placed Pierides on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology as name no. 238, placed Pieridina Herrich-Schäffer, 1853, Lep. exot. Spec. nov.: 54, on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology as name no. 239, and placed Pierididae Reuter, 1896, on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Family-Group Names in Zoology as name no. 240. The “Official List” must be corrected as the authorship for Pieridae is listed as Duponchel, [1835], in: Godart, Hist. Nat. Lépid. Fr. Suppl. 1(22): 381. Swainson’s application of the name was much earlier. The higher-level arrangement of the family adopted largely follows Braby et al. (2006), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 147(2): 239–275.


Subfamily Dismorphiinae Schatz, 1886

In: Staudinger & Schatz, Exot. Schmett. 2(2): 56, 57 (as “Dismorphiden”). Type-genus: Dismorphia Hübner, 1816, Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (1): 10.


Genus Enantia Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 96. Type-species: Papilio licinia Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(13): 90, pl. 153, figs. E, F; (16): 149 (index), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 10(2): 162, no. 376. See Llorente (1984), Folia Entomol. Méx. 58: 3-206, for a revision of the genus.

=    Licinia Swainson, 1820

Zool. Illustr. (1)1(3): pl. 15, unnumbered text. Type-species: Papilio melite Linnaeus, 1763, in: Johansson, Cent. Ins. Rar.: 20, no. 56, by original designation.


329.      Enantia albania (H. Bates, 1864)

a.   Enantia albania albania (H. Bates, 1864)

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 1(1): 6, no. 10.

Original Combination: Leptalis albania

Type Locality: “Guatemala. Motagua Valley”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    mita (Reakirt, [1867])

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(5): 340, no. 49.

Original Combination: Leptalis mita

Type Locality: “Mexico, near Vera Cruz” [Veracruz]

Types: Syntype in CMNH.

=    ‡”immaculata” (Hoffmann, 1940)

An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Méx. 11(1): 277, fig. 2 ♂ D, ♀ D.

Original Combination: Dismorphia (Enantia) amalia forma immaculata

Type Locality: “Córdoba, Ver.” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

 


Subfamily Coliadinae Swainson, 1821

Zool. Illustr. (1)1(4): pl. 22, unnumbered text (as “Coliadae”). Type-genus: Colias [Fabricius], 1807, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 284, no. 24. I.C.Z.N. Direction 99 placed Coliadinae on the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology as name no. 227. The same Direction placed Coliana on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Names in Zoology as name no. 265. I.C.Z.N. Opinion 146 placed Colias on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology as name no. 572.


Genus Kricogonia Reakirt, [1864]

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(3): 355. Type-species: Colias lyside Godart, 1819, in: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): 98, no. 30, by original designation.


330.      Kricogonia lyside (Godart, 1819)

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (87), 98, no. 30.

Original Combination: Colias Lyside

Type Locality: Not stated; defined as “Haiti” by N. Riley (1975), Field Guide Butterflies W. Indies: 131.

Types: Lectotype in MNHP, designated by Lamas (1993), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 21(83): 154, no. 125.

N. Riley (1972), J. Lepid. Soc. 26(4): 228, determined that the historical use of the name castalia for this species was based on misdeterminations. The original description of castalia referred to the figure of Glutophrissa drusilla in Jones’ Icones.”

=    terissa (Lucas, 1852)

Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(9): 429.

Original Combination: Rhodocera Terissa

Type Locality: “Saint-Domingue et la Jamaïque”

Types: Syntypes in MNHP.

=    ‡terissa (Boisduval, 1870)

Consid. Lépid. Guat.: 10.

Original Combination: [Rhodocera Lyside] Terrissa

Type Locality: “Mexique...Guatemala”

Types: Type(s) should be in MNHP or BMNH.

Preoccupied by Rhodocera terissa Lucas, 1852, Revue Mag. Zool. (2)4(9): 429.

=    fantasia Butler, 1871

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (4)1871(2): 170, pl. 7, fig. 6 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Kricogonia Fantasia

Type Locality: “Nicaragua”

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    lanice Lintner, [1885]

Papilio 4(7/8): 138-130, no. 11.

Original Combination: Kricogonia Lanice

Type Locality: “Brownsville, Texas...Hidalgo...Lomita Ranch” implied from the introduction to the paper. [Cameron and Hidalgo counties]

Types: Syntype (#5861) in NYSM and ANSP.

This name was listed without a description or indication by W. H. Edwards (1884),Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 11(3/4): 262, no. 60; a nomen nudum.

=    unicolor Godman & Salvin, 1889

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(79): 151, no. 2.

Original Combination: Kricogonia unicolor

Type Locality: “Guatemala, San Gerónimo...Haiti; Jamaica”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    xanthophila Röber, 1909

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 89; (41) pl. 26d, fig. [4] ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Kricogonia lyside] xanthophila form nov.

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Lectotype in MTD, designated by Lamas (1995), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 23(91): 344.

=    occidentalis S. Torre, 1988

Revta. Biol. (La Habana) 2(2): 57.

Original Combination: Kricogonia lyside occidentalis

Type Locality: “Varadero y en otras regiones de la parte occidental de Cuba”

Types: Syntypes in IZAC, AMNH and ANSP.

‡”anorbus” Scott, 1981

Papilio (n.s.) 1: 3.

Original Combination: Kricogonia lyside female form anorbus

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.


Genus Nathalis Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 589. Type-species: Nathalis iole Boisduval, 1836, Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 589, no. 9, by monotypy.


331.      Nathalis iole Boisduval, 1836

a.   Nathalis iole iole Boisduval, 1836

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 589-590, no. 1.

Original Combination: Nathalis iole

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Syntypes in MNHP.

=    felicia Poey, [1852]

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: pl. 18, figs. 18 ♂ V, 19 ♂ D, 20 ♀ D, 21 ♀ V [Oct 1852]; 443-444, no. 14 [Jun 1854].

Original Combination: Nathalis Felicia

Type Locality: “Habana...Cárdenas” [Cuba]

Types: Type(s) probably in MNHC; a possible syntype in ZMHB.

=    irene Fitch, 1857

Trans. N. Y. State Agric. Soc. 16(1856): 485-486, no. 212.

Original Combination: Nathalis Irene

Type Locality: “valley of the Mississippi”; J. Barnes (1988), Bull. N. Y. St. Mus. (461): 112, no. 333, noted that Fitch’s original specimen was labeled “Tullehassie, AR. [sic!]” [Tullahassee, Wagoner County, Oklahoma]

Types: Holotype (#2717) either lost or destroyed; J. Barnes (1988), ibid., determined that there are no extant specimens in the NYSM.

=    luteolus Reakirt, [1864]

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(3): 350-351, no. 2.

Original Combination: N[athalis]. luteolus

Type Locality: “Honduras”

Types: Syntype in FMNH.

=    ‡”pallida” W. D. Field, 1936

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 20.

Original Combination: Nathalis iole tr. f. pallida

Type Locality: “Lawrence, Kansas” [Douglas County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”immaculata” W. D. Field, 1936

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 20.

Original Combination: Nathalis iole form immaculata

Type Locality: “Lawrence, Kansas” [Douglas County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”albida” Avinoff & Shoumatoff, 1941

Ann. Carnegie Mus. 28(15): 309-310, pl. 36, figs. 1 ♂ D&V, 2 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Nathalis iole ab. albida

Type Locality: “an isolated elevation of over 3,000 feet called Low River, or All Sides, in Trelawny” [Jamaica]

Types: Types in CMNH.

=    ‡”viridis” Whittaker & D. Stallings, 1944

Entomol. News 55(4): 92.

Original Combination: Nathalis iole f. hiem. viridis

Type Locality: “Caldwell, Kansas” [Sumner County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”alayoi” S. Torre, 1951

Mems. Soc. Cubana Hist. Nat. 20(2): 89, pl. 44, fig. 2 ♂ D (holotype).

Original Combination: [Nathalis iole] [form] alayoi

Type Locality: “500m del Castillo Peñas Altas, Playa de Bellamar, Matanzas” indicated in the legend to the plate. [Cuba]

Types: “Holotype” (#2767) in IZAC.

 


Genus Eurema Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 96. Type-species: Papilio delia Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(23): 144, pl. 273, fig. A; 3(24): 174 (index) (= Pieris daira Godart, 1819, in: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (109), 137, no. 59; homonym), by designation of Butler (1870), Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 35.

      =    ‡Heurema Agassiz, 1846

Nomencl. zool. (4to ed.)(12)(index univ.): 181. An unjustified emendation of Eurema Hübner, [1819].

=    Lucidia Lacordaire, 1833

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. [1]2: 387. Type-species: Papilio albula Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(3): 43, pl. 27, fig. E; (8): 151 (index), by monotypy.

=    Sphaenogona Butler, 1870

Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 35, no. 15; 44, no. 15. Type-species: Terias bogotana C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 5(3): 84, no. 41 (= Terias mexicana Boisduval, 1836, Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 655, pl. 19 [=3C], fig. 1; subspecies), by designation of W. F. Kirby (1896), in: Allen, Nat. Libr. Lepid. 2: 230.


332.      Eurema daira (Godart, 1819)

a.   Eurema daira sidonia (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 465-466, no. 2.

Original Combination: Terias Sidonia

Type Locality: "Campeche" [Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH and NHMW.

=    cepio (Godman & Salvin, 1889)

Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(80): 169, no. 18; 3(80): pl. 64, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Terias Cepio

Type Locality: "Mexico, Mazatlan...Presidio...Acapulco...Tepetlapa, Cuernavaca...Patzcuaro...Puebla, Orizaba...Cordova...Atoyac”; figured specimens from “Tepetlapa, in the State of Guerrero, at an altitude of 3000 feet.”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

b.   Eurema daira daira (Godart, 1819)

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (109), 137, no. 59; cited Papilio delia Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(24): pl. 273, fig. A, and Herbst (1792), in: Jablonsky, Natursyst. Ins., Schmett. 5: pl. 117, fig. 7.

Original Combination: Pieris Daira

Proposed to replace Papilio delia Cramer, 1780, preoccupied, with the same data (Code Article 60.3). Klots (1929), Entomol. Am. (n.s.) 9(3): 125, made a first reviser choice of daira over demoditas; Hemming (1967), Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Entomol. Suppl. 9: 182, concurred.

=    ‡delia (Cramer, 1780)

Uitl. Kapellen 3(23): 144, pl. 273, fig. A ♂ D; 3(24): 174 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Dan[aus]. Cand[idus]. Delia

Type Locality: “Virginiën” “Virginie”

Types: Syntype (#665101) in BMNH; figured by Chainey (2005), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 145(3): fig. 29 ♂ D.

Preoccupied by Papilio delia [Denis & Schiffermüller], [1775], Ankündung eines syst. Werkes Schmett. Wiener Gegend: 179, no. 6.

=    ‡demoditas Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 96, no. 1016; cited Papilio delia Cramer, 1780, Uitl. Kapellen 3(24): pl. 273, fig. A; (24): 176 (index).

Original Combination: Eurema Demoditas

Proposed to replace Papilio delia Cramer, 1780, preoccupied; a junior objective synonym of Pieris daira Godart, 1819, by first reviser choice.

=    jucunda (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (6): 52-53 [May 1830]; (7): pl. 19, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D [Jun 1830].

Original Combination: X[anthidia].Jucunda

Type Locality: “dans l’Etat de New-York, dans Virginie, la Louisiane, etc.”; “Georgia” implied from John Abbot’s drawing.

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing. The specimens upon which this drawing was based are probably lost.

=    lemnia (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865)

Reise Novara (2): 205, no. 213.

Original Combination: Terias Lemnia

Type Locality: “Brasilia Meridional: Bahia” in error. [Brazil]

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    ‡”fusca” L. Harris, 1931

Trans. Georgia Nat. Club 1(1): 11, no. 36, pl. (“holotype”); figured by L. Harris (1972), Butterflies Georgia: cpl. 3, fig. 5 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Eurema jucunds ab. fusca

Type Locality: “Atlanta” [Fulton County]

Types: “Holotype” in EUM.

=    ‡”delioides” Haskin, 1933

Entomol. News 44(5): 121.

Original Combination: Eurema demoditas, form delioides

Type Locality: “Auburndale, Florida” [Polk County]

Types: “Types” in USNM.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 207, no. 59.

Original Combination: [Eurema daira ♀] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

‡”rosa” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 207, no. 59.

Original Combination: [Eurema daira] winter form rosa

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

c.   Eurema daira palmira (Poey, [1852])

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: 198, no. 14 (Oct 1852); pl. 24, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V, 6 ♀ D (May 1853).

Original Combination: T[erias]. Palmira

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7801) in ANSP.

Smith et al. (1982), Bull. Allyn Mus. (70): 1-8, discussed the presence of this subspecies in Florida and concluded that all populations in Florida are best considered E. d. daira; see Calhoun and Anderson (1991), J. Lepid. Soc. 45(1): 58, for notes on the occurrence of this taxon in southern Florida.

=    ebriola (Poey, [1853])

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: 250, no. 9, pl. 24, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V, 9 ♀ D, 10 ♀ D, 11 ♀ V, 12 ♀ D, 13 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Terias Ebriola

Type Locality: “Cárdenas...Habana” [Cuba]

Types: Syntypes (#7769, 7802) in ANSP.

=    albina (Poey, [1853])

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: 251-252, no. 10, pl. 24, figs. 14 ♂ D, 15 ♂ V, 16 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Terias Albina

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7803) in ANSP.

=    ‡cubana Herrich-Schäffer, 1865

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensb. 18(11/12): 166, no. 6.

Original Combination: [Terias] cubana

Proposed as a replacement name for Terias albina Poey [1853], erroneously thought preoccupied.

d.   Eurema daira eugenia (Wallengren, 1860)

Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 4(2): 33-34, no. 2.

Original Combination: Terias eugenia

Type Locality: “Insula St. Joseph” [Isla San José, Archipiélago de las Perlas, Panama]

Types: Syntype in NHRS.

=    solana (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 240, no. 6.

Original Combination: Terias solana

Type Locality: “Mexico (near Vera Cruz)” [Veracruz]

Types: Syntype in FMNH.

=    persistens (Butler & H. Druce, 1872)

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 110.

Original Combination: T[erias]. Persistens

Type Locality: “Cartago, Costa Rica” implied from the title and introduction to the paper.

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    ‡”pallidula” Klots, 1929

Entomol. Am. (n.s.) 9(3): 125, pl. 1, fig. 8 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: [Eurema jucunda] f. ♀ pallidula

Type Locality: “Barrios, Guatemala”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

333.      Eurema boisduvaliana (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865)

Reise Novara (2): 200, under no. 203.

Original Combination: T[erias]. Boisduvaliana

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype should be in MNHP or BMNH.

Proposed for the ♂ of Terias mexicana Boisduval, 1836, Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 655.
Lamas (2004), Atl. Neotrop. Lepid. Chcklst. Part 4A: 106, treated boisduvaliana as a subspecies of Eurema arbela Geyer, 1832, in: Hübner, Zutr. Samml. exot. Schmett. 4: pl [111], figs. 615 ♀ D, 616 ♀ V [1826]; (text): 14, no. 321 (1832, name given). This possibility remains to be thoroughly investigated.

=    ingrata (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 465, no. 1.

Original Combination: Terias ingrata

Type Locality: “Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in NMW and BMNH.

‡”rosa” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 207, no. 57.

Original Combination: [Eurema boisduvaliana] winter form rosa

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

334.      Eurema mexicana (Boisduval, 1836)

a.   Eurema mexicana mexicana (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 655, no. 3, pl. 19 [= 3C], fig. 1 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Terias Mexicana

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Type(s) should be in MNHP or BMNH.

Boisduval described mexicana from a mixed series; the name was restricted to Boisduval’s ♀ by C. Felder and R. Felder (1865), Reise Novara (2): 200.

=    damaris (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865)

Reise Novara (2): 198, no. 200.

Original Combination: Terias Damaris

Type Locality: “Mexico”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    depuiseti (Boisduval, 1870)

Consid. Lépid. Guat.: 11-12.

Original Combination: Terias Depuiseti

Type Locality: “Honduras...Mexique”

Types: Syntype in USNM.

=    biedermanni (Ehrmann, 1925)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 20(2): 84.

Original Combination: Eurema biedermanni

Type Locality: “Palmerlee, Arizona” [Cochise County]

Types: Holotype in CMNH; figured by Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 6 ♀ D.

=    ‡”recta” Klots, 1929

Entomol. Am. (n.s.) 9(3): 135, pl. 3, fig. 61 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Eurema mexicana ab. recta

Type Locality: “Texas”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”rosa” Whittaker & D. Stallings, 1944

Entomol. News 55(4): 87.

Original Combination: Eurema mexicana f. heim. rosa

Type Locality: “Caldwell, Kansas” [Sumner County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

*335.    Eurema salome (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861)

Wien. entomol. Monatschr. 5(3): 84, no. 42.

Original Combination: Terias Salome

Type Locality: “Ecuador”

Types: Type(s) should be in BMNH (Felder collection).

=    ‡”lurida” (d’Almeida, 1928)

Annls. Soc. ent. Fr. 97(3/4): 373-374.

Original Combination: Terias arbela aberr. arbela lurida

Type Locality: “Tojûju, Pérou” [Peru]

Types: Holotype in UFPC.

a.   Eurema salome jamapa (Reakirt, 1866)

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 239, no. 5.

Original Combination: Terias jamapa

Type Locality: “Mexico (near Vera Cruz)” [Veracruz]

Types: Type(s) might be in CMNH; noted not to be in FMNH by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 89.

*336.    Eurema albula (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(3): 43, pl. 27, fig. E ♀ D; (8): 151 (index).

Original Combination: [Pap[ilio]. Dan[aus] Cand[idus] Albula

Type Locality: “Surinamsch” “Suriname”; “neotype” from “Crique Spariwine, mount St. Hermínio, Guiana Francesca.” [French Guiana]

Types: Type(s) probably lost; d’Almeida (1945), Arq. Zool. São Paulo 4(3): 90, designated “neotypes”; Mielke and Casagrande (1985), Revta. bras. Entomol. 29(2): 328, fig. 30 ♂ D&V, designated one of these as the neotype (#2020) in UFPC. Neither of these designations are in accordance with Code Articles 75.2 and 75.3.

Recorded from Texas by Chuah and Cushing (1995), Tropical Lepid. 6(1): 43, figs. 1, 1a.

=    ‡cassiae (Sepp, [1843])

Surinaam. Vlinders [2](14): pl. 56.

Original Combination: Papilio Cassiae

Type Locality: “Surinam” implied from the title of the work.

Types: Type(s) are lost.

Preoccupied by Papilio cassiae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10): 471, no. 82.

=    clara (H. Bates, 1861)

J. Entomol. 1(4): 243, no. 12.

Original Combination: T[erias]. clara

Type Locality: “Amazon Valley” implied from the title of the paper. [Brazil]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    tapeina (H. Bates, 1861)

J. Entomol. 1(4): 244, no. 14.

Original Combination: T[erias]. Tapeina

Type Locality: “Pará” [Brazil]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    melacheila (Möschler, 1877)

Verh. zool.-bot Ges. Wien 26: 297.

Original Combination: [Terias] Melacheila

Type Locality: “Surinam” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Type(s) probably in ZMHB.

a.   Eurema albula celata (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 466, no. 4.

Original Combination: Terias celata

Type Locality: “Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in NMW.

=    leucilla (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 466, no. 5.

Original Combination: Terias Leucilla

Type Locality: “Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in NMW.

 


Genus Pyrisitia Butler, 1870

Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 35, no. 17; 44, no. 17. Type-species: Papilio proterpia Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 478, no. 152, by original designation.


337.      Pyrisitia proterpia (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 478, no. 152.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus]. C[andidi]. Proterpia

Type Locality: “Iamaica”

Types: Syntypes in HMUG.

=    gundlachia (Poey, [1853])

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: 246, no. 4, pl. 24, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Terias Gundlachia

Type Locality: “isla de Cuba...Cárdenas”

Types: Syntype (#7770) in ANSP.

=    longicauda (H. Bates, 1864)

Entomol. Mon. Mag. 1(2): 32, no. 13.

Original Combination: Terias Longicauda

Type Locality: “Guatemala, interior”

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    watsonia (Klots, 1923)

Entomol. News 34(10): 301.

Original Combination: Eurema proterpia watsonia

Type Locality: “Rio Bamba, Ecuador, South America”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    morleyi (Coxey, 1932)

Entomol. News 43(2): 33.

Original Combination: Eurema gundlachia race morleyi

Type Locality: “Higra, 4000 feet elevation, Ecuador”

Types: Holotype (#7752) in CMNH.

=    ‡”imitatrix” (d'Almeida, 1932)

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 37(3): 44.

Original Combination: Terias proterpia ab. ♀ imitatrix

Type Locality: “Guaiocoromo...Colombie”

Types: “Lectotype” in UFPC, designated by Mielke and Casagrande (1985), Revta. bras. Entomol. 29(2): 325, fig. 3 ♀ D&V.

‡”atzin” (Arias, 1968)

Exp. cient. españ. siglo XVIII, Exp. Bot. Nueva España: 394.

Original Combination: Tlotzin Atzin

Types: Types probably never designated.

338.      Pyrisitia lisa (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830])

a.   Pyrisitia lisa lisa (Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830])

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (6): 53-55 [May 1830]; (7): pl. 19, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V, 6 larva, 7 pupa [Jun 1830].

Original Combination: X[anthidia]. Lisa

Type Locality: “dans les différentes parties des États-Unis”

Types: Described, at least in part, from a John Abbot drawing. The specimens upon which this drawing was based are presumed lost. A “type” is in USNM, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such “types” from the Boisduval collection.

=    clappii (Maynard, 1891)

Man. N. Am. Butterflies: 216, appendix, no. 90a.

Original Combination: Terias lisa clappii

Type Locality: “Enterprise, Florida” [Volusia County]

Types: Syntype (#16607) in MCZ.

=    ‡”alba” (Strecker, 1878)

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 85, no. 76a.

Original Combination: [Terias Lisa] ab. a. ♀ Alba

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Type(s)”, if they can be identified, may be in FMNH.

=    ‡”immaculata” (Whittaker & D. Stallings, 1944)

Entomol. News 55(4): 88.

Original Combination: Eurema lisa f. aest. immaculata

Type Locality: “Caldwell, Kansas” [Sumner County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

b.   Pyrisitia lisa centralis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 18(11/12): 168, no. 12.

Original Combination: [Terias] centralis

Type Locality: “Guatemala”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

339.      Pyrisitia nise (Cramer, 1775)

a.   Pyrisitia nise nise (Cramer, 1775)

Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): 31, pl. 20, figs. K ♀ D, L ♀ V; 1(8): 154 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. dan[aii]. Candidi Nise

Type Locality: “Jamaica” “Jamaïque”; “neotype” from “along the road near Millbank, Portland Parish, Jamaica, B. W. I.”

Types: Neotype in RMNH, designated by Klots and Heineman (1957), Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B)26(11/12): 212-213, pl. 1, fig. 1 ♂ D&V.

d’Almeida (1945), Arq. Zool. São Paulo 4(3): 90, designated “neotypes”; Mielke and Casagrande (1985), Revta. bras. Entomol. 29(2): 328, fig. 22 ♂ D&V, designated one of these, from “River Maroni, Guiana Francesca,” as the neotype (#1652) in UFPC. Neither of these designations are in accordance with Code Articles 75.2 and 75.3. The subspecific arrangement follows Smith et al. (1994), Butterflies W. Ind. & Fla.: 150.

=    ‡neda (Godart, 1819)

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (109), 135-136, no. 54; cited Papilio nise Cramer, 1775, Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): pl. 20, figs. K, L; (8): 154 (index), and Herbst (1792), in: Jablonsky, Natursyst. Ins. 5: pl. 106, figs. 8, 9.

Original Combination: Pieris Neda

Proposed to replace Papilio nise Cramer, 1775, erroneously thought to be preoccupied; a junior objective synonym of nise.

=    larae (Herrich-Schäffer, 1862)

Corresp-Bl. zool.-min. Ver. Regensburg 16(6-8): 120.

Original Combination: Terias larae

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntype (#7304) in ANSP.

b.   Pyrisitia nise nelphe (R. Felder, 1869)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 19: 466, no. 3.

Original Combination: Terias Nelphe

Type Locality: “Potrero” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: Syntypes in NMW and BMNH.

=    venustula (Staudinger, 1875)

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 25: 93, no. 3.

Original Combination: Terias (Terias) Venustula

Type Locality: “den unteren Regionen von Chiriqui” [Panama]

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB.

=    linda (W. H. Edwards, 1884)

Papilio 4(3): 53.

Original Combination: Terias Linda

Type Locality: “Mexico, short distance from the boundary line of Arizona”; defined as “vicinity of Nogales, Sonora” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 49. [Mexico]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 50, fig. 9 ♂ D&V.

*340.    Pyrisitia dina (Poey, 1832)

Cent. Lépid. Cuba (2): [35-36], [no. 12], pl. [12], figs. [1] ♀ D, [2] ♀ V.

Original Combination: Terias Dina

Type Locality: “côte du Nord” [Cuba]

Types: Syntype (#7800) in ANSP.

=    citrina (Poey, [1852])

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: pl. 18, figs. 4 ♂ V, 5 ♂ D, 6 ♀ D, 7 ♀ V (Oct 1852); 247-248, no. 6 (May 1853).

Original Combination: T[erias]. Citrina

Type Locality: “Cuba” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Type(s) may be lost.

a.   Pyrisitia dina helios (M. Bates, 1934)

Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8: 133-134.

Original Combination: Eurema dina helios

Type Locality: “New Providence (Nassau)” [Bahamas]

Types: Holotype (#19564) in MCZ.

b.   Pyrisitia dina westwoodii (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 666-667, no. 22.

Original Combination: Terias Westwoodii

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Syntypes in MNHP and BMNH.

=    calceolaria (Butler & H. Druce, 1872)

Cist. Entomol. 1(5): 110.

Original Combination: T[erias]. Calceolaria

Type Locality: “Honduras”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

341.      Pyrisitia messalina (Fabricius, 1787)

Mantissa Ins. 2: 22, no. 236.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus]. C[andidus]. Messalina

Type Locality: “India”; defined as “Cuba” by Klots (1929), Entomol. Am. (n.s.) 9(3): 131.

Types: Type(s) apparently lost.

Kimball (1965), Arthrop. Florida, vol. 1, Lepid. Florida: 35-36, and Calhoun (1997), Holarct. Lepid. 4(2): 44, noted that the occurrence of this species in Florida is questionable.

=    gnathene (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 680, no. 46.

Original Combination: Terias Gnathene

Type Locality: “Yucatan, Mexique” apparently in error.

Types: Syntype(s) in Roger collection, probably lost.

=    bulaea (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 680-681, no. 47.

Original Combination: Terias Bulaea

Type Locality: “Sénégal” in error; suggested to be “American” by Poey [1853], Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: 153-154, and Klots (1929), Entomol. Am. (n.s.) 9: 131, who placed this name in synonymy.

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    iradia (Poey, [1852])

Mem. Hist. Nat. Cuba 1: pl. 18, figs. 14 ♂ V, 15 ♂ D, 16 ♀ D, 17 ♀ V [Oct 1852]; 253 [May 1853].

Original Combination: Terias Iradia

Type Locality: “Cienfuegos...Zapata, y Sabana de Guamacaro” [Cuba]

Types: Syntype (#7766) in ANSP.

=    blakei (Maynard, 1891)

Man. N. Am. Butterflies: 216, appendix, no. 93*.

Original Combination: Terias Blakei

Type Locality: “on all of the Bahamas which I visited...Sandford, Florida” [Seminole County]

Types: Syntype (#16606) in MCZ.

 


Genus Abaeis Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 97. Type-species: Papilio nicippe Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(18): 31, pl. 210, figs. C, D; (24): 176 (index), by designation of Butler (1870), Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 35.

      =    ‡Xanthidia Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830]

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (5): 48. Type-species: Papilio nicippe Cramer, 1779, Uitl. Kapellen 3(18): 31, pl. 210, figs. C, D; (24): 176 (index), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 288, no. 1081. A junior objective synonym of Abaeis Hübner, [1819].


342.      Abaeis nicippe (Cramer, 1779)

Uitl. Kapellen 3(18): 31, pl. 210, figs. C, D; (24): 176 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Dan[aus]. Cand[idus]. Nicippe

Type Locality: “Virginiën” “Virginie”; “neotype” from “Arizona, EUA.”

Types: Syntypes (#665378, 665379, possibly 665080) in BMNH. d’Almeida (1945), Arq. Zool. São Paulo 4(3): 90, designated “neotypes”; Mielke and Casagrande (1985), Revta. bras. Entomol. 29(2): 328, fig. 11 ♂ D&V, designated one of these, from “River Maroni, Guiana Francesca,” as the neotype (#1652) in UFPC. Neither of these designations are in accordance with Code Articles 75.2 and 75.3.

=    ‡”flava” (Strecker, 1878)

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat. Lepid: 85, no. 68a.

Original Combination: [Terias Nicippe] ab. a. ♂ ♀ Flava

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Syntypes” in FMNH.

=    ‡”dammersi” (Gunder, 1930)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 29(2): 52, no. 40, pl. 19 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Eurema nicippe tr. f. dammersi

Type Locality: “San Bernardino, California” [San Bernardino County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”callae” (W. D. Field, 1936)

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 20.

Original Combination: Eurema nicippe tr. f. callae

Type Locality: “Donna, Texas” [Hidalgo County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”pallens” (Whittaker & D. Stallings, 1944)

Entomol. News 55(4): 88.

Original Combination: Eurema nicippe f. aest. pallens

Type Locality: “Caldwell, Kansas” [Sumner County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

‡”rosa” (Scott, 1986)

Butterflies N. Am.: 206, no. 55.

Original Combination: [Eurema nicippe winter form] rosa

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.


Genus Colias [Fabricius], 1807

In: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 284, no. 24. Type-species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 469, no. 71, by designation of I.C.Z.N. Opinion 146.

      =    ‡Eurymus Horsfield, [1829]

Descr. Cat. Lepid. Ins. Mus. E. India Co. (2): 129, 134. Type-species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 469, no. 71, by original designation. Preoccupied by Eurymus Rafinesque, 1815, Analyse Nat.: 117, and a junior objective synonym of Colias.

=    Scalidoneura Butler, 1871

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871(1): 250-251. Type-species: Scalidoneura hermina Butler, 1871, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871(1): 251, pl. 19, fig. 5, by original designatio (= Colias euxanthe C. Felder & R. Felder, 1865, Reise Novara (2): 196, no. 196; synonym).

=    Eriocolias J. Watson, 1895

Entomol. 28(385): 167. Type-species: Papilio edusa Fabricius, 1787, Mantissa Ins. 2: 23, no. 240, by original designation (= Papilio croceus Geoffroy 1875, in: Fourcroy, Entomol. Paris 2: 250, no. 48; synonym).

      =    ‡Coliastes Hemming, 1931

Entomol. 64(12)[823]: 273. Type-species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 469, no. 71, by original designation; a junior objective synonym of Colias.

=    Mesocolias Petersen, 1963

J. Res. Lepid. 1(2): 144-145. Type-species: Colias vauthierii Guérin-Méneville, [1830], in: Duperrey, Voy. Coquille, 1(Zool.)Atlas(18): pl. Ins. 15, fig. 2, by original designation.

=    Protocolias Petersen, 1963

J. Res. Lepid. 1(2): 144-145. Type-species: Colias imperialis Butler, 1871, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1871(1): 250, pl. 19, fig. 2, by original designation (= Colias ponteni Wallengren, 1860, Wien. entomol. Monatschr. 4(2): 33, no.1; synonym).

=    Palaeocolias Berger, 1986

Lambillionea 86(7/8, suppl.): 21-22, 32. Type-species: Colias ponteni Wallengren, 1860, Wien. Entomol. Montaschr. 4(2): 33, by original designation.

=    Neocolias Berger, 1986

Lambillionea 86(7/8, suppl.): 21, 32. Type-species: Papilio erate Esper, 1805, Die Schmett. 1(suppl.)(2)(11): 13-14, pl. 119 (Cont. 74), fig. 3, by original designation.

=    Eucolias Berger, 1986

Lambillionea 86(7/8, suppl.): 22, 33. Type-species: Papilio palaeno Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica (ed. 2): 272, no. 1041, by original designation.

=    Similicolias Berger, 1986

Lambillionea 86(7/8, suppl.): 23, 33. Type-species: Papilio lesbia Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 477, no. 149, by original designation.

=    Paracolias Berger, 1986

Lambillionea 86(7/8, suppl.): 24, 34. Type-species: Colias dimera E. Doubleday, [1847], in: Gen. diurn. Lepid. (1): pl. 9, fig. 3; (7): 74, no. 15, by original designation.

=    Asiocolias Korb, 2005

Cat. Butterflies ex USSR: 20. Type-species: Colias christophi Grum-Grshimaïlo, 1885, in: Romanov, Mém. Lépid. 2: 220, by original designation.

‡”Ganura” Zetterstedt, [1839]

Ins. Lappon. (5): col. 908. Type-species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 469, no. 71. This name was published in synonymy and is unavailable (Code Article 11.6); a nomen nudum.


343.      Colias philodice Godart, 1819

a.   Colias philodice philodice Godart, 1819

Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (87), 100-101, no. 35.

Original Combination: Colias Philodice

Type Locality: “l'Amérique septentrionale, particulièrement dans la Virginie”; defined as “Virginia” by Klots (1951), Field Guide Butterflies N. Am.: 185.

Types: Location of type not known.

=    dorippe Godart, 1819

Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): (87), 101, no. 36; cited Papilio palaeno (sensu Cramer (1775), Uitl. Kapellen 1(2): pl. 14, figs. F, G).

Original Combination: Colias Dorippe

Type Locality: “Cap de Bonne-Espérance” in error. [Cape Good Hope, South Africa]

Types: Type(s) may be lost.

=    anthyale (Hübner, 1823)

Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [54], figs. 307 ♂ D, 308 ♂ V [1821]; (text): 21, no. 154 (1832, name given).

Original Combination: Zerene Anthyale

Type Locality: “Pennsylvanien” [Pennsylvania]

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    santes Fitch, 1854

Trans. N. Y. State Agric. Soc. 13(1853): 378.

Original Combination: Colias santes

Type Locality: “New York”; J. Barnes (1988), Bull. New York St. Mus. (461): 112, no. 334, noted that the original specimen (#6680) was labeled “Salem, NY.” [Washington County, New York]

Types: Probably lost; J. Barnes (1988), ibid., noted that there were no extant specimens in the NYSM.

=    tegea Sievers, 1859

Etud. Entomol. (Motschulsky) 8: 146.

Original Combination: Colias Tegea

Type Locality: “environs de New York”

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

‡”notatus” (Megerle, 1803)

Cat. Ins. Viennae Austriae 28 Novembris 1803, auctionis: [81], no. 436.

Original Combination: [Papilio] notatus

Type Locality: “Georgia”

Types: Probably none designated.

I.C.Z.N. Opinion 1710 placed this work on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works in Zoological Nomenclature. This name has at times been credited to A. Clark and L. Clark (1941), Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 43(4): 83, no. 1; their mention of the name represents a nomen nudum.

=    ‡”alba” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 82, no. 58a; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 2, fig. 6 ♀ D, pl. Colias III, figs. 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] ab. a. ♀ Alba

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Type(s)” may be in CMNH.

=    ‡”nig” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 82, no. 58b; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 3, figs. 8 ♂ D, 9 ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] ab. b. ♂ Nig

Type Locality: “near Palmyra, New York...Montreal, Canada”; “lectotype” from “Montreal.” [Quebec]

Types: The specimen from Montreal in FMNH is the sole remaining “syntype”; L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 220, note 281, designated this as “lectotype.”

=    ‡”virida” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 82, no. 58c.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] ab. c. ♀ Virida

Type Locality: “taken at the same time and place as the preceding [nig]” “near Montreal, Canada” [Quebec]

Types: “Holotype” in FMNH.

=    ‡”hybrida” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 82, no. 58d; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 3, fig. 1 ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] ab. d. ♀ Hybrida

Type Locality: “Illinois, Georgia”; determined to be “Rock Island, Illinois” from Edwards’ figure. [Rock Island County]

Types: “Holotype” is the specimen figured by W. H. Edwards (1876), ibid., possibly in CMNH.

=    ‡”albinic” W. H. Edwards, [1885]

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 11(3/4): 264, under no. 68; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 2, fig. 6 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] var. Albinic

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”melanic” W. H. Edwards, [1885]

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 11(3/4): 264, under no. 68; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 3, figs. 8 ♀ D, 9 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] var. Melanic

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”maria” W. H. Edwards, 1885

Papilio 4(9-10): 171.

Original Combination: C[olias]. [philodice] maria

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” lost.

This name represents a cyanide-stained specimen, inadvertently described.

=    ‡”nigridice” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(8): 1114; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 3, figs. 8 ♂ D, 9 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Eurymus phil[odice]. [♂ form] nigridice

Type Locality: “Palmyra, N. Y.” [Wayne County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” is the specimen figured by W. H. Edwards (1876), ibid., possibly in CMNH.

=    ‡”miscidice” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(8): 1115.

Original Combination: E[urymus]. p[hilodice]. [♀ form] miscidice

Type Locality: “Lynn, Mass.” [Essex County, Massachusetts]

Types: “Holotype” in Sanborn collection, location not known.

=    ‡”pallidice” Scudder, 1889

Butterflies E. U. S. & Can. 2(8): 1115; 3(8): pl. 7, fig. 6 ♀ D (“holotype”); cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 2, fig. 6 ♀ D; pl. Colias III, figs. 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: E[urymus]. p[hilodice]. [♀ form] pallidice

Type Locality: “New England” implied from the title of the work.

Types: Location of “syntypes” not known, may be at MCZ.

=    ‡”suffusa” Cockerell, 1889

Entomol. 22(310): 55.

Original Combination: C[olias]. philodice suffusa

Type Locality: “Massachusetts”

Types: “Type” figured by Maynard (1886), Butterflies N. England: pl. vii, fig. 57c, may be based on a specimen in the MCZ.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”alba” Ehrmann, 1890

Entomol. News 1(6): 93.

Original Combination: Colias philodice, Ab. alba

Type Locality: “Sarver Station, Butler County, Pa.” [Pennsylvania]

Types: Type either unrecognizable or lost.

Redescribed by Ehrmann (1890) in Entomol. News 1(8): 130.

=    ‡”luteitincta” Wolcott, 1893

Can. Entomol. 25(4): 104, under no. 50.

Original Combination: Colias philodice, var. luteitincta

Type Locality: “Batavia, Ills....Grand Rapids” [Kane County, Illinois; Kent County, Michigan]

Types: Type may be in USNM.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”albinic” Skinner, 1898

Syn. Cat. N. Am. Rhop.: 68, no. 415; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 2, fig. 6 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] var. albinic

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon. It has been listed in checklists and catalogues (e.g., L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 2: 78), but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”melanic” Skinner, 1898

Syn. Cat. N. Am. Rhop.: 69, no. 415; cited W. H. Edwards (1876), Butterflies N. Am. 2(5): pl. Colias 3, figs. 8 ♂ D, 9 ♂ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Philodice] var. melanic

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon. It has been listed in checklists and catalogues (e.g., L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 2: 78), but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”nigrina” Strecker, 1900

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (suppl. 3): 19; cited Strecker (1878), Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 82, no. 58b.

Original Combination: Colias philodice ♂ form nigrina

Type Locality: “Bethlehem, Pa...Montreal, Can...Orillia, Can.” [Lehigh and Northhampton counties, Pennsylvania; Quebec and Ontario]

Types: “Syntypes” in FMNH.

This amounts to a re-description of Colias philodice ab. ♂ nig which was not cited by name.

=    ‡”alba” Röber, 1909

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 91.

Original Combination: [Colias philodice] ab. alba

Type Locality: Not stated; “lectotype” from “Philadelphia.” [Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Lectotype” in ZMHB, designated by Lamas (1995), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 23(91): 344.

=    ‡”nigrofasciata” Reiff, 1917

Lepidopterist 1(3): 22-23, pl. 3 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias philodice f[orm] nigrofasciata

Type Locality: “Belchertown, Massachusetts” [Hampshire County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”rothkei” Reiff, 1917

Lepidopterist 1(11): 84, pl. 7 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Colias philodice ab. rothkei

Type Locality: “Susquehanna Valley, Pa.” [Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”plicaduta” Nakahara, 1926

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 20(5): 222-223.

Original Combination: Colias philodice f. plicaduta

Type Locality: “Ithaca, N. Y.” [Tompkins County, New York]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”inversata” Nakahara, 1926

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 20(5): 223.

Original Combination: Colias philodice ab. inversata

Type Locality: “Midvale, Allegheny Co., Pa.” [Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”minor” F. Chermock, 1927

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 22(2): 118.

Original Combination: Colias philodice form plicaduta ab. minor

Type Locality: “N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa.” [Allegheny County, Pennyslvania]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

=    ‡”ehrmanni” F. Chermock, 1927

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 22(2): 118.

Original Combination: Colias philodice from [sic!] plicaduta ab. Ehrmanni

Type Locality: “N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa.” [Allegheny County, Pennyslvania]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

=    ‡”alba” F. Chermock, 1927

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 22(2): 119.

Original Combination: Colias philodice from [sic!] plicaduta var. alba

Type Locality: “N. S. Pittsburgh, Pa.” [Allegheny County, Pennyslvania]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

=    ‡”albida” F. Chermock, 1928

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 23(4): 173.

Original Combination: Colias philodice f. plicaduta var. albida

Proposed as a replacement name for alba F. Chermock, 1927, but that name is infrasubspecific and therefore not subject to homonymy.

=    ‡”raritus” (Gunder, 1928)

Can. Entomol. 60(7): 163, pl. A, figs. 2 ♀ D, 2a ♀ V (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Eurymus philodice tr. f. raritus

Type Locality: “Scranton, Pa.” [Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”serrata” (F. Chermock, 1929)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 24(1): 21.

Original Combination: Eurymus philodice var. serrata

Type Locality: “Rossgrove, near Aspinwall, Pa.” [Allegheny County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

=    ‡”minor” Dufrane, 1947

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 83(1/2): 69.

Original Combination: [Colias philodice f. anthyale] minor

Type Locality: “Temple, Pa. E. U. A.” [Berks County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Syntype” in IRSN.

Dufrane probably used the name minor as a qualifier for a small specimen.

=    ‡”reducta” Dufrane, 1947

Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 83(1/2): 69.

Original Combination: [Colias philodice f. anthyale] ab. reducta

Type Locality: “Temple, Pa. E. U. A.” [Berks County, Pennsylvania]

Types: “Syntype” in IRSN.

‡”alba” Pilate, 1882

Papilio 2(5): 65.

Original Combination: [Colias] Philodice ♀ var. Alba

Proposed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum

‡”vernalis” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 198, no. 38.

Original Combination: [Colias philodice] form vernalis

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

b.   Colias philodice eriphyle W. H. Edwards, 1876

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 5(3/4): 202.

Original Combination: Colias Eriphyle

Type Locality: “Lake Labache [sic!], in British Columbia” [Lake La Hache]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 87, fig. 20 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 35, fig. 15 ♂ D.

=    hagenii W. H. Edwards, [1884]

Papilio 3(7-10): 160-161, 163, no. 11.

Original Combination: Colias Hagenii

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains from Colorado to B. Am....Pueblo, Col....various localities...So. Colorado to Montana and Dacotah (Bismarck)”; defined as “northeastern corner of South Park, Park Co., Colorado” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 87.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 90, fig. 21 ♂ D&V.

=    kootenai Cockle, 1910

Can. Entomol. 42(6): 203-204.

Original Combination: Colias Kootenai

Type Locality: “Kaslo and in Northern British Columbia” implied from the title of the paper.

Types: Syntypes in CNC.

=    ‡”autumnalis” Cockerell, 1888

W. Am. Sci. 4(33): 42.

Original Combination: [Colias Eurytheme Eriphyle] autumn brood autumnalis

Type Locality: “Swift Creek, Custer Co., Colo.” [Colorado]

Types: Type(s) possibly in BMNH.

=    ‡”nigricosta” (F. Chermock, 1929)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 24(1): 21.

Original Combination: Eurymus eurytheme f. eriphyle var. nigricosta

Type Locality: “Edmonton, Alberta, Canada”

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

=    ‡”laurae” (F. Chermock, 1929)

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 24(1): 21.

Original Combination: Eurymus eurytheme f. eriphyle ab. laurae

Type Locality: “Edmonton, Alberta, Canada”

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

c.   Colias philodice vitabunda Hovanitz, 1943

Am. Mus. Novit. (1240): 2, 3-4.

Original Combination: Colias chrysotheme vitabunda

Type Locality: “McKinley National Park, Alaska” [Denali National Park]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

=    ‡”pallidissima” Bowman, 1942

Can. Entomol. 74(2): 25.

Original Combination: [Colias eurytheme alberta] ab. ♀ pallidissima

Type Locality: “Fort Vermillion, Alta.” [Alberta]

Types: “Syntypes” in CNC; figured by Ferris (1972), Bull. Allyn Mus. (5): 17, 21 ♀ D, 22 ♀ V, 23 ♀ D, 24 ♀ V.

344.      Colias eurytheme Boisduval, 1852

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 286, no. 13.

Original Combination: Colias eurytheme

Type Locality: “toute la Californie...aussi le Mexique et quelques parties des Etats-Unis”; defined as “Sacramento, Sacramento County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 8.

Types: Lectotype USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 9, figs. 6 ♂ D, 7 ♂ V; figured by Verity [1908], Rhop. palae. (17-20): pl. 49, fig. 42 ♂ D, labeled “Californie.”

=    amphidusa Boisduval, 1852

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (2)10(2): 286-287, no. 14.

Original Combination: Colias amphidusa

Type Locality: “Du nord de la Californie”; defined as “Sacramento, Sacramento County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 9.

Types: Lectotype USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 9, figs. 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V; figured by Verity [1908], Rhop. palae. (17-20): pl. 49, fig. 44 ♂ D, labeled “Californie.”

=    californiana Ménétriés, 1855

Enum. corp. anim. (1): 80, under no. 253.

Original Combination: [Colias Edusa] var. Californiana

Type Locality: “Nouvelle Californie”

Types: Type(s) should be in ZIN.

=    xenodice C. Felder & R. Felder, 1859

Wien. entomol. Monatschr. 3(12): 394-395, no. 35.

Original Combination: Colias Xenodice

Type Locality: “Assam”; holotype labeled “Illinois.”

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

=    keewaydin W. H. Edwards, 1869

Butterflies N. Am. [1](4): [47]-[49], pl. Colias 4, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 5 ♀ D, 6 ♂ D, 8 ♂ D, 9 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias Keewaydin

Type Locality: “valley of the Mississippi from Nebraska and Illinois to Texas and westward to the Pacific...Middle States and Canada”; defined as “Sedalia, Missouri” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 78-81. [Pettis County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 81, fig. 18 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 36, fig. 9 ♂ D.

=    ariadne W. H. Edwards, 1870

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(1): 10, 12-13, no. 4; figured by W. H. Edwards (1878), Butterflies N. Am. 2(7): pl. Colias 4, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Ariadne

Type Locality: “Mokeluma Hills [sic!], California” [Mokelumne Hill, Calaveras County]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 83, fig. 19 ♂ D&V.

=    graeca O. Bang-Haas, 1927

Horae Macrolepid. 1(8): 44, 113.

Original Combination: Colias chrysotheme graeca

Bang-Haas adopted Colias chrysotheme var. chrysotheme race graeca Verity [1911] to represent a subspecies-level taxon (Code Articles 10.2, 45.5.1) He called figure 5 the male type and figure 6 the female type and, in accordance with his statement on page xix of the same work, this may be accepted as a holotype and allotype designation. The male is a specimen of Colias eurytheme Boisduval, 1852.

=    ‡”graeca” Verity, 1911

Rhop. Palaearctica: 359; pl. 72, figs. 5 % D (holotype), 6 & D; ind. syst.: xl.

Original Combination: [Colias chrysotheme var. chrysotheme] race graeca

Type Locality: “Grèce” in error.

Types: Holotype in BMNH.

As a quadrinomial, this name is unavailable (Code Article 45.5).

=    ‡”alba” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat. Lepid: 82, no. 60b; cited W. H. Edwards (1869), Butterflies N. Am. [1](4): pl. Colias 3, figs. 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Chrysotheme var. a. gen. 2 Eurytheme] ab. b. Alba

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Type(s)” possibly in CMNH.

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon. It has been listed in checklists and catalogues (e.g., L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 2: 80), but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”flava” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 83, no. 60c.

Original Combination: [Colias Chrysotheme var. a. gen 2 Eurytheme] ab. c. Flava

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” possibly in FMNH.

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon. It has been listed in checklists and catalogues (e.g., L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 2: 80), but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”alba” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 83, no. 60e; cited W. H. Edwards (1869), Butterflies N. Am. [1](4): pl. Colias 4, fig. 9 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Chrysotheme var. d Keewaydin] ab. e. ♀ Alba

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: “Holotype” possibly in CMNH.

It is doubtful that this can be considered the description of a new taxon. It has been listed in checklists and catalogues (e.g., L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. 2: 80), but is included for the sake of completeness.

=    ‡”pallida” Cockerell, 1887

W. Am. Sci. 3(31): 217.

Original Combination: C[olias]. eurytheme var. pallida

Type Locality: “near West Cliff [sic!], Custer Co., Colorado” [Westcliffe]

Types: Type(s) possibly in BMNH.

=    ‡”typica” Cockerell, 1888

W. Am. Sci. 4(33): 41-43.

Original Combination: Colias eurytheme typica

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; “vic. of Westcliffe, Custer Co., Colorado” implied from the text of the paper.

Types: Type(s) probably lost (or never existed).

Name was inadvertently proposed.

=    ‡”intermedia” Cockerell, 1888

W. Am. Sci. 4(33): 42 (in part).

Original Combination: [Colias Eurytheme] form intermedia

Type Locality: “Swift Creek, Custer Co., Colo.” [Colorado]

Types: Type(s) possibly in BMNH.

=    ‡”pallida” Cockerell, 1888

W. Am. Sci. 4(33): 42 (in part).

Original Combination: [Colias Eurytheme] intermedia [female form] pallida

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; “vic. of Westcliffe, Custer Co., Colorado” implied from the text of the paper.

Types: Type(s) possibly in BMNH.

=    ‡”pallida” Cockerell, 1888

W. Am. Sci. 4(33): 42 (in part).

Original Combination: [Colias Eurytheme] keewaydin [female form] pallida

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; “vic. of Westcliffe, Custer Co., Colorado” implied from the text of the paper.

Types: Type(s) possibly in BMNH.

=    ‡”fumosa” Strecker, 1900

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (suppl. 3): 19.

Original Combination: Colias eurytheme [♀] ab. fumosa

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: “Holotype” in FMNH.

=    ‡”neuburgeri” Geest, 1905

Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 1(9): 379, no. 3.

Original Combination: Colias Eyrytheme [sic!] ab. Neuburgeri

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of “type” not known.

=    ‡”alba” Röber, 1909

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 93.

Original Combination: [Colias eurytheme] ab. alba

Type Locality: Not stated; “lectotype” from “Nevada, Verdi.” [Washoe County]

Types: “Lectotype” in ZMHB, designated by Lamas (1993), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 21(83): 142, no. 10.

=    ‡”albina” Röber, 1909

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 93.

Original Combination: [Colias eurytheme] ab. albina

Type Locality: Not stated; “lectotype” from “Nevada, Verdi.” [Washoe County]

Types: “Lectotype” in ZMHB, designated by Lamas (1993), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 21(83): 142, no. 10.

=    ‡”unicitrina” (Gunder, 1924)

Entomol. News 35(3): 158, pl. 2, fig. J ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Eurymus eurytheme amphidusa ab. ♂ unicitrina

Type Locality: “Upland, Los Angeles Co., California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”rudkini” (Gunder, 1932)

Can. Entomol. 64(12): 277-278.

Original Combination: Eurymus eurytheme tr. f. rudkini

Type Locality: “San Marino, Los Angeles Co., Calif.”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

‡”vernalis” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 196, no. 37.

Original Combination: [Colias eurytheme] form vernalis

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

345.      Colias occidentalis Scudder, 1862

a.   Colias occidentalis occidentalis Scudder, 1862

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 9: 109-111, unnumbered fig.

Original Combination: Colias Occidentalis

Type Locality: “Gulf of Georgia...Fort Simpson, British America”; lectotype from “Gulf of Georgia.” This locality was interpreted to be “near Port Townsend, Wash. Terr., Gulf of Georgia” by H. Hagen (1883), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 22: 164. [Jefferson County, Washington]

Types: Lectotype (#16603) in MCZ, designated by W. Barnes and McDunnough (1918), Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 4(2): 65; the same specimen was later designated lectotype by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (116): 19, figs. 29 ♂ D, 30 ♂ V, 31 ♂ D UV.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 196, no. 36.

Original Combination: [Colias occidentalis] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

b.   Colias occidentalis chrysomelas Hy. Edwards, 1877

Pac. Coast Lepid. (24): 8-9, 11.

Original Combination: C[olias]. Chrysomelas

Type Locality: “Napa County, Cal.” [California]

Types: Lectotype (#3448 2308) in AMNH, designated by Ferris (1993), Bull. Allyn Mus. (138): 38, figs. 56 ♂ D, 57 ♂ V, 58 ♂ D UV.

On page 9 this taxon was spelled “chryomelas,” an incorrect original spelling. L. Miller and F. Brown (1983), in: Hodges, et al., MONA Check List: 52, spelled this name “chrysomelaena,” an unjustified emendation of chrysomelas.

=    ‡”shastae” (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25(3): 88, under no. 63a.

Original Combination: Eurymus occidentalis chrysomelas form shastae

Type Locality: “Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., Calif.” [California]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

c.   Colias occidentalis sullivani Hammond & McCorkle, 2003

J. Lepid. Soc. 57(4): 275-276, figs. 1st row left ♂ D (holotype), 1st row left center ♀ D, 2nd row left ♂ V, 2nd row left center ♀ V, 3rd left ♂ V, left center ♂ V, right center ♂ V, right ♂ V, 4th row left ♂ D, 4th row left center ♂ V, 4th row right center ♂ V, 4th row right ♂ V.

Original Combination: Colias occidentalis sullivani

Type Locality: “Oregon, Harney County, Alvord Desert road at north end of Steens Mountains, T29N, R36E, sec. 25, 26”

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

d.   Colias occidentalis pseudochristina Ferris, 1989

Bull. Allyn Mus. (128): 2-9, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♂ D UV, 5 ♂ D, 6 ♀ V, 8 ♂ V, 9 ♂ V, 10 ♂ V, 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V, 13 ♀ D, 14 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias pseudochristina

Type Locality: “Summit Co., Utah along the North Fork of the Provo River”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

=    wasatchia Gillette, 1989

Utahensis 8(4): 41-44, pl. 1, upper left ♂ D, lower left ♂ V (holotype), upper right ♀ D, lower right ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias occidentalis wasatchia

Type Locality: “A ridge 2.3 mi. west of the SW end of Strawberry Reservoir, elev. (2408m)/7900 ft, on the west side of the W Strawberry Rsv road, and 1.9 mi. south of East Portal, Wasatch Co., Utah”

Types: Holotype in BYU.

346.      Colias christina W. H. Edwards, 1863

Opler (1999), Field Guide W. Butterflies: 165, and Hammond and McCorkle (2003), J. Lepid. Soc. 57(4): 274-278, suggested that this taxon is conspecific with C. occidentalis. The arrangement of christina and occidentalis as geographic subspecies is evocative, but the arrangement proposed by A. Warren (2005), Butterflies Ore.: 87-91, is maintained until further information becomes available.

a.   Colias christina kluanensis Ferris, 1981

Bull. Allyn Mus. (63): 1-3, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 4 ♀ D, 5 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias alexandra kluanensis

Type Locality: “Haines Junction, Y. T., Canada” [Yukon Territory]

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

=    yukonensis Berger, 1986

Lambillionea 86(7/8, suppl.): 45.

Original Combination: [Colias] Yukonensis

Type Locality: “Yukon (Canada)”

Types: Location of types not known, possibly none designated.

It is considered that the key containing this name barely qualifies as a description.

b.   Colias christina christina W. H. Edwards, 1863

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 78, 79-80, no. 2; figured by W. H. Edwards (1868), Butterflies N. Am. [1](2): pl. Colias 2, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Christina

Type Locality: “portage of the Slave River”; W. H. Edwards (1884), Papilio 4(2): 30, added “about latitude 60o”; defined as “near the Slave River between Fort Smith, Northwest Territories and Fitzgerald, Alberta” by Kondla (1995), Alberta Naturalist 25(4): 76. [Northwest Territories]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 63.

=    alberta Bowman, 1942

Can. Entomol. 74(2): 25.

Original Combination: Colias eurytheme alberta

Type Locality: “Wembley, Alta.” [Alberta]

Types: Holotype in CNC; figured by Ferris (1972), Bull. Allyn Mus. (5): 13, fig. ♂ D&V.

Ferris (1972), Bull. Allyn Mus. (5): 7-9, suggested that this taxon may be a form of C. eurytheme, but Masters (1971), J. Res. Lepid. 9(2): 97-99, and Kondla (1991), Utahensis 6(4): 45, presented evidence supporting this synonymy.

=    ‡”pallida” Cockerell, 1889

Entomol. 22(312): 128, no. 2f; cited Colias christina (sensu Lyman (1884), Can. Entomol. 16(1): 6).

Original Combination: C[olias]. christinapallida

Type Locality: Not stated; Lyman (1884), ibid., recorded the type from “North-west Territories.”

Types: “Type” is the specimen mentioned by Lyman, may be in LEMQ.

c.   Colias christina sacajawea Kohler, 2006

Papilio (n.s.) 12: 8-9, pl. 1, 4th row left ♂ D, 5th row left ♂ V (holotype), 4th row center ♀ D, 5th row center ♀ V, 4th row right ♀ D&V, 5th row right ♀ V, pl. 2, 1st row left ♂ D, 2nd row left ♂ V, 1st row center ♂ D&V, 2nd row center ♂ V, 1st row right ♀ D&V, 2nd row right ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Colias christina sacajawea

Type Locality: “Elkhorn Creek, Beartooth Game Range, Lewis & Clark Co., Montana”

Types: Holotype in Kohler collection, will be deposited in BYU.

d.   Colias christina pseudocolumbiensis C. Guppy & J. Shepard, 2001

Butterflies B. C.: 172-173, figs. ♂ D&V (holotype), ♀ D&V.

Original Combination: Colias alexandra pseudocolumbiensis

Type Locality: “BC, Hall Creek at Hwy. 33” [British Columbia]

Types: Holotype in BCPM.

e.   Colias christina columbiensis Ferris, 1973

J. Lepid. Soc. 27(1): 68-71, figs. 6a, 6b ♂ D&V (holotype); 6c, 6d ♀ D&V, 6e ♂ D UV (holotype), 6f same.

Original Combination: Colias alexandra columbiensis

Type Locality: “Anderson Lake, D'Arcy, B. C.” [British Columbia]

Types: Holotype in CNC.

The status of columbiensis and pseudocolumbiensis needs further study.

f.    Colias christina krauthii Klots, 1935

Am. Mus. Novit. (767): 1-2.

Original Combination: Colias christina krauthii

Type Locality: “twelve miles west of Custer, Black Hills, South Dakota” [Custer County]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

347.      Colias alexandra W. H. Edwards, 1863

a.   Colias alexandra altamont Kondla & Kohler, 2006

Papilio (n.s.) 12: 11-12, pl. 1, 1st row left ♂ D, 2nd row left ♂ V (holotype), 1st row center ♀ D, 2nd row center ♀ V, 1st row right ♀ D, 2nd row right ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias alexandra altamont

Type Locality: “Arrow Creek breaks, Hwy. 80, 19 mi. N. of Stanford, Fergus Co., Montana”

Types: Holotype in Kohler collection, will be deposited in BYU.

b.   Colias alexandra astraea W. H. Edwards, 1872

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 4(1/2): 61, no. 1.

Original Combination: Colias Astraea

Type Locality: “near the Yellowstone Lake” [Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming]

Types: Holotype in CMNH, figured by F. Brown (1973),Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): fig. 17 ♂ D&V.

c.   Colias alexandra alexandra W. H. Edwards, 1863

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(1): 14-15, no. 1; [4]: pl. 11, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, 3 ♂ V; figured by W. H. Edwards (1868), Butterflies N. Am. [1](2): pl. Colias 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Alexandra

Type Locality: “Pikes Peak...Rocky Mountains”; defined as “foothills west of Denver, Colorado” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 60.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 62, fig. 12 ♂ D&V.

=    ‡”alba” Strecker, 1878

Butterflies & Moths N. Am., Comp. Syn. Cat.: 81, no. 55a.

Original Combination: [Colias Alexandra] ab. a. ♀ Alba

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type apparently lost, if it ever existed.

Strecker may not have intended to describe this as a new taxon.

=    ‡”pallida” Cockerell, 1889

Entomol. 22(312): 128, no. 2f; cited W. H. Edwards (1887), Can. Entomol. 19(12): 229 (actually 230).

Original Combination: C[olias]. alexandrapallida

Type Locality: Not specifically stated; the white female mentioned by W. H. Edwards is from “Colorado.”

Types: Type, if it can be identified, is probably in CMNH.

d.   Colias alexandra altiplano M. Fisher & Scott, 2006

Papilio (n.s.) 12: 10-11, pl. 6, 3rd row left ♂ D, 4th row left ♂ V (holotype), 3rd row center ♀ D, 4th row center ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias edwardsii (alexandra?) altiplano

Type Locality: “Piney Creek, 6000 ft., Arapahoe Co., Colorado”

Types: Holotype in CSUC.

e.   Colias alexandra apache Ferris, 1988

Bull. Allyn. Mus. (116): 8-11, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V (holotype); 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias alexandra apache

Type Locality: “13 mi. E. of McNary, 2520 m, Apache Co., Arizona”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

f.    Colias alexandra edwardsii W. H. Edwards, 1870

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(1): 10, 11, no. 2; figured by W. H. Edwards (1870), Butterflies N. Am. [1](6): pl. Colias 6, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V, 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Edwardsii

Type Locality: “near Virginia City, at high elevations” [Storey County, Nevada]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 67, fig. 14 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 68, fig. 24 ♂ D (lectotype), 25 ♀ D (paralectotype).

=    emilia W. H. Edwards, 1870

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(1): 10, 12, no. 3.

Original Combination: Colias Emilia

Type Locality: “Oregon”; neotype from “Crump Lake, 4500', Lake County, Oregon.”

Types: Neotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 72, fig. 15 ♂ D&V.

=    ‡”hatui” (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25(3): 89, no. 67a.

Original Combination: Eurymus alexandra edwardsi form ♀ hatui

Type Locality: “Stockton, Utah” [Tooele County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

348.      Colias harfordii Hy. Edwards, 1877

Pac. Coast. Lepid. (24): 9.

Original Combination: Colias Harfordii

Type Locality: “Contra Costa Co...Havilab [sic!], Kern Co.” [Havilah, Kern County, California]

Types: Lectotype (#3436 7003) in AMNH, designated by Ferris (1993), Bull. Allyn Mus. (138): 14, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V, 6 ♂ D UV.

The first reviser choice of harfordii over barbara was made by Skinner (1898), Syn. Cat. N. Am. Rhop.: 69.

=    barbara Hy. Edwards, 1877

Pac. Coast. Lepid. (24): 7-8, 11.

Original Combination: Colias Barbara

Type Locality: “Santa Barbara...Gilroy”; lectotype from “San Bernardino California.” [San Bernardino County]

Types: Lectotype (#3440 7005) in AMNH, designated by Ferris (1993), Bull. Allyn Mus. (138): 13.

=    ‡”weaverae” (Gunder, 1924)

Entomol. News 35(3): 156-157, pl. 2, fig. G ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Eurymus hartfordii ab. ♀ weaverae

Type Locality: “Warner Springs, San Diego County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 80, suggested that this may be a hybrid with C. eurytheme, but Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (116): 5, considered this within the normal range of variation in C. harfordii.

=    ‡”martini” (Gunder, 1931)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 30(2): 45.

Original Combination: Eurymus harfordii form ♀ martini

Type Locality: “South side of Arrowhead Lake, San Bernardino Co., Calif.” [Calfornia]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

349.      Colias meadii W. H. Edwards, 1871

a.   Colias meadii meadii W. H. Edwards, 1871

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 3(3/4): 266, 267-268, no. 2; figured by W. H. Edwards (1872), Butterflies N. Am. [1](10): pl. Colias 8, figs. 6 ♂ D, 7 ♂ V, 8 ♀ D, 9 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Meadii

Type Locality: Not stated; W. H. Edwards (1872), Butterflies N. Am. [1](10): [59], noted “Colorado...on the ‘divide’...Mt. Lincoln...Kenosha House”; defined as “Mosquito Pass” by F. Brown (1934), J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 42(2): 158-159; further defined as “Mosquito Pass, Park-Lake Counties, Colorado” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 91.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 93, fig. 22 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 36, fig. 5 ♂ D (lectotype), 6 ♀ D (paralectotype).

=    ‡”andelis” Grum-Grshimailo, 1907

Opisan. puteshest. Zapad. Kitai 3: 424; cited W. H. Edwards (1892), Can. Entomol. 24(3): 54-55.

Original Combination: [Colias meadii] v? ab? andelis

Type Locality: “Hall Valley...Gibson Mountain” [Park and Saguache Counties, Colorado]

Types: “Syntypes” possibly in CMNH.

=    ‡”medi” (Gunder, 1934)

Can. Entomol. 66(6): 125.

Original Combination: Eurymus meadii f. ♀ medi

Type Locality: “Breckenridge Peak (11,000 f.), Empire Co., Colorado” [probably Summit County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 194, no. 34.

Original Combination: [Colias meadii meadii] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

b.   Colias meadii elis Strecker, 1885

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 37(2): 24; (3): 25.

Original Combination: Colias Elis

Type Locality: “at an elevation of 10,000 feet...summit of ‘Kicking Horse Pass’, in the Rocky Mountains, between Alberta Territory and British Columbia, at the boundary between the United States and the British possessions, about 300 miles north of Montana”; defined as “Kicking Horse Pass, Banff National Park, Alberta” by Kondla (1996), Alberta Naturalist 26(2): 39.

Types: Syntypes in FMNH; two figured by W. Holland (1898), Butterfly Book: pl. 36, figs. 13 ♂ D, 14 ♀ D.

=    ‡”lambillioni” Dufrane, 1947

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 83(1-2): 70.

Original Combination: [Colias elis] ab. lambillioni

Type Locality: “Canada”

Types: “Holotype” probably in MRAC.

c.   Colias meadii lemhiensis N. Curtis & Ferris, 1985

Bull. Allyn Mus. (91): 2-7, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype).

Original Combination: Colias meadii lemhiensis

Type Locality: “near Meadow Creek Lake, 4 mi. W. of Gilmore, 9100' (2775m), Lemhi Range, Salmon National Forest, Lemhi Co., Idaho”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

350.      Colias johanseni Troubridge & Philip, 1990

Can. Entomol. 122(1/2): 16-17, figs. 1A ♂ D, 1B ♂ V (holotype); 2A ♀ D, 2B ♀ V, 3A ♂ V, 3B ♂ V.

Original Combination: Colias johanseni

Type Locality: “Canada, District of Mackenzie, Bernard Harbour, altitude 10 m” [Nunavut]

Types: Holotype in CNC.

351.      Colias rankinensis Verhulst, 2009

Lambillionea 109(4): 421-422, pl. [1], figs. 1 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V (holotype), 2 ♂ D, 7 ♂ V, 3 ♂ D, 8 ♂ V 4 ♂ D, 9 ♂ V, 5 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V, 11 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V, 12 ♂ D, 17 ♂ V, 13 ♂ D, 18 ♂ V, pl [2], figs. 1 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V (holotype), 2 ♀ D, 7 ♀ V, 3 ♀ D, 8 ♀ V 4 ♀ D, 9 ♀ V, 5 ♀ D, 10 ♀ V, 11 ♀ D, 16 ♀ V, 12 ♀ D, 17 ♀ V, 13 ♀ D, 18 ♀ V, 14 ♀ D, 19 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias rankinensis

Type Locality: “Canada, Nunavut, Rankin Inlet, N 62°48’32.19, O 92° 6’26.25’”

Types: Holotype in Verhulst collection.

352.      Colias hecla Lefèbvre, 1836

a.   Colias hecla hecla Lefèbvre, 1836

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. [1]5: 383-387, pl. 9B, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Hecla

Type Locality: “l'Islande”; determined to be “Groenlandia” by Zetterstedt, [1839], Ins. Lappon. (5): col. 908-909, no. 3.

Types: Syntypes in ZMUC.

=    glacialis M'Lachlan, 1878

J. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool. 14(74): 108.

Original Combination: Colias Hecla, var. Glacialis

Type Locality: “lat. 81o45'...Hayes Sound, lat. 79o...Discovery Bay” [latitude 81o45' refers to Lady Franklin Bay, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH; two figured by Ferris (1981), Bull. Allyn Mus. (63): figs. 8 ♂ D, 9 ♂ V, 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V, and (1982), Bull. Allyn Mus. (71): figs. 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ V, 16 ♀ D, 17 ♀ V.

=    zetterstedti Grum-Grshimailo, 1890

In: Romanov, Mém. Lépid. 4: 297, (note 157).

Original Combination: [Colias Hecla] var. Zetterstedti

Type Locality: “Groënland”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    pallida [Skinner], 1892

Entomol. News 3(3): 49, pl. 2, fig. 4 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias hecla var. pallida

Type Locality: “Greenland”; syntypes from “West Coast...McCormick Bay, Herbert Island and Disco.”

Types: Syntype (#7030) in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 75, fig. 4 & D.

The plate and accompanying legend were Skinner’s work as editor, although this is not stated in the publication. This taxon was redescribed by Skinner and Mengel (1892), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 44(5): 156-157.

=    groenlandica Rühl, 1893

In: Rühl & Heyne, Palae. Grossschmett. 1(3): 158.

Original Combination: [Colias Hecla] var. groenlandica

Type Locality: “Labrador, Grönland”; “Greenland” implied from the derivation of the name.

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

=    ‡chrysothemoides Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (26-29): 356; (30-36): pl. 71, figs. 22 ♂ D, 23 ♀ D; ind. syst.: xxxvii.

Original Combination: [Colias hecla hecla] forme chrysothemoides

Type Locality: “Territoire de Barren, 114o30' long. O., 67o40' lat. N., Am. boréale” implied from the legend to plate 71. [vic. Coppermine, Northwest Territories]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    ‡”palamedes” Hemming, 1934

Stylops 3(5): 98, no. 17.

Original Combination: Colias hecla palamedes

Proposed to replace Colias hecla var. pallida Skinner and Mengel 1892, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 44(5): 156-157, an unavailable name.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 194, no. 33.

Original Combination: [Colias hecla hecla] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

b.   Colias hecla hela Strecker, 1880

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 3(5): 33-34.

Original Combination: Colias Hela

Type Locality: “a considerable distance above Fort Churchill on west coast of Hudsons's Bay”; suggested to be “the vicinity of Eskimo Point” by Ferris (1982), Bull. Allyn Mus. (71): 10. [Arviat, Nunavut, Canada]

Types: Syntypes in FMNH; figured by Ferris (1982), Bull. Allyn Mus. (71): figs. 35 ♂ D, 36 ♂ V, 37 ♀ D, 38 ♀ V, 39 ♀ D, 40 ♀ V.

c.   Colias hecla zamolodchikovi Churkin & Grieshuber, 2001

Helios 2: 178-180, pl. 15, figs. 5 ♂ D (holotype), 6 ♂ V, pl. 16, figs. 1 ♀ D, 2 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias hecla zamolodchikovi

Type Locality: “Russia, East Chukotka, 20 km SE Ioni Lake, Gilmimlviem, [65o 48' N, 173o 22' W]” [Magadan Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia]

Types: Holotype in DSM.

353.      Colias canadensis Ferris, 1982

Bull. Allyn Mus. (71): 11-14, figs. 49 ♂ D, 50 ♂ V (holotype); 51 ♀ D, 52 ♀ D, 53 ♂ D, 54 ♂ V, 55 ♀ D, 56 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias hecla canadensis

Type Locality: “mile 209, Alaska Highway, British Columbia, Canada”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (116): 12, elevated this taxon to the species-level.

*354.    Colias tyche (Böber, 1812)

Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 3: 21, no. 7, pl. 1, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V; 320 (index, binomial combination).

Original Combination: [Papilio] Dan[aus]. Tyche

Type Locality: “Sibérie” implied from the title of the paper, but stated to be “des environs du lac Baïkal” by Böber, (1809), Mém. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 2: 303. [Republic of Buryatia, Russia]

Types: Syntypes probably lost.

Grieshuber (1998), Lambillionea 98(1)(Tome 2): 126-134, 98(3)(Tome 2): 453-468, and (1998) 98(4)(Tome 1): 509-522, revised this species, and proposed the following synonymy.

=    melinos Eversmann, 1847

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 20(2)(3): 72-73, no. 7, pl. 3, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ V, 5 ♀ D, 6 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias Melinos

Type Locality: “Sibiria orientali”; suggested to be “environs of Ulan-Ude” by Grieshuber (2004), Helios 5: 8. [Republic of Buryatia, Russia]

Types: Lectotype in ZIN, designated by Grieshuber (2004), Helios 5: 6-7, pl. 1, fig. 12 ♂ D.

=    chloe Eversmann, 1847

Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 20(2)(3): 73-74, no. 8, pl. 4, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Colias Chloë

Type Locality: “Sibiria orientali, in provincia Irkutskensi, circa Kiachtam”; suggested to be “environs of Ulan-Ude” by Grieshuber (2004), Helios 5: 6. [Republic of Buryatia, Russia]

Types: Lectotype in ZIN, designated by Grieshuber (2004), Helios 5: 5-6, pl. 1, fig. 10 ♂ D.

=    magna Rühl, 1893

In: Heyne, Palae. Grossschmett. 1(3): 153.

Original Combination: [Colias Melinos] var. magna

Type Locality: “Baikalien” [Republic of Buryatia, Russia]

Types: Location type(s) not known.

=    alpina Elwes, 1899

Trans. Entomol. Soc. Lond.(4)1899(3): 304, 319-320.

Original Combination: Colias melinos var. alpina

Type Locality: “the high bare mountains south of the Tchuja Steppe” Elwes' earlier itinerary (pages 298-299) allows the further definition to "Tachety River, Tschuja Steppe, 30 mi S Kuch Agatch, Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia." [Altai Mountains, Altai Republic, Altay kray, Russia]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH, ZMHB, and ZIN.

=    vitimensis Austaut, 1899

Naturaliste (2)13(307): 284.

Original Combination: Colias Melinos V[ar]. Vitimensis

Type Locality: “des règions alpines de la Siberie orientale, où la rivière Vitim va se jeter dans le fleuve Lèna” [Sakha Autonomous Republic, Russia]

Types: Syntypes possibly in BMNH.

=    herzi Staudinger, 1901

In: Staudinger and Rebel, Cat. Lepid. Palae. (3rd ed.): 15, no. 90a; cited Colias melinos Herz (1899), Dtsche. Entomol. Z. “Iris” 11(2): 235.

Original Combination: [Colias Melinos] v. Herzi

Type Locality: “Sib. S. or. (Vilui)”; lectotype from “Podeibi” [Bodajbo, Irkutskaya oblast, Russia]

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Grieshuber, 2006, Helios 7: 79, pl. 16, fig. 4 ♂ D.

=    deckerti Verity, [1909]

Rhop. palae. (21-23): 236 [30 Apr 1909]; (30-36): pl. 72, 27 ♂ D, 28 ♀ D; ind. syst.: xxxvi [31 Oct 1911].

Original Combination: [Colias melinos] var. deckerti

Type Locality: “Monts Apfel”; suggested to be “Pokrovka” by Grieshuber (1998), Lambillionea 98(1)(Tome 2): 130-131, no. 2. [Pokrofka, Chita Oblast, Russia]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH and ZMKU; figured by Chikolovets et al. (2002), Butterflies Transbaikal Siberia: pl. 7, figs. 8 ♂ D, 23 ♀ V.

=    ‡”chryseis” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (30-36): 354, pl. 70, figs. 33 ♂ D, 34 ♀ D; ind. syst.: xxxvi.

Original Combination: [Colias melinos] race chryseis

Type Locality: “l’Amour [Amur Oblast, Russia]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    ‡”montana” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (30-36): 354, pl. 70, figs. 37 ♂ D, 38 ♀ D; ind. syst.: xxxvi.

Original Combination: [Colias melinos] race montana

Type Locality: “l’Altaï” implied from the text, “Montagnes de Tchuja, 1800-2400 m., S.E. l’Altaï” from the legend to plate 70. [Altai Republic, Altay Kray, Russia]

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

=    montana Bollow, 1930

In: Seitz (1931), Grossschmett. Erde 1(Suppl.)(14): 108.

Original Combination: [Colias melinos chryseis

Bollow adopted Colias melinos race montana Verity [1911] to represent a subspecies-level taxon, with the same data (Code Articles 10.2, 45.5.1).

=    chryseis Bollow, 1930

In: Seitz (1931), Grossschmett. Erde 1(Suppl.)(14): 108-109.

Original Combination: [Colias melinos chryseis

Bollow adopted Colias melinos race chryseis Verity [1911] to represent a subspecies-level taxon, with the same data (Code Articles 10.2, 45.5.1).

=    ‡”ludmilla” Hemming, 1933

Entomol. 66(12)[847]: 278, no. 23.

Original Combination: Colias melinos ludmilla

Proposed to replace Colias melinos race chryseis Verity, 1911, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    jeholensis Matsumura, 1939

Bull. Biogeogr. Soc. Japan 9(20): 344, no. 19; 348, no. 19, pl. 13, fig. 16 ♂ D (actually fig. 6).

Original Combination: Colias herzi form jeholensis

Type Locality: “Jehol...Mt. Kingan” [Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China]

Types: Syntypes probably in EIHU.

=    relicta Kurentsov, 1970

Butterflies Far East USSR: 38, fig. 28(4) ♂ D, fig. 29(8) ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: C[olias]. m[elinos]. relicta

Type Locality: [the mountains at the source of the Okhota River, where it favors a few peaks in the Verkhoyansk Range, to an elevation of 3000 meters above sea level]; holotype from [Burgakhchan]. [Magadan Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia]

Types: Holotype in the IPBV; registered by Azarova (1986), Syst. Ecol. Lepid. Far East USSR: 122, no. 4; figured by Churkin et al. (2001), Helios 2: pl. 8, figs. 13 ♂ D, 16 ♂ V.

a.   Colias tyche kolosovae Churkin, Grieshuber, Bogdanov & Zamolodchikov, 2001

Atalanta 32(1/2):262.

Original Combination: Colias tyche kolosovae

Proposed as a replacement name for Colias tyche olga Churkin, Grieshuber, Bogdanov & Zamolodchikov, 2001, preoccupied, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡olga Churkin, Grieshuber, Bogdanov & Zamolodchikov, 2001

Helios 2: 109-110, pl. 9, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ D (holotype); 3 ♂ D, 4 ♂ D, 5 ♀ D, 15 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Colias tyche olga

Type Locality: “Russia, East Chukotka, 20 km SE Ioni Lake, Gilmimlviem, [65o 48' N, 173o 22' W]” [Magadan Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia]

Types: Holotype in DSM.

Preoccupied by Colias olga Romanoff, 1882, Romanoff, 1882, Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 17(3/4): 127, pl. 4, figs. 1-3.

b.   Colias tyche thula Hovanitz, 1955

Wasmann J. Biol. 13(1): 2-4, fig. 1 ♂ D (holotype), ♀ D, fig. 2 ♂ V (holotype), ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias nastes thula

Type Locality: “near the Meade River, Alaska Territory, Alaska, N 70o 45' x 156o 30' W” [Meade River, S of Point Barrow, Alaska]

Types: Holotype in USNM.

c.   Colias tyche boothii J. Curtis, 1835

In: Ross, Voy. Search Northwest Pass., Appendix: lxv-lxvi, no. 10, pl. A, figs. 3 ♂ D, 4 ♀ D, 5 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Colias] Boothii

Type Locality: “Arctic Regions”; determined from itineraries in vol. 1 and a letter from John Ross in vol. 2, Addenda: 732-735, to be the area bounded by 69.30 o-70.9o N lat. and 91.52o-93.0o W long., in the vicinity of the isthmus of Boothia Peninsula, named by the expedition. [Kitikmeot-Keewatin regions, Nunavut]

Types: Syntypes in USNM, ZMHB, BMNH and possibly UMO; figured by Verity [1907], Rhop. palae. (11/12): pl. 43, fig. 37 ♂ D, pl. 44, fig. 4 ♂ V and W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 67, fig. 30 ♂ D, and W. Holland and Avinoff (1935), Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12(part 2, section 5): pl. 26, figs. 12, 12a ♂ D&V, 12, 13a ♀ D&V.

=    chione J. Curtis, 1835

In: Ross, Voy. Search Northwest Pass., Appendix: lxvi-lxvii, no. 11, pl. A, fig. 6 ♂ D.

Original Combination: [Colias] Chione

Type Locality: “Arctic Regions”; determined from itineraries in vol. 1 and a letter from John Ross in vol. 2, Addenda: 732-735, to be the area bounded by 69.30 o-70.9o N lat. and 91.52o-93.0o W long., in the vicinity of the isthmus of Boothia Peninsula, named by the expedition. [Kitikmeot-Keewatin regions, Nunavut]

Types: Syntypes in UMO and USNM; figured by Verity [1907], Rhop. palae. (30-36): pl. 71, figs. 19 ♂ D, 20 ♂ D, W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 73, fig. 33 ♂ D and W. Holland and Avinoff (1935), Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12(part 2, section 5): pl. 26, figs. 11, 11a ♂ D&V.

355.      Colias nastes Boisduval, 1832

a.   Colias nastes nastes Boisduval, 1832

Icon. Hist. Lépid. Europ. 1(4): pl. 8, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V (1832); (24): 245-246 [1834].

Original Combination: Colias Nastes

Type Locality: “Cap-Nord et en Islande...Labrador” McDunnough (1928), Can. Entomol. 60(11): 270, suggested that the original figures resembled specimens from Labrador more than those from Iceland and Norway.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by W. Holland and Avinoff (1935), Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12(2)(5)(II): 11, pl. 26, figs. 1 ♂ D, 1a ♂ V.

=    rossii Guenée, 1864

Annls. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (4)4(2): 199-200.

Original Combination: Colias Rossii

Type Locality: Not stated. The reference to Curtis' Voyage in the text implies the area bounded by 69.30 o-70.9o N lat. and 91.52o-93.0o W long., in the vicinity of the isthmus of Boothia Peninsula, named by the expedition. This is based on Ross (1835), Voy. Search Northwest Pass., itineraries in vol. 1, and a letter from John Ross in vol. 2 Addenda: 732-735. [Kitikmeot-Keewatin regions, Nunavut]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by W. Holland and Avinoff (1935), Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12(2)(5): pl. 26, figs. 8, 8a ♂ D&V (lectotype), 10, 10a ♀ D&V (paralectotype); figured by Verity [1908], Rhop. palae. (17-20): pl. 49, figs. 27 ♂ D (lectotype), 28 ♀ D (paralectotype).

=    gueneei Avinoff, 1935

In: W. Holland and Avinoff, Mem. Carnegie Mus. 12(2)(5): 13-14, no. 10, 32, pl. 27, figs. 1 ♂ D (holotype), 11 ♀ D, 21-22 ♂ D, 25-27 ♀ D, 31-32 ♂ D.

Original Combination: Colias nastes gueneei subsp. nov.

Type Locality: “Southhampton [sic!] Island” [Southampton Island, Nunavut]

Types: Holotype in CMNH.

=    variabilis Verhulst, 2009

Lambillionea 109(4): 422, pl. [3], figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype), 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 5-14 ♂ D, 19-20 ♂ V, 16-18 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias nastes variabilis

Type Locality: “Canada, Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour, N 64°09’9178’’, O 083°09’9280’”

Types: Holotype in J. Verhulst coll.

=    ‡”standfussi” Röber, 1909

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 91.

Original Combination: [Colias pelidne] form standfussi

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Syntypes probably in ZMHB.

Described in the text as a possible hybrid or aberration, and treated as unavailable on that account (Code Article 1.3.3).

=    ‡”heclides” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (30-36): ind. syst.: xxxvii; cited 354, pl. 71, figs. 2 ♂ D, 3 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Colias nastes werdandi werdandi] form heclides

Type Locality: “Labrador”

Types: Syntypes in BMNH.

b.   Colias nastes moina Strecker, 1880

Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 3(5): 34.

Original Combination: Colias Moina

Type Locality: “a considerable distance above Fort Churchill on west coast of Hudson's Bay” implied from the description of Colias hela; suggested to be “the vicinity of Eskimo Point, Northwest Territories” by Ferris (1985), Bull. Allyn Mus. (96): 31-32. [Arviat, Nunavut, Canada]

Types: Lectotype in FMNH, designated by Ferris (1985), Bull. Allyn Mus. (96): 32, figs. 109 ♂ D, 110 ♂ V.

=    ‡”harperi” (Gunder, 1932)

Can. Entomol. 64(12): 278.

Original Combination: Eurymus nastes moina tr. f. harperi

Type Locality: “Ft. Churchill, Manitoba, Can.”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

c.   Colias nastes aliaska O. Bang-Haas, 1927

Horae Macrolepid. 1(3): 41, pl. 5, figs. 24 ♂ D, 25 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias nastes aliaska

Type Locality: “Alaska: Ramport [sic!]” [Rampart]

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB; figured by Verhulst (2004), Lambillionea 104(1)(Tome 1): ♂ D&V, ♀ D&V.

=    subarctica (McDunnough, 1928)

Can. Entomol. 60(11): 271.

Original Combination: [Eurymus nastes] subarctica

Type Locality: “Bernard Harbour, N. W. T.” [Nunavut]

Types: Holotype (#2863) in CNC; figured by Ferris (1985), Bull. Allyn Mus. (96): fig. 120 ♂ D, 121 ♂ V.

=    ferrisi Verhulst, 2004

Lambillionea 104(1)(Tome 1): 129-130, pl. 2, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V, 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, 7 ♀ D, 8 ♀ D, 9 ♂ D, 10 ♂ V, 11 ♀ D, 12 ♀ V, 13 ♂ D, 14 ♂ V, 15 ♀ D, 16 ♀ V, 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ V, 19 ♀ D, 20 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias nastes ferrisi

Type Locality: “Canada, Yukon Terr. Dempster Hwy., Ricahrdson Mts., 980 m, env. Glacier Creek”

Types: Holotype in IRSN.

=    ‡”cocandicides” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (30-36): 335 (as rossii), pl. 71, figs. 7 ♂ D, 8 ♀ D, 9 ♂ V (as rossi [sic!]); ind. syst.: xxxvii (as cocandicides).

Original Combination: [Colias nastes rossii] cocandicides

Type Locality: “Territoire de Barren, 114o30' long. O., 67o40' lat. N., Am. boréale” implied from the legend to plate 71. [vic. Coppermine River, Nunavut]

Types: “Types” in BMNH.

d.   Colias nastes dezhnevi Korshunov, 1995

In: Korshunov and Gorbunov, Butterflies Asiatic Russia: 67.

Original Combination: Colias nastes dezhnevi

Proposed to replace Colias nastes sibirica Kurentsov, 1970, with the same data. (Code Article 60.3).

=    ‡sibirica Kurentsov, 1970

Butterflies Far East USSR: 35, fig. 29(3) ♂ genitalia.

Original Combination: C[olias]. n[astes]. sibirica

Type Locality: [Chukotka peninsula west to the lower reaches of the Kolyma River]; lectotype from [Chap[linskie] kl[yuchi], gor[naya] t[undra]. [Magadan Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia]

Types: Lectotype in IPBV, designated by Churkin et al. (2001), Helios 2: pl. 8 figs. 14 ♂ D, 17 ♂ V.

Preoccupied by Colias aurora sibirica Lederer, 1852, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 2: 18.

e.   Colias nastes streckeri Grum-Grshimailo, 1895

Horae Soc. Entomol. Ross. 29(1/2): 290-291, no. 2.

Original Combination: Colias Nastes var. Streckeri

Type Locality: “provincia Alberta ad Laggan”; restricted to “vicinity of...Lake Louise, Banff National Park, Alberta” by Kondla (1996), Alberta Naturalist 26(2): 40.

Types: Syntypes in BMNH, ZIN and ZMKU. A ‘lectotype” in FMNH, designated by Ferris (1985), Bull. Allyn Mus. (96): 35, figs. 123 ♂ D, 124 ♂ V, is not a syntype and thus invalid.

=    dioni Verhulst, 1999

Lambillionea 99(4)(Tome 2): 624, no. 4, pl. 2, figs. 17 ♂ D, 18 ♂ D, 19 ♂ D, 20 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias nastes dioni

Type Locality: “Canada, Alberta, Kananaskis Co., Plateau Mountain, 2650 m”

Types: Holotype in IRSN.

=    ‡”obscurata” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (30-36): 354-355, pl. 71, fig. 6 ♂ D; ind. syst.: xxxvi.

Original Combination: [Colias nastes] race streckeri ab. obscurata

Type Locality: “Lake Louise, Alberta” implied from the legend to plate 71.

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH.

=    ‡”palliflava” (McDunnough, 1927)

Can. Entomol. 59(7): 154.

Original Combination: [Eurymus nastes streckeri] ab. palliflava

Type Locality: “higher slopes of Mt. McLean (above 6500 ft.)” [British Columbia]

Types: “Holotype” (#2425) in CNC.

356.      Colias scudderii Reakirt, 1865

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 4(2): 217-218, no. 2.

Original Combination: Colias Scudderii

Type Locality: “Rocky Mountains, Colorado Territory”; redefined as “vic. Empire, Clear Creek County, Colorado” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 83; neotype from “east slope of Berthoud Pass along Hwy. 40 at Hoop Creek in the Arapahoe National Forest, 10,800', Clear Creek Co., Colorado”

Types: Neotype in MGCL, designated by Ferris (1987), Bull. Allyn. Mus. (112): 7, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V.

=    flavotincta Cockerell, 1901

Psyche 9(10)[300]: 187; cited W. H. Edwards (1872), Butterflies N. Am. [1](10): pl. Colias 8, fig. 5 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias scudderi var. flavotincta

Type Locality: “New Mexico”; redefined as “upper Arkansas River Valley” or “the vicinity of Twin Lakes, Lake Co. Colorado” by Ferris (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (112): 8-9.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by Ferris (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (112): 10, figs. 14 ♀ D, 15 ♀ V.

=    ruckesi Klots, 1937

J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 45(3/4): 324-326.

Original Combination: Colias scudderi ruckesi

Type Locality: “Windsor [sic!] Creek Canyon, west of Cowles, N. Mex.” [Winsor Creek Canyon, San Miguel County, New Mexico]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

Ferris (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (112): 8, determined this synonymy.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 200, no. 42.

Original Combination: [Colias scudderi] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

357.      Colias gigantea Strecker, 1900

a.   Colias gigantea inupiat Harry, 2007

Tax. Rep. Int. Lepid. Surv.6(7): 1-2, pl 1, % D&V (holotype), & D&V.

Original Combination: Colias gigantea inupiat

Type Locality: “Alaska, Mile 323 Dalton Hwy, 68°59.01'N 148°49.94'W, 365 meters elevation”

Types: Holotype in MGCL.

b.   Colias gigantea gigantea Strecker, 1900

Lepid. Rhop. Het. (suppl. 3): 19.

Original Combination: Colias pelidne var. gigantea

Type Locality: “west coast Hudson Bay, above Fort York” [York Factory, Manitoba]

Types: Lectotype in FMNH, designated by Ferris (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (112): 14, figs. 30 ♂ D, 31 ♂ V.

=    pelidneides Staudinger, 1901

In: Staudinger and Rebel, Cat. Lepid. Palae. (3rd ed.): 15, no. 86i.

Original Combination: [Colias Palaeno] v. Pelidneides

Type Locality: “Amer. bor. (Hudson Bay, Alaska)”; defined as “Hudson Bay” by Ferris (1987), Bull. Allyn Mus. (112): 14. [Manitoba]

Types: Syntypes in ZMHB; “types” figured by Verity [1911], Rhop. palae. (30-36): pl. 68, figs. 47 ♂ D, 48 ♀ D, labeled “Hudson Bay, Alaska.”

c.   Colias gigantea mayi F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1940

Can. Entomol. 72(4): 81.

Original Combination: Colias christina mayi

Type Locality: “Riding Mountains, Manitoba”

Types: Holotype in CNC.

=    nortepacifica Hammond & McCorkle, 2008

J. Lepid. Soc. 62(4): 214, figs. 1(24) ♂ D (holotype), (25) ♂ D.

Original Combination: Colias scudderii nortepacifica

Type Locality: “British Columbia, Nimpo Lake” [Canada]

Types: Holotype in OSAC.

Hammond & McCorkle described this taxon based on three male specimens. It is uncertain whether this is a valid taxon as described, a synonym of some other Colias gigantea subspecies, or even Colias occidentalis. Until such time as this can be determined, this name is listed here.

=    ‡”marjorie” F. Chermock & R. Chermock, 1940

Can. Entomol. 72(4): 82.

Original Combination: Colias christina mayi ♀ form marjorie

Type Locality: “Riding Mountains, Manitoba”

Types: “Holotype” in CNC.

d.   Colias gigantea harroweri Klots, 1940

Am. Mus. Novit. (1054): 4-6.

Original Combination: Colias gigantea harroweri

Type Locality: “Clear Creek, vicinity Lower Green River Lake, Sublette Co., Wyo., alt. 8400 ft.” [Wyoming]

Types: Holotype in AMNH; figured by Howe (1975), Butterflies N. Am.: pl. 97, fig. 20 ♂ D&V.

=    gracemma Hammond & McCorkle, 2008

J. Lepid. Soc. 62(4): 208, figs. 1(6) ♂ D (holotype), (7) ♂ V, (8) ♂ V, (9) ♀ D, (10) ♀ V, (11) ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias scudderii gracemma

Type Locality: “Wyoming, Johnson County, summit of Big Horn Mountains near Cloud Peak Wilderness Area”

Types: Holotype in OSAC.

=    kohleri Hammond & McCorkle, 2008

J. Lepid. Soc. 62(4): 209-210, figs. 1(17) ♂ D (holotype), (18) ♂ V, (19) ♀ D, (20) ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias scudderii kohleri

Type Locality: “Montana, Beaverhead County, summit of the Pioneer Mountains”

Types: Holotype in OSAC.

358.      Colias pelidne Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830]

a.   Colias pelidne pelidne Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830]

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (7): pl. 21, figs. 4 ♂ D, 5 ♂ V; (8): 66-67; figured by Boisduval (1832), Icon. Hist. Lépid. Europ. 1(4): pl. 8, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♀ D, 3 ♂ V.

Original Combination: C[olias]. Pelidne

Type Locality: “Groenland et l'Islande...Labrador”; inferred from the figures to be “NE coast of Labrador” by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): 9. [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: A “type” may be in USNM, but Calhoun (2004), J. Lepid. Soc. 58(3): 156, discussed the dubious nature of such Boisduval “types.”

=    labradorensis Scudder, 1862

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 9: 107-108, 1 unnumbered fig.

Original Combination: Colias labradorensis

Type Locality: “Caribou Island, Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: Lectotype (#5082) in MCZ, designated by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): 10, figs. 28 ♂ D, 29 ♂ V.

=    ‡”moeschleri” Grum-Grshimailo, 1894

Horae Entomol. Soc. ross. 27(3/4): 379, no. 1.

Original Combination: Colias Pelidne ab. ♀ Moeschleri

Type Locality: “Labrador” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: “Holotype” in ZMHB; figured by Verity [1911], Rhop. palae. (30-36): pl. 68, fig. 50 ♀ D.

=    ‡”mira” Verity, [1911]

Rhop. palae. (30-36): 347; pl. 68, fig. 49 ♂ D (“holotype”); ind. syst.: xxxiv.

Original Combination: [Colias pelidne] ab. mira

Type Locality: “Ravea dans le Labrador” [Newfoundland and Labrador]

Types: “Holotype” in BMNH.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 200, no. 41.

Original Combination: [Colias pelidne] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

‡”canda” Raineri & Carnevale, 1998

Annali Mus. civ. Storia nat. "Giacomo Doria" 92: 267.

Original Combination: Colias pelidne v. canda chippewa

Proposed without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

b.   Colias pelidne skinneri W. Barnes, 1897

Can. Entomol. 29(2): 41-42.

Original Combination: Colias pelidne, var. Skinneri

Type Locality: “Yellowstone National Park...Arangie, Idaho”; lectotype from “Yellowstone National Park.” [Wyoming]

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by W. Barnes and Benjamin (1926), Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25: 89; figured by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): figs. 43 ♀ D, 44 ♀ V; “types” figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 67, figs. 20 ♂ D, 21 ♀ D.

=    minisni W. Barnes & McDunnough, 1916

Contr. Nat. Hist. Lepid. N. Am. 3(2): 67, pl. 7, fig. 7 ♂ D, cited Bean (1895), Psyche 7(228): 228.

Original Combination: [Eurymus pelidne] minisni

Type Locality: “Laggan, Alta.” [Alberta]

Types: Holotype in USNM.

This was taxon was described by indication (Code Articles 12.1, 12.2); this name was listed without a description or indication by Bean (1895), ibid; a nomen nudum.

=    ‡”neri” (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25(3): 89, no 69b.

Original Combination: Eurymus pelidne skinneri form ♀ neri

Type Locality: “Yellowstone Park, Wyo.” [Wyoming]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM; figured by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): figs. 45 ♀ D, 46 ♀ V.

=    ‡”isni” (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25(3): 89, no. 69c.

Original Combination: Eurymus pelidne minisni form ♀ isni

Type Locality: “Laggan, Alta.” [Alberta]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM; figured by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): figs. 47 ♀ D, 48 ♀ V.

359.      Colias interior Scudder, 1862

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 9: 108-109, 1 unnumbered fig.

Original Combination: Colias interior

Type Locality: “Northern shore of Lake Superior...mouth of the Sakatchewan River, British America”; defined as “the Portage at the rapids near the mouth of the Saskatchewan River” by H. Hagen (1883), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 22: 159; further defined as “Mouth of the Saskatchewan River, vic. Grand Rapids, W. shore of Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba” by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): 2.

Types: Holotype (#5081) in MCZ, figured by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V.

=    laurentina (Scudder, 1876)

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 18(2): 190.

Original Combination: [Eurymus Philodice] var. laurentina

Type Locality: “Cape Breton Island” implied from title of paper; neotype from “Baddeck, Cape Breton I., Nova Scotia”

Types: Neotype in CNC, designated by Ferris (1988), Bull. Allyn Mus. (122): 7, figs. 24 ♂ D, 25 ♂ V; a pseudotype (#29299) in MCZ.

=    vividior Berger, 1945

Lambillionea 45(6-8): 42.

Original Combination: [Colias interior] vividior

Type Locality: “Wisconsin (Eagle River et Oneida)” [Vilas and Outagamie counties]

Types: Holotype probably in MRAC (Berger collection).

=    ‡”nepi” (W. Barnes & Benjamin, 1926)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25(3): 89, no. 65.

Original Combination: Eurymus interior form [♀] nepi

Type Locality: “Nepigon [sic!], Ontario” [Nipigon, Thunder Bay County, Ontario]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

‡”solivaga” W. H. Edwards, 1877

Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 6(1): 17, under no. 68.

Original Combination: Colias Solivaga

Published in the synonymy of interior without a description or indication; a nomen nudum.

‡”alba” Scott, 1986

Butterflies N. Am.: 199, no. 39.

Original Combination: [Colias interior] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.

*360.    Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1761)

Fauna Svecica (ed. 2): 272, no. 1041.

Original Combination: Papilio [Heliconius] Palaeno

Type Locality: “Pteride rarissime Uppsaliae, frequentior in Finlandia” [Uppsala, South Uppland, Sweden and Finland]

Types: Syntypes in LSUK.

Most of the Palaearctic synonymy is not included.

=    philomene Hübner, [1805]

Samml. europ. Schmett. 1: pl. 117, figs. 602 ♂ D, 603 ♂ V [1805]; pl. 147, figs. 740 ♀ D, 741 ♀ V [1816].

Original Combination: [Papilio] Philomene

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    lapponica Staudinger, 1871

In: Staudinger and Wocke, Cat. Lepid. Europ. (2nd ed.): 5, no. 58a; cited Herrich-Schäffer (1848), Syst. Bearb. Schmett. Europa 1(36): pl. 85, figs. 403 ♀ D, 404 ♀ V.

Original Combination: [Colias Palaeno] v. Lapponica

Type Locality: “Lap. Ross. s.” [Murmanskaya Oblast, Russia]

Types: Location of type(s) not known.

a.   Colias palaeno chippewa W. H. Edwards, 1870

Syn. Butterflies N. Am.: 8, no. 15.

Original Combination: Colias Chippewa

Type Locality: “Great Slave Lake” [Northwest Territories]

Proposed to replace Colias helena W. H. Edwards, 1863, preoccupied, with the same data (Code Article 60.3).
Some authors have treated chippewa as a species distinct from palaeno (e.g., Maey (1986), Mitt. Arbeitsg. westfälischer Lepid. Entomol. Ver. Beiheft 1: 70, Tuzov (1996), Actias 2(1/2): 106). These have been anecdotal and a thorough analysis of taxa occurring on both sides of the Bering Straits is necessary; see Grieshuber and Worthy (2004), Helios 5: 32-36.

=    ‡helena W. H. Edwards, 1863

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(2): 78, 80, no. 3; figured by W. H. Edwards (1868), Butterflies N. Am. [1](2): pl. Colias 1, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, 7 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias Helena

Type Locality: “Mackenzie's River”; lectotype from “Slave Lake”; defined as “near the west end of Great Slave Lake, North West Territory, Canada” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 54.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 55, fig. 11 ♂ [not ♀] D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 68, fig. 30 ♂ D.

Preoccupied by Colias helena Herrich-Schäffer, 1844, Europ. Schmett. 1(7): pl. 45, figs. 206-207.

=    ‡”kohlsaati” (Gunder, 1931)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 30(2): 45.

Original Combination: Eurymus chippewa form ♀ kohlsaati

Type Locality: “Mt. McKinley Nat. Park, Alaska” [Denali National Park]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

b.   Colias palaeno baffinensis Ebner & Ferris, [1978]

J. Res. Lepid. 16(3): 156, 159-160, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (holotype); 3 ♀ D, 4 ♀ V.

Original Combination: Colias palaeno baffinensis

Type Locality: “Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, N. W. T., Canada” [Nunavut]

Types: Holotype in AMNH.

361.      Colias behrii W. H. Edwards, 1866

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 6(2): 200, 201, no. 2; figured by W. H. Edwards (1868), Butterflies N. Am. [1](2): pl. Colias 2, figs. 5 ♂ D, 6 ♂ V, 7 ♀ D.

Original Combination: Colias Behrii

Type Locality: “Yo Semite Mountains at an elevation of about 10,000 feet above the sea”; defined as “vicinity of Tioga Pass, Tuolumne-Mono counties, California” by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 51-52.

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 52, fig. 10 ♂ D&V; figured by W. Holland (1931), Butterfly Book (rev. ed.): pl. 36, fig. 17 ♂ D.

=    ‡”canescens” (J. A. Comstock, 1925)

Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 24(1): 3; 25(2): pl. 16, fig. 4 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Eurymus behrii form canescens

Type Locality: “Tioga Pass, Yosemite, Calif.” [Tuolumne-Mono counties, California]

Types: “Holotype” in LACM; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butterflies Calif.: pl. 16, fig. 4 ♀ D.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described for the whitish female form.


Genus Zerene Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 97. Type-species: Papilio cesonia Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 176-177, pl. 41, figs. 2, 2b; 382 (index), by designation of Scudder (1872), 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. (1871): 59. Pollock et al. (1998), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91(5): 524-531, suggested that Colias and Zerene may be sister taxa.

      =    ‡Megonostoma Reakirt, [1864]

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(3): 356. Type-species: Papilio cesonia Stoll, 1790, Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3) : 176-177, pl. 41, figs. 2, 2b; 182 (index), by designation of Butler (1870), Cist. Entomol. 1(3): 46. A junior objective synonym of Zerene Hübner, [1819].


362.      Zerene cesonia (Stoll, 1790)

a.   Zerene cesonia cesonia (Stoll, 1790)

Aanhangs. Werk Uitl. Kapellen Pieter Cramer (3): 176-177, pl. 41, figs. 2 ♂ D, 2b ♂ V; 382 (index).

Original Combination: Pap[ilio]. Dan[aus]. Cand[idus] Cesonia

Type Locality: “Georgien in Noord-America” “Georgie, dans lAmerique Septentrionale” [Georgia]

Types: Syntype(s) probably in RMNH (Raye van Breukelerwaerth collection), as noted by Lamas (1993), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 21(83): 144, no. 28.

This name was spelled “sesonia” in the French text (p. 176), representing an incorrect original spelling (it is spelled cesonia in the Dutch text and index); it has widely been misspelled as “caesonia,” attributable to Godart (1819), in: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(1): 98, no. 31.

=    philippa (Fabricius, 1793)

Entomol. Syst. 3(1): 211, no. 660.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus]. Philippa

Type Locality: Not stated.

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    centralamericana (Röber, 1909)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 93.

Original Combination: [Maganostoma [sic!] cesonia] centralamericana

Type Locality: Not stated; lectotype from “Honduras.”

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Lamas (1993), Revta Lepid. 21(83): 144, no. 28.

=    rosea (Röber, 1909)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(29): 94.

Original Combination: [Maganostoma [sic!] cesonia] rosea

Type Locality: “Colorado”

Types: Lectotype in ZMHB, designated by Lamas (1993), Revta Lepid. 21(83): 152, no. 110.

=    ‡”rosa” (M'Neill, 1889)

Can. Entomol. 21(3): 43-45.

Original Combination: [Colias caesonia] [female...dimorphic or...aberrant form] rosa

Type Locality: “low-lying field, on the banks of the Mississippi, three miles east of Moline” [Rock Island County, Illinois]

Types: Type(s) probably lost.

=    ‡”immaculsecunda” Gunder, 1928

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 4(3): 102, pl. 2, top row, left (“holotype”), bottom row, left.

Original Combination: Zerene caesonia immaculsecunda form ♀

Type Locality: “Pinery Canyon, Arizona” [Cochise County]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

Neck (1981), J. Lepid. Soc. 35(1): 223-224, determined that this name probably represents a migratory form.

=    ‡”stainkeae” (W. D. Field, 1936)

J. Entomol. & Zool. 28(2): 20.

Original Combination: Colias (Zerene) caesonia tr. f. stainkeae

Type Locality: “Donna, Texas” [Hidalgo County]

Types: “Holotype” in USNM.

=    ‡”albida” Vázquez, 1949

An. Instit. Biol., Univ. Nac. Auton. Méx. (Zool.) 19(2): 470-471.

Original Combination: Zerene caesonia f[orma]. albida

Type Locality: “Tierra Blanca, Ver.” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: “Holotype” in MGCL.

363.      Zerene eurydice (Boisduval, 1855)

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (3)3(1): xxxii.

Original Combination: Colias Eurydice

Type Locality: “des montagnes de la Californie”; defined as “vicinity of Alpine Dam, Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 23.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 23, figs. 156 ♂ D, 157 ♂ V.

=    lorquini (Boisduval, 1855)

Bull. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (3)3(1): xxxii.

Original Combination: Rhodocera Lorquini

Type Locality: “des montagnes de la Californie”; defined as “vicinity of Alpine Dam, Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California” by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 24.

Types: Lectotype in USNM, designated by J. Emmel et al. (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butterflies (2): 24, figs. 156 ♂ D, 157 ♂ V.

=    wosnesenskii (Ménétriés, 1855)

Enum. corp. anim. (1): 14 (as wosnesenskii); 77-78, no. 253 (as vosnesenskii), pl. 1, fig. 4 ♂ D&V (as vosnesenskii).

Original Combination: Colias Wosnesenskii

Type Locality: “Nouvelle Californie” [California]

Types: Syntype(s) should be in ZIN.

Lamas (2004d), Atl. Neotrop. Lepid. Chcklst. Part 4A: 103, made a first reviser choice of wosnesenskii over vosnesenskii.

=    helena (Reakirt, [1864])

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philad. 2(3): 358, no. 2.

Original Combination: Megonostoma Helena

Type Locality: “?Chiapas” probably in error.

Types: Syntype in FMNH.

=    bernardino (W. H. Edwards, 1887)

Butterflies N. Am. 3(1): [71-72], pl. Colias 1, figs. 1 ♂ D, 2 ♂ V (lectotoype), 3 ♀ D.

Original Combination: [Colias Eurydice] Bernardino

Type Locality: “San Bernardino” [San Bernardino County, California]

Types: Lectotype in CMNH, designated by F. Brown (1973), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 99(1): 97, fig. 23 ♂ D&V.

It is possible that this name was intended for an infrasubspecific form, but this is not clear from the text.

=    ‡”amorphae” (Hy. Edwards, 1877)

Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. [1]7(13): 169.

Original Combination: C[olias]. eurydice Var. Amorphae

Type Locality: “Mendocino County” [California]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

The text clearly indicates that this taxon was described as an individual variant.

=    ‡”fanniae” Gunder, 1924

Entomol. News 35(5): 158, pl. 2, fig. K ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice ab. ♂ fanniae

Type Locality: “San Bernardino Mts., San Bernardino Co., California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butterflies Calif.: pl. 12, fig. 8 ♂ D.

=    ‡”newcombi” Gunder, 1925

Entomol. News 36(1): 4, no. 7, pl. 1, fig. R ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice ab. ♂ newcombi

Type Locality: “San Bernardino Mountains, San Bernardino County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH; figured by J. A. Comstock (1927), Butterflies Calif.: pl. 12, fig. 10 ♂ D.

=    ‡”masumbrosus” Gunder, 1928

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 4(3): 100-101, pl. 1, figs. 1-6 ♀ D; fig. 3 (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice masumbrosus form ♀

Type Locality: “California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”lineainita” Gunder, 1928

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 4(3): 101-102, pl. 1, top row, fifth (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice lineainita form ♂

Type Locality: “San Bernardino mountains, California” [San Bernardino and Riverside counties]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”doudoroffi” Gunder, 1932

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 8(3): 125.

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice tr. f. doudoroffi

Type Locality: “Lake Alpine, Fairfax, Marin County, California”

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

=    ‡”nigrocapitata” Riddell, 1941

Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 91(9): 452 pl. 1, fig. 4 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice ab. nigrocapitata

Type Locality: “California: Mill Creek Canyon, San Bernardino Mountains...5000 feet” [San Bernardino County]

Types: “Holotype” in CAS.

=    ‡”marginata” Riddell, 1941

Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 91(9): 453, pl. 1, fig. 6 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice form marginata

Type Locality: “California: San Bernardino Mountains, 5000 feet above sea level” [San Bernardino and Riverside counties]

Types: “Holotype” in CAS.

=    ‡”flavolineata” Riddell, 1941

Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 91(9): 454, pl. 2, fig. 1 ♂ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice ab. flavolineata

Type Locality: “California: San Bernardino Mountains, 5000 feet above sea level” [San Bernardino and Riverside counties]

Types: “Holotype” in CAS.

=    ‡”rubrosuffusa” Riddell, 1941

Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 91(9): 452, pl. 2, figs. 8 ♂ V (“holotype”), 9 ♂ D, pl. 3, fig. 7 ♂ V.

Original Combination: Zerene eurydice form rubrosuffusa

Type Locality: “California: San Bernardino Mountains, 5000 feet above sea level” [San Bernardino and Riverside counties]

Types: “Holotype” in CAS.

‡”alba” (Scott, 1986)

Butterflies N. Am.: 202, no. 45.

Original Combination: [Colias eurydice] form alba

Proposed as a “form” with no nomenclatural standing; a nomen nudum.


Genus Anteos Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 99. Type-species: Papilio maerula Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 479, no. 157, by designation of Godman and Salvin (1889), Biol. centr.-amer., Lepid. Rhop. 2(79): 148.

      =    ‡Amynthia Swainson, 1831

Zool. Illustr. (2)2(14): pl. 65 [actually 63], unnumbered text. Type-species: Papilio maerula Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 479, no. 157, by original designation. A junior objective synonym of Anteos Hübner, [1819].

=    Klotsius Hemming, 1964

Annot. Lepid. (4): 148. Type-species: Mancipium menippe Hübner, [1818], Samml. exot. Schmett. 1: pl. [147], figs. 1, 2, by original designation.


364.      Anteos clorinde (Godart, [1824])

In: Ency. méth. 9(Ins.)(2): 813-814, nos. 1-2.

Original Combination: Colias Clorinde

Type Locality: “Brésil” [Brazil]

Types: Syntype(s) in MNHP.

=    swainsonia (Swainson, 1831)

Zool. Illustr. (2)2(14): pl. 65 [actually 63] ♂ D&V, unnumbered text.

Original Combination: Amynthia Swainsonia

Type Locality: “interior of Pernambuco...Brazil”

Types: Type(s) probably lost; collection auctioned in 1840.

=    godarti (Perty, 1833)

Delect. Anim. Art. Bras. (3): 152, pl. 29, figs. 4 ♂ D, 4b ♂ V.

Original Combination: Colias Godarti

Type Locality: “Piauhy” [Piaui, Brazil]

Types: Location of type(s) not known, probably lost.

=    nivifera (Fruhstorfer, 1907)

Stettiner Entomol. Ztg. 68(2): 294.

Original Combination: [Rhodocera] maerula nivifera

Type Locality: “Honduras”

Types: Holotype may be in ZSMC.

=    ‡”atromarginatus” Vázquez, 1952

An. Instit. Biol., Univ. Nac. Auton. Méx. (Zool.) 22(2): 535, fig. 1 ♀ D (“holotype”).

Original Combination: Anteos clorinde f[orma]. fem[inina]. atromarginatus

Type Locality: “Tierra Blanca, Ver.” [Veracruz, Mexico]

Types: “Syntypes” in MGCL.

365.      Anteos maerula (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 479, no. 157.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus]. C[andidus]. Maerula

Type Locality: “America”; provisionally determined be “Jamaica” by D. Bates (1935), Bull. Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool. 78(2): 139; stated as “probably Jamaica” by Klots (1951), Field Guide Butterflies N. Am.: 190.

Types: Syntypes in HMUG.

=    lacordairei (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 600, no. 3.

Original Combination: Rhodocera Lacordairei

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Syntype in MNHP.

As first revisers, L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 85, accorded precedence to lacordairei over gueneeana.

=    gueneeana (Boisduval, 1836)

Spec. gén. Lépid. 1: 601, no. 5.

Original Combination: Rhodocera Gueneeana

Type Locality: “Mexique”

Types: Syntype in BMNH.

=    ‡”flava” (Röber, 1909)

In: Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 5(26): 89.

Original Combination: [Gonepteryx maerula] ab. flava

Type Locality: Not stated; lectotype from “Cuba.”

Types: “Lectotype” in MTD, designated by Lamas (1995), Shilap Revta. Lepid. 23(91): 344.

 


Genus Phoebis Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 98. Type-species: Phoebis cypris Hübner, [1819], Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 98, no. 1044 (and unjustified emendation of Papilio cipris Cramer, 1777, Uitl. Kapellen 2(9): 5, pl. 99, figs. E, F; (16): 148 (index); = Papilio argante Fabricius, 1775, Syst. Entomol.: 470, no. 116; synonym), by designation of Butler (1873), Lepid. Exot. (13): 155.

      =    ‡Colias Hübner, [1819]

Verz. bekannt. Schmett. (7): 99. Type-species: Papilio sennae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 470, no. 72, by designation of Hemming (1939), Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. (B)8(7): 136. Preoccupied by Colias [Fabricius], 1807, in: Illiger, Mag. f. Insektenk. 6: 284.

=    Callidryas Boisduval & Le Conte, [1830]

Hist. Lépid. Amér. sept. (8): 73. Type-species: Papilio eubule Linnaeus, 1767, Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 764, no. 102 (= Papilio sennae Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 470, no. 72; synonym), by designation of Blanchard (1840), in: Castelnau, Hist. Nat. Ins. 3: 432.

      =    ‡Metura Butler, 1873

Lepid. Exot. (13): 155. Type-species: Callidryas bracteolata Butler, 1865, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1865(2): 458, pl. 26, fig. 6 (= Colias neocypris Hübner, [1823], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [136], figs. 1, 2; synonym), by designation of Scudder (1875), Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10(2): 218, no. 695. Preoccupied by Metura Walker, 1855, in: Allen's Nat. Libr., Lepid. 2: 229.

=    Parura W. F. Kirby, 1896

In: Allen, Nat. Libr. Lepid. 2: 229. Type-species: Callidryas bracteolata Butler, 1865, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1865(2): 458, pl. 26, fig. 6 (= Colias neocypris Hübner, [1823], Samml. exot. Schmett. 2: pl. [136], figs. 1, 2; synonym), as a replacement name. Proposed to replace Metura Butler, 1873, preoccupied (Code Articles 60.3, 67.8).


366.      Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus, 1758)

a.   Phoebis sennae sennae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 10) 1: 470, no. 72; cited Sloane (1725), Voy. Mad. Barb. Niev. St. Christ. Jam. 2: pl. 236, figs. 11, 12, and Merian (1705), Ins. Surinam.: pl. 58, among others.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus Candidus]. Sennae

Type Locality: “Americes”; possibly “Jamaica” from reference to Sloane.

Types: Type(s) apparently lost, as noted by Honey and Scoble (2001), Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 132(3): 379.

=    ‡”sennalba” F. Brown, 1929

Am. Mus. Novit. (368): 8-9.

Original Combination: Phoebis eubule sennae female form sennalba

Type Locality: “7 kilometers north of Viñales, Cuba” [Pinar del Rio]

Types: “Holotype” in AMNH.

b.   Phoebis sennae eubule (Linnaeus, 1767)

Syst. Nat. (ed. 12) 1(2): 764, no. 102; cited G. Edwards (1760) Glean. Nat. Hist. 2: pl. 304.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus Candidus] Eubule

Type Locality: “Carolina”; suggested to be “vic. of Charleston, South Carolina” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 86. [Charleston County]

Types: Type(s) apparently lost.

=    drya (Fabricius, 1775)

Syst. Entomol.: 478, no. 153.

Original Combination: P[apilio]. D[anaus]. C[andidus]. Drya

Type Locality: “America”; suggested to be “vic. of Charleston, South Carolina” by L. Miller and F. Brown (1981), Mem. Lepid. Soc. (2): 86. [Charleston County]

Type